Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 435

Search results for: reconstruction

435 Sparse-View CT Reconstruction Based on Nonconvex L1 − L2 Regularizations

Authors: Ali Pour Yazdanpanah, Farideh Foroozandeh Shahraki, Emma Regentova

Abstract:

The reconstruction from sparse-view projections is one of important problems in computed tomography (CT) limited by the availability or feasibility of obtaining of a large number of projections. Traditionally, convex regularizers have been exploited to improve the reconstruction quality in sparse-view CT, and the convex constraint in those problems leads to an easy optimization process. However, convex regularizers often result in a biased approximation and inaccurate reconstruction in CT problems. Here, we present a nonconvex, Lipschitz continuous and non-smooth regularization model. The CT reconstruction is formulated as a nonconvex constrained L1 − L2 minimization problem and solved through a difference of convex algorithm and alternating direction of multiplier method which generates a better result than L0 or L1 regularizers in the CT reconstruction. We compare our method with previously reported high performance methods which use convex regularizers such as TV, wavelet, curvelet, and curvelet+TV (CTV) on the test phantom images. The results show that there are benefits in using the nonconvex regularizer in the sparse-view CT reconstruction.

Keywords: computed tomography, non-convex, sparse-view reconstruction, L1-L2 minimization, difference of convex functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
434 Development of a Few-View Computed Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm Using Multi-Directional Total Variation

Authors: Chia Jui Hsieh, Jyh Cheng Chen, Chih Wei Kuo, Ruei Teng Wang, Woei Chyn Chu

Abstract:

Compressed sensing (CS) based computed tomographic (CT) reconstruction algorithm utilizes total variation (TV) to transform CT image into sparse domain and minimizes L1-norm of sparse image for reconstruction. Different from the traditional CS based reconstruction which only calculates x-coordinate and y-coordinate TV to transform CT images into sparse domain, we propose a multi-directional TV to transform tomographic image into sparse domain for low-dose reconstruction. Our method considers all possible directions of TV calculations around a pixel, so the sparse transform for CS based reconstruction is more accurate. In 2D CT reconstruction, we use eight-directional TV to transform CT image into sparse domain. Furthermore, we also use 26-directional TV for 3D reconstruction. This multi-directional sparse transform method makes CS based reconstruction algorithm more powerful to reduce noise and increase image quality. To validate and evaluate the performance of this multi-directional sparse transform method, we use both Shepp-Logan phantom and a head phantom as the targets for reconstruction with the corresponding simulated sparse projection data (angular sampling interval is 5 deg and 6 deg, respectively). From the results, the multi-directional TV method can reconstruct images with relatively less artifacts compared with traditional CS based reconstruction algorithm which only calculates x-coordinate and y-coordinate TV. We also choose RMSE, PSNR, UQI to be the parameters for quantitative analysis. From the results of quantitative analysis, no matter which parameter is calculated, the multi-directional TV method, which we proposed, is better.

Keywords: compressed sensing (CS), low-dose CT reconstruction, total variation (TV), multi-directional gradient operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
433 Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake

Authors: Ikaputra

Abstract:

This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction Post Disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in general post disaster reconstruction. The discussion will begin by addressing issues on House Reconstruction Post Disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; Social Capital Post Java Earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong—community mutual self-help, and Approach and Strategy towards Community-based Reconstruction.

Keywords: community empowerment, Gotong Royong, post disaster, reconstruction, social capital, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
432 Operative Tips of Strattice Based Breast Reconstruction

Authors: Cho Ee Ng, Hazem Khout, Tarannum Fasih

Abstract:

Acellular dermal matrices are increasingly used to reinforce the lower pole of the breast during implant breast reconstruction. There is no standard technique described in literature for the use of this product. In this article, we share our operative method of fixation.

Keywords: strattice, acellular dermal matric, breast reconstruction, implant

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
431 The Impact of COVID-19 on Reconstructive Breast Surgery and Future Prospective

Authors: Amenah Galo, Mohammed Farid, Kareem Alsharkawy, Robert Warner, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Haitham Khalil, Ruth Waters

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Introduction: The cessation of elective surgery, particularly breast reconstruction, continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The restructuring of medical services and staff redeployment severely affected the ability to return to normality for surgical specialties. The aim of this study is to determine the decline in breast reconstruction affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary center. Methods: A retrospective review of breast reconstruction cases (autologous, non-autologous) or mastectomies Pre- COVID (March 2019-March 2020) and during COVID (March 2020- March 2021) at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, were collated. Data included patient demographics, BMI, previous and recent reconstruction, length of hospital stay, and mastectomies, including risk-reducing. Results: The number of patients who had breast reconstruction was significantly lower during COVID (n=62) compared to pre-COVID (n=199). The mean age (pre-COVID 51, COVID 59 years), BMI (Pre-COVID and COVID = 27), previous reconstruction (pre-COVID n=101, 51%, COVID n=33, 53%) and length hospital stay was less during COVID (3 days) compared to Pre-COVID (4 days). The proportion of risk-reducing mastectomies and reconstruction during COVID (32%, n=20) were higher than pre-COVID (21%, n=41). A higher proportion rate of autologous reconstruction (DIEP 56, TRAM 17) Pre-COVID compared to COVID (DIEP 22, TRAM 7). Implant reconstructions were higher during COVID (n=19, 31%) than pre-COVID (n=31, 16%). Conclusion: The lack of regular provision for breast reconstruction continues to decline during the pandemic. This will have a tremendous impact on waiting lists without a timeline for reconstruction to offer patients. An international survey highlights the disparities in offering breast reconstruction and strategies to rectify this issue.

Keywords: breast reconstruction, COVID-19 pandemic, mastectomy, autologous, implant

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430 Complex Technology of Virtual Reconstruction: The Case of Kazan Imperial University of XIX-Early XX Centuries

Authors: L. K. Karimova, K. I. Shariukova, A. A. Kirpichnikova, E. A. Razuvalova

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This article deals with technology of virtual reconstruction of Kazan Imperial University of XIX - early XX centuries. The paper describes technologies of 3D-visualization of high-resolution models of objects of university space, creation of multi-agent system and connected with these objects organized database of historical sources, variants of use of technologies of immersion into the virtual environment.

Keywords: 3D-reconstruction, multi-agent system, database, university space, virtual reconstruction, virtual heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
429 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi

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This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3d object, optimization, parametrization, polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
428 Accidental Electrocution, Reconstruction of Events

Authors: Y. P. Raghavendra Babu

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Electrocution is a common cause of morbidity and mortality as electricity is an indispensible part of today’s World. Deaths due to electrocution which are witnessed do not pose a problem at the manner and cause of death. However un-witnessed deaths can raise suspicion of manner of death. A case of fatal electrocution is reported here which was diagnosed to be accidental in manner with the help of reconstruction of events by proper investigation.

Keywords: electrocution, manner of death, reconstruction of events, health information

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
427 Efficient High Fidelity Signal Reconstruction Based on Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks

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This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide high fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals; these strategies circumvent the problem of exponentially increasing number of samples as the bit-depth is increased and hence are highly efficient. Specifically, the results indicate that the distribution of the intervals between samples is one of the key factors in the quality of signal reconstruction; including samples with short intervals do not improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction, whilst samples with large intervals lead to numerical instability. The proposed sampling method, termed reduced conventional level crossing (RCLC) sampling, exploits redundancy between samples to improve the efficiency of the sampling without compromising performance. A reconstruction technique is also proposed that enhances the numerical stability through linear interpolation of samples separated by large intervals. Interpolation is demonstrated to improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction in addition to the numerical stability. We further demonstrate that the RCLC and interpolation methods can give useful levels of signal recovery even if the average sampling rate is less than the Nyquist rate.

Keywords: level crossing sampling, numerical stability, speech processing, trigonometric polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
426 A Fast and Robust Protocol for Reconstruction and Re-Enactment of Historical Sites

Authors: Sanaa I. Abu Alasal, Madleen M. Esbeih, Eman R. Fayyad, Rami S. Gharaibeh, Mostafa Z. Ali, Ahmed A. Freewan, Monther M. Jamhawi

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This research proposes a novel reconstruction protocol for restoring missing surfaces and low-quality edges and shapes in photos of artifacts at historical sites. The protocol starts with the extraction of a cloud of points. This extraction process is based on four subordinate algorithms, which differ in the robustness and amount of resultant. Moreover, they use different -but complementary- accuracy to some related features and to the way they build a quality mesh. The performance of our proposed protocol is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms and toolkits. The statistical analysis shows that our algorithm significantly outperforms its rivals in the resultant quality of its object files used to reconstruct the desired model.

Keywords: meshes, point clouds, surface reconstruction protocols, 3D reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
425 The Effect of the Acquisition and Reconstruction Parameters in Quality of Spect Tomographic Images with Attenuation and Scatter Correction

Authors: N. Boutaghane, F. Z. Tounsi

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Many physical and technological factors degrade the SPECT images, both qualitatively and quantitatively. For this, it is not always put into leading technological advances to improve the performance of tomographic gamma camera in terms of detection, collimation, reconstruction and correction of tomographic images methods. We have to master firstly the choice of various acquisition and reconstruction parameters, accessible to clinical cases and using the attenuation and scatter correction methods to always optimize quality image and minimized to the maximum dose received by the patient. In this work, an evaluation of qualitative and quantitative tomographic images is performed based on the acquisition parameters (counts per projection) and reconstruction parameters (filter type, associated cutoff frequency). In addition, methods for correcting physical effects such as attenuation and scatter degrading the image quality and preventing precise quantitative of the reconstructed slices are also presented. Two approaches of attenuation and scatter correction are implemented: the attenuation correction by CHANG method with a filtered back projection reconstruction algorithm and scatter correction by the subtraction JASZCZAK method. Our results are considered as such recommandation, which permits to determine the origin of the different artifacts observed both in quality control tests and in clinical images.

Keywords: attenuation, scatter, reconstruction filter, image quality, acquisition and reconstruction parameters, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
424 Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light

Authors: Ashwani Kumar

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Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.

Keywords: NIR light, tissue, blurring, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
423 Digital Reconstruction of Museum's Statue Using 3D Scanner for Cultural Preservation in Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Zaini, F. Muhammad Reza Hadafi, Surya Sumpeno, Muhtadin, Mochamad Hariadi

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The lack of information about museum’s collection reduces the number of visits of museum. Museum’s revitalization is an urgent activity to increase the number of visits. The research's roadmap is building a web-based application that visualizes museum in the virtual form including museum's statue reconstruction in the form of 3D. This paper describes implementation of three-dimensional model reconstruction method based on light-strip pattern on the museum statue using 3D scanner. Noise removal, alignment, meshing and refinement model's processes is implemented to get a better 3D object reconstruction. Model’s texture derives from surface texture mapping between object's images with reconstructed 3D model. Accuracy test of dimension of the model is measured by calculating relative error of virtual model dimension compared against the original object. The result is realistic three-dimensional model textured with relative error around 4.3% to 5.8%.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, light pattern structure, texture mapping, museum

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
422 Impact of Obesity on Outcomes in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Adriana C. Panayi, Riaz A. Agha, Brady A. Sieber, Dennis P. Orgill

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Background: Increased rates of both breast cancer and obesity have resulted in more women seeking breast reconstruction. These women may be at increased risk for perioperative complications. A systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes in obese women who have undergone breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Methods: Cochrane, PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases were screened and data was extracted from included studies. The clinical outcomes assessed were surgical complications, medical complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, reoperation rate and patient satisfaction. Results: 33 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and 29 provided enough data to be included in the meta-analysis (71368 patients, 20061 of which were obese). Obese women were 2.3 times more likely to experience surgical complications (95 percent CI 2.19 to 2.39; P < 0.00001), 2.8 times more likely to have medical complications (95 percent CI 2.41 to 3.26; P < 0.00001) and had a 1.9 times higher risk of reoperation (95 percent CI 1.75 to 2.07; P < 0.00001). The most common complication, wound dehiscence, was 2.5 times more likely in obese women (95 percent CI 1.80 to 3.52; P < 0.00001). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that obese women were more likely to experience surgical complications (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.22–2.52; P < 0.00001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that obesity increases the risk of complications in both implant and autologous reconstruction. Additional prospective and observational studies are needed to determine if weight reduction prior to reconstruction reduces the perioperative risks associated with obesity.

Keywords: autologous reconstruction, breast cancer, breast reconstruction, literature review, obesity, oncology, prosthetic reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
421 Text Mining Analysis of the Reconstruction Plans after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Minami Ito, Akihiro Iijima

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On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. It is important to build a sustainable society through the reconstruction process rather than simply restoring the infrastructure. To compare the goals of reconstruction plans of quake-stricken municipalities, Japanese language morphological analysis was performed by using text mining techniques. Frequently-used nouns were sorted into four main categories of “life”, “disaster prevention”, “economy”, and “harmony with environment”. Because Soma City is affected by nuclear accident, sentences tagged to “harmony with environment” tended to be frequent compared to the other municipalities. Results from cluster analysis and principle component analysis clearly indicated that the local government reinforces the efforts to reduce risks from radiation exposure as a top priority.

Keywords: eco-friendly reconstruction, harmony with environment, decontamination, nuclear disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
420 The Voice Rehabilitation Program Following Ileocolon Flap Transfer for Voice Reconstruction after Laryngectomy

Authors: Chi-Wen Huang, Hung-Chi Chen

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Total laryngectomy affects swallowing, speech functions and life quality in the head and neck cancer. Voice restoration plays an important role in social activities and communication. Several techniques have been developed for voice restoration and reported to improve the life quality. However, the rehabilitation program for voice reconstruction by using the ileocolon flap still unclear. A retrospective study was done, and the patients' data were drawn from the medical records between 2010 and 2016 who underwent voice reconstruction by ileocolon flap after laryngectomy. All of them were trained to swallow first; then, the voice rehabilitation was started. The outcome of voice was evaluated after 6 months using the 4-point scoring scale. In our result, 9.8% patients could give very clear voice so everyone could understand their speech, 61% patients could be understood well by families and friends, 20.2% patients could only talk with family, and 9% patients had difficulty to be understood. Moreover, the 57% patients did not need a second surgery, but in 43% patients voice was made clear by a second surgery. In this study, we demonstrated that the rehabilitation program after voice reconstruction with ileocolon flap for post-laryngectomy patients is important because the anatomical structure is different from the normal larynx.

Keywords: post-laryngectomy, ileocolon flap, rehabilitation, voice reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
419 Debt Reconstruction, Career Development and Famers Household Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Yothin Sawangdee, Piyawat Katewongsa, Chutima Yousomboon, Kornkanok Pongpradit, Sakapas Saengchai, Phusit Khantikul

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Debts reconstruction under some of moratorium projects is one of important method that highly benefits to both the Banks and farmers. The method can reduce probabilities for nonprofits loan. This paper discuss about debts reconstruction and career development training for farmers in Thailand between 2011 and 2013. The research designed is mix-method between quantitative survey and qualitative survey. Sample size for quantitative method is 1003 cases. Data gathering procedure is between October and December 2013. Main results affirmed that debts reconstruction is needed. And there are numerous benefits from farmers’ career development training. Many of farmers who attend field school activities able to bring knowledge learned to apply for the farms’ work. They can reduce production costs. Framers’ quality of life and their household well-being also improve. This program should apply in any countries where farmers have highly debts and highly risks for not return the debts.

Keywords: career development, debts reconstruction, farmers household well-being, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
418 Virtual and Visual Reconstructions in Museum Expositions

Authors: Ekaterina Razuvalova, Konstantin Rudenko

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In this article the most successful examples of international visual and virtual reconstructions of historical and culture objects, which are based on informative and communicative technologies, are represented. 3D reconstructions can demonstrate outward appearance, visualize different hypothesis, connected to represented object. Virtual reality can give us any daytime and season, any century and environment. We can see how different people from different countries and different era lived; we can get different information about any object; we can see historical complexes in real city environment, which are damaged or vanished. These innovations confirm the fact, that 3D reconstruction is important in museum development. Considering the most interesting examples of visual and virtual reconstructions, we can notice, that visual reconstruction is a 3D image of different objects, historical complexes, buildings and phenomena. They are constant and we can see them only as momentary objects. And virtual reconstruction is some environment with its own time, rules and phenomena. These reconstructions are continuous; seasons, daytime and natural conditions can change there. They can demonstrate abilities of virtual world existence. In conclusion: new technologies give us opportunities to expand the boundaries of museum space, improve abilities of museum expositions, create emotional atmosphere of game immersion, which can interest visitor. Usage of network sources allows increasing the number of visitors and virtual reconstruction opportunities show creative side of museum business.

Keywords: computer technologies, historical reconstruction, museums, museum expositions, virtual reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
417 Multimodal Direct Neural Network Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction

Authors: William Whiteley, Jens Gregor

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In recent developments of direct neural network based positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction, two prominent architectures have emerged for converting measurement data into images: 1) networks that contain fully-connected layers; and 2) networks that primarily use a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. In this paper, we present a multi-modal direct PET reconstruction method called MDPET, which is a hybrid approach that combines the advantages of both types of networks. MDPET processes raw data in the form of sinograms and histo-images in concert with attenuation maps to produce high quality multi-slice PET images (e.g., 8x440x440). MDPET is trained on a large whole-body patient data set and evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively against target images reconstructed with the standard PET reconstruction benchmark of iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization. The results show that MDPET outperforms the best previously published direct neural network methods in measures of bias, signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity.

Keywords: deep learning, image reconstruction, machine learning, neural network, positron emission tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
416 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal

Abstract:

NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: least-squares optimization, filtering, tomography, laser interaction, light scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
415 Efficient Alias-Free Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks

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This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide alias-free high-fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals without exponentially increasing sample number with increasing bit-depth. We introduce methods in LC sampling that reduce the sampling rate close to the Nyquist frequency even for large bit-depth. The results indicate that larger variation in the sampling intervals leads to an alias-free sampling scheme; this is achieved by either reducing the bit-depth or adding jitter to the system for high bit-depths. In conjunction with windowing, the signal is reconstructed from the LC samples using an efficient Toeplitz reconstruction algorithm.

Keywords: alias-free, level crossing sampling, spectrum, trigonometric polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
414 3D Human Face Reconstruction in Unstable Conditions

Authors: Xiaoyuan Suo

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3D object reconstruction is a broad research area within the computer vision field involving many stages and still open problems. One of the existing challenges in this field lies with micromotion, such as the facial expressions on the appearance of the human or animal face. Similar literatures in this field focuses on 3D reconstruction in stable conditions such as an existing image or photos taken in a rather static environment, while the purpose of this work is to discuss a flexible scan system using multiple cameras that can correctly reconstruct 3D stable and moving objects -- human face with expression in particular. Further, a mathematical model is proposed at the end of this literature to automate the 3D object reconstruction process. The reconstruction process takes several stages. Firstly, a set of simple 2D lines would be projected onto the object and hence a set of uneven curvy lines can be obtained, which represents the 3D numerical data of the surface. The lines and their shapes will help to identify object’s 3D construction in pixels. With the two-recorded angles and their distance from the camera, a simple mathematical calculation would give the resulting coordinate of each projected line in an absolute 3D space. This proposed research will benefit many practical areas, including but not limited to biometric identification, authentications, cybersecurity, preservation of cultural heritage, drama acting especially those with rapid and complex facial gestures, and many others. Specifically, this will (I) provide a brief survey of comparable techniques existing in this field. (II) discuss a set of specialized methodologies or algorithms for effective reconstruction of 3D objects. (III)implement, and testing the developed methodologies. (IV) verify findings with data collected from experiments. (V) conclude with lessons learned and final thoughts.

Keywords: 3D photogrammetry, 3D object reconstruction, facial expression recognition, facial recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
413 Review of the Software Used for 3D Volumetric Reconstruction of the Liver

Authors: P. Strakos, M. Jaros, T. Karasek, T. Kozubek, P. Vavra, T. Jonszta

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In medical imaging, segmentation of different areas of human body like bones, organs, tissues, etc. is an important issue. Image segmentation allows isolating the object of interest for further processing that can lead for example to 3D model reconstruction of whole organs. Difficulty of this procedure varies from trivial for bones to quite difficult for organs like liver. The liver is being considered as one of the most difficult human body organ to segment. It is mainly for its complexity, shape versatility and proximity of other organs and tissues. Due to this facts usually substantial user effort has to be applied to obtain satisfactory results of the image segmentation. Process of image segmentation then deteriorates from automatic or semi-automatic to fairly manual one. In this paper, overview of selected available software applications that can handle semi-automatic image segmentation with further 3D volume reconstruction of human liver is presented. The applications are being evaluated based on the segmentation results of several consecutive DICOM images covering the abdominal area of the human body.

Keywords: image segmentation, semi-automatic, software, 3D volumetric reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
412 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar

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Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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411 Blind Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on PSF Estimation

Authors: Osama A. Omer, Amal Hamed

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Successful blind image Super-Resolution algorithms require the exact estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF). In the absence of any prior information about the imagery system and the true image; this estimation is normally done by trial and error experimentation until an acceptable restored image quality is obtained. Multi-frame blind Super-Resolution algorithms often have disadvantages of slow convergence and sensitiveness to complex noises. This paper presents a Super-Resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on estimation of the PSF that yields the optimum restored image quality. The estimation of PSF is performed by the knife-edge method and it is implemented by measuring spreading of the edges in the reproduced HR image itself during the reconstruction process. The proposed image reconstruction approach is using L1 norm minimization and robust regularization based on a bilateral prior to deal with different data and noise models. A series of experiment results show that the proposed method can outperform other previous work robustly and efficiently.

Keywords: blind, PSF, super-resolution, knife-edge, blurring, bilateral, L1 norm

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410 Efects of Data Corelation in a Sparse-View Compresive Sensing Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Sajid Abas, Jon Pyo Hong, Jung-Ryun Le, Seungryong Cho

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Computed tomography and laminography are heavily investigated in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework to reduce the dose to the patients as well as to the radiosensitive devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards. Nowadays researchers are actively working on optimizing the compressive sensing based iterative image reconstruction algorithm to obtain better quality images. However, the effects of the sampled data’s properties on reconstructed the image’s quality, particularly in an insufficient sampled data conditions have not been explored in computed laminography. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two data properties i.e. sampling density and data incoherence on the reconstructed image obtained by conventional computed laminography and a recently proposed method called spherical sinusoidal scanning scheme. We have found that in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework, the image quality mainly depends upon the data incoherence when the data is uniformly sampled.

Keywords: computed tomography, computed laminography, compressive sending, low-dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
409 Evaluating the Methods of Retrofitting and Renovating of the Masonry Schools

Authors: Navid Khayat

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This study investigates the retrofitting of schools in Ahvaz City. Three schools, namely, Enghelab, Sherafat, and Golchehreh, in Ahvaz City are initially examined through Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic tests. Given the tests and controls on the structures of these schools, the methods are presented for their reconstruction. The plan is presented for each school by estimating the cost and generally the feasibility and estimated the duration of project reconstruction. After reconstruction, the mentioned tests are re-performed for rebuilt parts and the results indicate a significant improvement in performance of structure because of reconstruction. According to the results, despite the fact that the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for structure retrofitting is costly, due to the low executive costs and also other benefits of FRP, it is generally considered as one of the most effective ways of retrofitting. Building the concrete coating on walls is another effective method in retrofitting the buildings. According to this method, a grid of horizontal and vertical bars is installed on the wall and then the concrete is poured on it. The use of concrete coating on the concrete and brick structures leads to the useful results and the experience indicates that the poured concrete filled the joints well and provides the appropriate binding and adhesion.

Keywords: renovation, retrofitting, masonry structures, old school

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
408 Optimum Design for Cathode Microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Riazat, H. Abdolvand, M. Baniassadi

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In this present work, 3D reconstruction of cathode of SOFC is developed with various volume fractions and porosity. Three Phase Boundary (TPB) of construction of such derived micro structures is calculated. The neural network is used to optimize the porosity and volume fraction of each phase to reach a structure with maximum TPB.

Keywords: fuel cell, solid oxide, TPB, 3D reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
407 Towards a Robust Patch Based Multi-View Stereo Technique for Textureless and Occluded 3D Reconstruction

Authors: Ben Haines, Li Bai

Abstract:

Patch based reconstruction methods have been and still are one of the top performing approaches to 3D reconstruction to date. Their local approach to refining the position and orientation of a patch, free of global minimisation and independent of surface smoothness, make patch based methods extremely powerful in recovering fine grained detail of an objects surface. However, patch based approaches still fail to faithfully reconstruct textureless or highly occluded surface regions thus though performing well under lab conditions, deteriorate in industrial or real world situations. They are also computationally expensive. Current patch based methods generate point clouds with holes in texturesless or occluded regions that require expensive energy minimisation techniques to fill and interpolate a high fidelity reconstruction. Such shortcomings hinder the adaptation of the methods for industrial applications where object surfaces are often highly textureless and the speed of reconstruction is an important factor. This paper presents on-going work towards a multi-resolution approach to address the problems, utilizing particle swarm optimisation to reconstruct high fidelity geometry, and increasing robustness to textureless features through an adapted approach to the normalised cross correlation. The work also aims to speed up the reconstruction using advances in GPU technologies and remove the need for costly initialization and expansion. Through the combination of these enhancements, it is the intention of this work to create denser patch clouds even in textureless regions within a reasonable time. Initial results show the potential of such an approach to construct denser point clouds with a comparable accuracy to that of the current top-performing algorithms.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, multiview stereo, particle swarm optimisation, photo consistency

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406 Variations in Breast Aesthetic Reconstruction Rates between Asian and Caucasian Patients Post Mastectomy in a UK Tertiary Breast Referral Centre: A Five-Year Institutional Review

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Chole Wright, Elizabeth Baker, Cathy Tait, Mohamed Salhab, Richard Linforth

Abstract:

Background: Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for women with breast cancer with psychosocial, emotional and quality of life benefits. Despite this, Asian patients are one-fifth as likely as Caucasian patients to undergo reconstruction after mastectomy. Aim: This study aimed to assess the difference in breast reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients treated at Bradford Teaching Hospitals between May 2011 – December 2015.The long-term goal is to equip healthcare professionals to improve breast cancer treatment outcome by increasing breast reconstruction rates in this sub-population. Methods: All patients undergoing mastectomy were identified using a prospectively collected departmental database. Further data was obtained via retrospective electronic case note review. Bradford city population is about 530.000 by the end of 2015, with 67.44% of the city's population was White ethnic groups and 26.83% Asian Ethnic Groups (UK population consensus). The majority of Asian population speaks Urdu, hence an Urdu speaking breast care nurse was appointed to facilitate communications and deliver a better understanding of the reconstruction options and pathways. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the SAS program. Patients were stratified by age, self-reported ethnicity, axillary surgery and reconstruction. Relative odds were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment for known confounders. An Urdu speaking breast care nurse was employed throughout this period to facilitate communication and patient decision making. Results: 506 patients underwent Mastectomy over 5 years. 72 (14%) Asian v. 434 (85%) Caucasian. Overall median age is 64 years (SD1.1). Asian median age is 62 (SD0.9), versus Caucasian 65 (SD1.2). Total axillary clearance rate was 30% (42% Asian v.30% Caucasian). Overall reconstruction rate was 126 patients (28.9%).Only 6 of 72 Asian patients (<1%) underwent breast reconstruction versus 121of 434 Caucasian (28%) (p < 0.04), Odds ratio 0.68, (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.79). Conclusions: There is a significant difference in post-mastectomy reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients. This difference is likely to be multi-factorial. Higher rates of axillary clearance in Asian patients might suggest later disease presentation and/or higher rates of subsequent adjuvant therapy, both of which, can impact on the suitability of breast reconstruction. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in breast reconstruction should include symptom awareness to enable earlier presentation and facilitated communication to ensure informed decision-making.

Keywords: aesthetic, Asian, breast, reconstruction

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