Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6301

Search results for: mental health

6301 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens

Abstract:

Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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6300 Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community

Authors: Yamam Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.

Keywords: Arab, mental health, literacy, awareness

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6299 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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6298 A Comparative Study of Mental Health and Well-Being between Qugong Practitioners and Non-Practitioners

Authors: Masoumeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Introduction: The complementary therapies and Qigong exercises is important in order to maintain physical and mental health. Objective: This study was done to compare and investigate well-being and mental health's state between practitioners of a Qigong practice (Falun Dafa) and non-practitioners. Method: It was a comparative study with 60 samples (30 practitioners of Falun Dafa, and 30 non-practitioners), who were selected by random sampling from Tehran city of Iran. Data were collected by mental health inventory (SCL90) and well-being questionnaire. Multivariate variance analyzing and t-test were used for analyzing data. Results: Results showed significant differences in most components of mental health including anxiety, aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization disorder, depression, phobia between practitioners and non-practitioners. Well-being was significantly higher in practitioners than non-practitioners. Conclusion: Accordingly, we concluded Falun Gong exercises have high impact on mental health and well-being in people.

Keywords: mental health, well-being, Qigong, Falun Dafa

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6297 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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6296 Relationship of Workplace Stress and Mental Wellbeing among Health Professionals

Authors: Rabia Mushtaq, Uroosa Javaid

Abstract:

It has been observed that health professionals are at higher danger of stress in light of the fact that being a specialist is physically and emotionally demanding. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and mental wellbeing among health professionals. Sample of 120 male and female health professionals belonging to two age groups, i.e., early adulthood and middle adulthood, was employed through purposive sampling technique. Job stress scale, mindful attention awareness scale, and Warwick Edinburgh mental wellbeing scales were used for the measurement of study variables. Results of the study indicated that job stress has a significant negative relationship with mental wellbeing among health professionals. The current study opened the door for more exploratory work on mindfulness among health professionals. Yielding outcomes helped in consolidating adapting procedures among workers to improve their mental wellbeing and lessen the job stress.

Keywords: health professionals, job stress, mental wellbeing, mindfulness

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6295 An Assessment of Self-Perceived Health after the Death of a Spouse among the Elderly

Authors: Shu-Hsi Ho

Abstract:

The problems of aging and number of widowed peers gradually rise in Taiwan. It is worth to concern the related issues for elderly after the death of a spouse. Hence, this study is to examine the impact of spousal death on the surviving spouse’s self-perceived health and mental health for the elderly in Taiwan. A cross section data design and ordered logistic regression models are applied to investigate whether marriage is associated significantly to self-perceived health and mental health for the widowed older Taiwanese. The results indicate that widowed marriage shows significant negative effects on self-perceived health and mental health regardless of widows or widowers. Among them, widows might be more likely to show worse mental health than widowers. The belief confirms that marriage provides effective sources to promote self-perceived health and mental health, particularly for females. In addition, since the social welfare system is not perfect in Taiwan, the findings also suggest that family and social support reveal strongly association with the self-perceived health and mental health for the widows and widowers elderly.

Keywords: logistic regression models, self-perceived health, widow, widower

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6294 The Importance of Mental Health Literacy: Interventions in a Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Portugal

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, Ana Charraz, Ana Matos Pires

Abstract:

Introduction: Health literacy empowers people of knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand, evaluate and mobilize information relating to health. Although the benefits of public knowledge of physical disease are widely accepted, knowledge about mental disorder has been compatibly neglected. Nowadays there is considerably evidence that literacy is of great importance for the promotion of health and prevention of mental illness. Objective: Disclosure the concept and importance of mental health literacy and introduce the literacy program of Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes. Methodology: A search was conducted on PubMed, using keywords “literacy” and “mental health”. A description of mental health literacy interventions implemented on Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes was performed, namely, psychoeducation programs for depression and bipolar disorder. Results and discussion: Health literacy enables patient to be able to actively participate in his treatment. The improving of mental health literacy can promote early identification of mental disorders, improve treatment results, increase the use of health services and allow the community to take action to achieve better mental health. Psychoeducation is very useful in improving the course of disease and in reducing the number of episodes and hospitalizations. Bipolar patients who received psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy have no relapses during the program and last year. Conclusion: Mental health literacy is not simply a matter of having knowledge, rather, it is knowledge linked to action which can benefit mental health.

Keywords: mental health, literacy, psychoeducation, knowledge, empowerment

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6293 State and Determinant of Caregiver’s Mental Health in Thailand: A Household Level Analysis

Authors: Ruttana Phetsitong, Patama Vapattanawong, Malee Sunpuwan, Marc Voelker

Abstract:

The majority of care for older people at home in Thai society falls upon caregivers resulting in caregiver’s mental health problem. Beyond individual characteristics, household factors might have a profound effect on the caregiver’s mental health. But reliable data capturing this at the household level have been limited to date. The objectives of the present study were to explore the levels of Thai caregiver’s mental health and to investigate the factors affecting the mental health at household level. Data were obtained from the 2011 National Survey of Thai Older Persons conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand. Caregiver’s mental health was measured by using the 15- items-short version of the Thai Mental Health Indicator (TMHI-15) developed by the Department of Mental Health, the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of potential factors on caregiver’s mental health. The THMI-15 produced an overall average caregiver mental health score of 30.9 out of 45 (SD 5.3). The score can be categorized into good (34.02-45), fair (27.01-34), and poor (0-27). Duration of care for older people, household wealth, and functional dependency of the older people significantly predicted total caregiver’s mental health. Household economic factor was key in predicting better mental health. Compared to those poorest households, the adjusted effect of the fifth quintile household wealth was high (OR=2.34; 95%CI=1.47-3.73). The findings of this study provide a fuller picture to a better understanding of the level and factors that cause the mental health of Thai caregivers. Health care providers and policymakers should consider these factors when designing interventions aimed at alleviating caregiver’s psychological burden when provided care for older people at home.

Keywords: caregiver’s mental health, household, older people, Thailand

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6292 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

Abstract:

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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6291 Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Pierre Angelo Alino, Rafael Alejandro Ang, Maria Carmela Espanol, Dominic Gerard Ferreol, Jendrietch Adrian Lopez

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.

Keywords: generational difference, mental health, mental health illness, perception

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6290 Mental Health and Well-Being: Capacity Building of Community to Respond to Mental Health Needs of Transgender Populations

Authors: Harjyot Khosa

Abstract:

In India and south Asia, stigma and discrimination against transgender community remain disproportionately high. Lack of mental health care restricts effective treatment and care for both physical and mental health. Knowledge assessment of 80 counsellors across India reflected that only 28% counsellors knew about the transgender community. Whereas, only 6% of them felt, that transgender community require a specific mental health support, considering the stigma they face in day to day life. Lastly, 62% did agree that they require specific training to address unmet needs of transgender community. A robust counselling module was developed with focus on technical counselling skills and strategies, specific counselling issues, identity and sexuality, disclosure, hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery. Mental health related support should be an integral part of government and non-government programs for the overall well-being of transgender community who face stigma and discrimination at every level. Needs based capacity building and technical assistance is required towards providing mental health support for transgender populations and their partners.

Keywords: identity and sexuality, mental health, stigma, transgender

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6289 Mental Health Diagnosis through Machine Learning Approaches

Authors: Md Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Anwaar Ulhaq, Abu Raihan M. Kamal, Yuan Miao, Hua Wang

Abstract:

Mental health of people is equally important as of their physical health. Mental health and well-being are influenced not only by individual attributes but also by the social circumstances in which people find themselves and the environment in which they live. Like physical health, there is a number of internal and external factors such as biological, social and occupational factors that could influence the mental health of people. People living in poverty, suffering from chronic health conditions, minority groups, and those who exposed to/or displaced by war or conflict are generally more likely to develop mental health conditions. However, to authors’ best knowledge, there is dearth of knowledge on the impact of workplace (especially the highly stressed IT/Tech workplace) on the mental health of its workers. This study attempts to examine the factors influencing the mental health of tech workers. A publicly available dataset containing more than 65,000 cells and 100 attributes is examined for this purpose. Number of machine learning techniques such as ‘Decision Tree’, ‘K nearest neighbor’ ‘Support Vector Machine’ and ‘Ensemble’, are then applied to the selected dataset to draw the findings. It is anticipated that the analysis reported in this study would contribute in presenting useful insights on the attributes contributing in the mental health of tech workers using relevant machine learning techniques.

Keywords: mental disorder, diagnosis, occupational stress, IT workplace

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6288 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair

Abstract:

There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

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6287 Assessing Perinatal Mental Illness during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of Measurement Tools

Authors: Mya Achike

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Perinatal mental illness covers a wide range of conditions and has a huge influence on maternal-child health. Issues and challenges with perinatal mental health have been associated with poor pregnancy, birth, and postpartum outcomes. It is estimated that one out of five new and expectant mothers experience some degree of perinatal mental illness, which makes this a hugely significant health outcome. Certain factors increase the maternal risk for mental illness. Challenges related to poverty, migration, extreme stress, exposure to violence, emergency and conflict situations, natural disasters, and pandemics can exacerbate mental health disorders. It is widely expected that perinatal mental health is being negatively affected during the present COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A review of studies that reported a measurement tool to assess perinatal mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were used to search for peer-reviewed studies published after late 2019, in accordance with the emergence of the virus. The search resulted in the inclusion of ten studies. Approach to measure health outcome: The main approach to measure perinatal mental illness is the use of self-administered, validated questionnaires, usually in the clinical setting. Summary: Widespread use of these tools has afforded the clinical and research communities the ability to identify and support women who may be suffering from mental illness disorders during a pandemic. More research is needed to validate tools in other vulnerable, perinatal populations.

Keywords: mental health during covid, perinatal mental health, perinatal mental health measurement tools, perinatal mental health tools

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6286 Mental Health Problems in College Students of India

Authors: Swati Naruka

Abstract:

"Looking after one’s mind is as important as looking after one’s body". As part of one’s overall health, mental and emotional health or well being is a necessary condition to enable one to manage one’s life successfully. Mental health is the capacity of an individual to form harmonious adjustments to one’s social and physical environments. Universities and colleges are dealing with substantial challenges posed by the changing mental health needs of today’s college students. It is important for administrators, faculty, and staff to understand the profound impact that mental health problems can have on all aspects of campus life, and to treat mental health issues as an institutional responsibility and priority. Counselling centres can respond effectively to the current challenges if they have the support and commitment of the administration; and if they take steps to balance the demand for services with existing resources by reviewing priorities, establishing appropriate limits, employing innovative strategies, and practicing good self-care to minimize stress and burnout. The need for counselling centres has never been greater. They will continue to play an important role in supporting the mission of higher education institutions by providing counselling for students who are experiencing problems and assisting them in achieving their educational and personal goals.

Keywords: mental health, well being, India, college students

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6285 A Study of Mental Health of Higher Secondary School Going Children in Rural Area

Authors: Tanmay L. Joshi

Abstract:

The Mental health allows children and young people to develop the resilience to cope with whatever life throws at them and grow into well-rounded, healthy adults. In urban area, many health professionals are working for the well being for younger population. There is so much of potential in rural area. However, the rural population is somehow neglected. Apart from lack of availability of basic needs like transport, electricity, telecommunication etc; the Psychological health is also overlooked in such area. There are no mental health professionals like Psychologists, counselors etc. So the researcher tries to throw some light on the mental health of Higher Secondary School going children in rural area. The current research tries to study the Mental Health (Confidence, Sociability and Neurotic Tendency) of Higher Secondary School going children. Researchers have used the tool Vyaktitva Shodhika (a personality inventory) by Dr. U. Khire (JPIP,Pune). The Sample size is 45 (N= 40, 24 boys/21 girls). The present study may provide a good support to inculcate emotional-management programs for higher secondary school going children in rural areas.

Keywords: mental health, neurotic tendency, rural area, school going children

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6284 The Relation between Coping Strategies with Stress and Mental Health Situation in Flying Addicted Family of Self Introducer and Private

Authors: Farnoush Haghanipour

Abstract:

Recent research studies relation between coping strategies with stress and mental health situation in flying addicted family of self-introducer and private, Units of Guilan province. For this purpose 251 family (parent, spouse), that referred to private and self-introducer centers to break out of drug are selected in random sampling form. Research method was cross sectional-descriptive and purpose of research was fixing of between kinds of coping strategies with stress and mental health condition with attention to demographic variables. Therefore to collection of information, coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) and mental health questionnaire (GHQ) was used and finally data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods (average, standard deviation) and inferential statistical correlation coefficient and regression. Study of correlation coefficient between mental healths with problem focused emotional focused and detachment strategies in level more than %99 is confirmed. Also mental health with avoidant focused hasn't correlation in other words relation is between mental health with problem focused strategies (r= 0/34) and emotional focused with mental health (r=0.52) and detachment with mental health (r= 0.18) in meaningful level 0.05. And also relation is between emotional focused strategies and mental health (r= 0.034) that is meaningless in Alpha 0.05. Also relation between problem processed coping strategies and mental health situation with attention to demographic variable is meaningful and relation level verified in confidence level more than 0.99. And result of anticipation equation regression statistical test has most a have in problem focused coping strategy, mental health, but relation of the avoidant emotional, detachment strategy with mental health was meaningless with attention to demographic variables.

Keywords: stress, coping strategy with stress, mental health, self introducer and private

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6283 Mental Health Awareness and Help Seeking Among Adolescents in Kerala

Authors: Fathima M. A., Milu Maria Anto

Abstract:

Aim: The current study aims to explore the understanding about Mental Health and the likelihood to seek help for mental health problems among adolescents in the state of Kerala (India). Method: A cross sectional exploratory design was used. Samples were selected using convenience sampling. Ninety nine high school and higher secondary school students who had enrolled in the program “Responsible Adolescents (READ)” organized by MKMS Education from Kerala participated in this study. The data for the present study was collected using google forms prior to the commencement of the READ programme. Open-ended questions were used to explore the understanding of participants about mental health, mental health problems, causes of mental health problems and the role of mental health professionals. The likelihood to seek help (from friends, parents, teachers and mental health professionals) for mental health problems was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Further open-ended questions were used to identify what changes in teachers and parents will make them feel more comfortable to approach them when they need help. Content analysis was used to identify themes and coded data was further analyzed using correlation. Results: The results show that students have a fair idea about what Mental Health is. Even though the majority is familiar with the names of mental health disorders, relatively fewer students identify it as irregularity in mental functions such as thoughts, emotions and behaviors. The students tend to attribute symptoms of mental health problems as the cause of mental health problems. Very few students have the understanding that biological variations and adverse childhood experiences are primary causes for the development of mental health problems. Less than half of the students were aware of the role of psychiatrists and psychologists in mental health treatment. The students were more likely to seek help from parents and friends during distress. They had a medium inclination to seek help from mental health professionals and showed even lower likelihood to seek help from teachers. The majority of the students responded that they would be more comfortable approaching teachers if they were more open-minded and approachable as well as non-judgmental and non-dismissive. Conclusion: Findings show that there is inadequate awareness among adolescents about mental health problems and their causes. There is a lack of understanding about the roles of two main mental health professionals which can pose a big hurdle in accessing adequate help from the appropriate professional at the right time. The low likelihood to seek help from teachers for mental health problems is very concerning. The major barriers reported by the students in seeking help from teachers were the judgmental and dismissive approach. The findings throw light on the current level of awareness about mental health and mental health help-seeking, which can be utilized in framing mental health awareness programs for students as well as teachers.

Keywords: Mental Health Awareness, Adolescent Mental Health, Help Seeking Behavior, School Mental Health

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6282 Mental Health Stigma: Barriers to Treatment and Participation in Mental Health Care among University Students in Kenya

Authors: Scholastic Nangila Adeli, Francisca Mbutitia Ngithi

Abstract:

Stigma is commonly associated with mental health patients and may act as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. Stigmatization among university students is common whether they know someone with a mental health problem, or have a good knowledge and experience of mental health issues. The objective of this study was to establish the various barriers that prevent university students who have mental health challenges from seeking treatment and care. The study was a descriptive in nature where 320 respondents helped to establish the barriers to treatment or participation in mental health care among university students. A questionnaire was used to help establish the barriers and attitude towards mental illness among the respondents. Results from this study revealed that mental illnesses are common among university students and they are manifested in different forms like; anxiety and panic attacks, mood and eating disorders, Impulse control leading to gambling, alcohol and drug addictions, anger and depression leading to loneliness. Mental stigma (both social and self) was the major barrier with 62% of the respondents stating that social stigma was worse than self-stigma. This is because of the social discrimination towards the victim of mental challenges. On issues of attitude, 71% of the respondents said that they can never admit that they have a mental issue and would rather secretly seek clinical or psychological help for fear of being discriminated or excluded by peers. This view is informed by the societal belief that people with mental health challenges were dangerous (associating them with criminal behavior) and hard to socialize with or help. From the findings of this study, it is concluded that mental health problems are real among university students in Kenya and it is important for the university environment to minimize or eradicate stigma within the social circles. Stigma can be minimized or eradicated by creating awareness among university students and fostering social inclusion so that the students who have mental health challenges can experience a sense of belonging and acceptance hence build their self-esteem.

Keywords: disorders, impulse control, mental health problems, stigma

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6281 Evil Eye's Effects on Individual's Mental Health

Authors: Nikolaos Souvlakis

Abstract:

One of the prominent phenomena that have survived even in the 21st century, when science is gaining more and more space in the scientific world, is the evil eye within non-Westernized societies and more specifically in Greek culture. The presentation is based on the Christian Orthodox beliefs and folklore about the evil eye. Evil eye occupies an important role in individuals' everyday life and it is fuelled by Satanic powers. Satanic powers and the belief on them have an immense effect on individual's well-being and mental health causing spiritual suffering. The present paper examines the psychological manifestations of the belief of evil eye in individuals' mental health and the ways to protect from it according to the Greek Orthodox tradition.

Keywords: spirituality, belief, evil eye, mental health, well-being, healing

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6280 The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on Mental Health in Metropolitans

Authors: Farrin Nayebzadeh, Mohammadreza Eslami Amirabadi

Abstract:

According to technological progress and urban development, the cities of the world are growing to become metropolitans, living in which can be enthusiastic, entertaining and accessibility to the facilities like education, economic factors, hygiene and welfare is high. On the other hand, there are some problems that have been ignored in planning for such high quality of life, most important of which, is human health. Two aspects of human health are physical health and mental health, that are closely associated. Human mental health depends on two important factors: Biological factor and environmental factor. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental risk factors that affects mental health. Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior, depression and also children's mental disorders like hyperactivity, aggression and agitation. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. These factors can cause resonance of psychiatric disorders. So, in cities of developing countries, people challenge with mental health problems due to environmental factors especially air pollution that have not been forecasted in urban planning.

Keywords: air pollution, environmental factors, mental health, psychiatric disorder

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6279 The Relationship between Selfesteem, Social Support, and Mental Health among High School Students in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Shahbakhti

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, social support and mental health in a sample of government high school students in Eshtehard city in Alborz Province in Iran. Three hundred and eleven students (boys) were included in this study. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS -12), and Self-Esteem Scale (SS-10). The results revealed that self-esteem was positively associated with social support. Self-esteem and social support negatively associated with psychological distress. Self-esteem and social support to influence on mental health.

Keywords: self-esteem, social support, mental health, high school students

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6278 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

Abstract:

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

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6277 Competing Discourses of Masculinity and Seeking Mental Health Assistance among Male Police Officers in Canada

Authors: Maria T. Cruz, Scott N. Thompson

Abstract:

In recent years, Canadian federal and provincial law enforcement organizations have implemented numerous mental health strategies in an attempt to address officers’ mental health and wellness needs. Despite these reforms, however, mental illness continues to persist in these populations. Whereas workplace stressors continue to be factored into the development of mental health initiatives, it is proposed that aspects of masculine culture have been overlooked as contributing to the prevalence of mental illness among Canadian officers. By drawing on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse, this study was conducted to determine if elements of masculine discourse exist as a socio-cultural barrier for officers seeking mental health assistance. This research supported the above hypothesis, and furthermore, identified how masculine discourse works in competition with mental health-related help-seeking discourses. To answer the research question, semi-structured phone interviews with active and retired male officers from Western provincial and municipal policing organizations, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were employed. Through thematic analysis of the transcripts, the data revealed three themes: i) masculinity in law enforcement is a determinant of workplace competency; ii) the dominance of masculine culture in law enforcement is problematic for mental health, and iii) improved help-seeking policies complicate how masculinity is expressed in law enforcement organizations. These findings suggest that within the reviewed Canadian law enforcement organizations, aspects of masculinity act as a socio-cultural barrier to officers seeking mental health services, and that the two conflicting discourses of masculinity and mental health-related help-seeking appear to be in competition with each other.

Keywords: competing discourses, dominant discourses, Foucault’s theory of discourse, law enforcement, masculinity, mental health, police officers

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6276 The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram, M. J. Pourvaghar

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Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.

Keywords: anxiety, mental health, physical activity, serotonin

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6275 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

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6274 The Effect of Mental Workload Towards Mental Fatigue on Customer Care Agent Using Electroencephalogram

Authors: Maya Arlini Puspasari, Shafira Karamina Alifah, Hardianto Iridiastadi

Abstract:

High mental workload can lead to fatigue and further result in decreased concentration and work performance. This study is conducted to see the effects of mental workload towards mental fatigue. Mental fatigue measurement was conducted at the first and the last 10 minutes of the working time using electroencephalogram, while mental workload measurement was conducted after the work is completed using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. The result shows that there is an increase in alpha band which indicates an increase in mental fatigue. This study also shows absolute alpha is more sensitive compared to the relative alpha. This study proves that there is a relationship between mental workload and mental fatigue although not relatively strong.

Keywords: mental workload, electroencephalogram, customer care agents, NASA-TLX

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6273 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

Abstract:

Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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6272 Building Mental Health Literacy in Pre-Service and in-Service Teacher Education Programs

Authors: Wendy Carr, Blye Frank

Abstract:

Many educators do not feel prepared to address the student mental health challenges they face in their schools, and they point to gaps in their teacher education programs. Meanwhile, approximately 20 percent of children and youth in many countries will develop a mental illness in their lifetime, many of those who require care do not obtain rapid access to the help they require. Studies in the last decade show that mental health literacy is making a difference in schools by improving students' knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking skills. Mental health literacy is defined as understanding how to obtain and maintain positive mental health; knowing about mental disorders and their treatments; decreasing stigma related to mental disorders, and enhancing help-seeking efficacy. How can we ensure that new (pre-service) teachers start their careers with a rudimentary level of mental health literacy and that practicing (in-service) teachers develop their knowledge and skills so that they, in turn, can support their students to become mental health literate Presenters will describe how they worked with colleagues across Canada to co-create a freely available, flexible, online curriculum resource to address this gap in teacher education and better prepare educators for today’s classrooms. They will also report on the results of two research studies that demonstrate the significant and sustained increases in understanding about mental health and mental illness, reductions in stigma and improvement in help-seeking attitudes. The presenters will describe how a mental health literacy curriculum has been integrated into a Canadian faculty of education’s teacher education program. Concurrently, their faculty has been instrumental in leading a provincial professional development strategy whereby almost every school district in the province has taken part in a cascading model based on preparing trainers of trainers. The goal of these sessions has been to improve mental health knowledge levels of teachers (and, in turn, their students), to improve attitudes and reduce stigma among students and staff, and to improve access to care for youth in need of services.

Keywords: improving access to mental health care, mental health education, teacher education, teacher professional development

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