Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6774

Search results for: material characterization

6774 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud


Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
6773 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar


This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
6772 Challenges in the Characterization of Black Mass in the Recovery of Graphite from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Anna Vanderbruggen, Kai Bachmann, Martin Rudolph, Rodrigo Serna


Recycling of lithium-ion batteries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and focuses primarily on valuable metals such as cobalt, nickel, and lithium. Despite the growth in graphite consumption and the fact that it is classified as a critical raw material in the European Union, USA, and Australia, there is little work focusing on graphite recycling. Thus, graphite is usually considered waste in recycling treatments, where graphite particles are concentrated in the “black mass”, a fine fraction below 1mm, which also contains the foils and the active cathode particles such as LiCoO2 or LiNiMnCoO2. To characterize the material, various analytical methods are applied, including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and SEM-based automated mineralogy. The latter consists of the combination of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is a powerful and well-known method for primary material characterization; however, it has not yet been applied to secondary material such as black mass, which is a challenging material to analyze due to fine alloy particles and to the lack of an existing dedicated database. The aim of this research is to characterize the black mass depending on the metals recycling process in order to understand the liberation mechanisms of the active particles from the foils and their effect on the graphite particle surfaces and to understand their impact on the subsequent graphite flotation. Three industrial processes were taken into account: purely mechanical, pyrolysis-mechanical, and mechanical-hydrometallurgy. In summary, this article explores various and common challenges for graphite and secondary material characterization.

Keywords: automated mineralogy, characterization, graphite, lithium ion battery, recycling

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6771 Magneto-Electric Behavior a Couple Aluminum / Steel Xc48

Authors: A. Mekroud, A. Khemis, M. S. Mecibah


The tribological behavior of a pin of paramagnetic material (aluminum), rolling on a rotating disk made of ferromagnetic material (steel XC48) in the presence of an externally applied alternating magnetic field, with the passage of electric current were studied. All tests were performed using a conventional tribometer pin- disk. Structural characterization of the surfaces in contact, oxides and wear debris, by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ angle), showed the significant effect of magnetic field on the activation of the contact surface of the pin in no ferromagnetic material. The absence of the magnetic field causes a change of wear mode.

Keywords: structural characterization of the surfaces, oxides and wear debris, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
6770 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang


Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: polymer, TGA, pollution, landfill, waste, plastic

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6769 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions

Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars


Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.

Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
6768 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury


The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6767 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc

Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury


The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
6766 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material

Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar


In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.

Keywords: bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6765 Characterization of Stabilized Earth in the Construction Field

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fatoum Kharchi


This study deals with the characterization of stabilized earth in the field of construction from the behavior under changes in conservation conditions that may occur during the lifetime of the material, namely, the exposure to high humidity and temperature variations. These two parameters are involved increasingly, because of climate changes that are confronting earth-based constructions to conditions for which they were not originally designed. These exposure conditions may affect the long-term behavior of the material and the entire structure. A cement treatment was adopted for stabilizing the earth with dosages ranging from 4, 6, 8 to 10%. The influence of addition percentage was analyzed in this context based on laboratory tests measuring the evolution of compressive strength, rate of absorption and shrinkage, and finally thermal conductivity. It was shown that the behaviour was dependent on the ambient conditions which influence the action of the binder. Temperate cure has proved beneficial for the material as the cement content increased. Moisture has less affected the compressive strength with increasing the cement content. The absorption was reduced with the increase of cement dosage. Regarding the variation of shrinkage, cement assays have presented an optimum value beyond which the addition of further quantities was less advantageous. The thermal conductivity on the other hand, increased with increasing cement content, which decreased the insulating properties of the material.

Keywords: behavior, characterization, construction, earth, stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
6764 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma


Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: characterization, structural, optical, nanomaterial

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6763 Light Weight Fly Ash Based Composite Material for Thermal Insulation Applications

Authors: Bharath Kenchappa, Kunigal Shivakumar


Lightweight, low thermal conductivity and high temperature resistant materials or the system with moderate mechanical properties and capable of taking high heating rates are needed in both commercial and military applications. A single material with these attributes is very difficult to find and one needs to come with innovative ideas to make such material system using what is available. To bring down the cost of the system, one has to be conscious about the cost of basic materials. Such a material system can be called as the thermal barrier system. This paper focuses on developing, testing and characterization of material system for thermal barrier applications. The material developed is porous, low density, low thermal conductivity of 0.1062 W/m C and glass transition temperature about 310 C. Also, the thermal properties of the developed material was measured in both longitudinal and thickness direction to highlight the fact that the material shows isotropic behavior. The material is called modified Eco-Core which uses only less than 9% weight of high-char resin in the composite. The filler (reinforcing material) is a component of fly ash called Cenosphere, they are hollow micro-bubbles made of ceramic materials. Special mixing-technique is used to surface coat the fillers with a thin layer of resin to develop a point-to-point contact of particles. One could use commercial ceramic micro-bubbles instead of Cenospheres, but it is expensive. The bulk density of Cenospheres is about 0.35 g/cc and we could accomplish the composite density of about 0.4 g/cc. One percent filler weight of 3mm length standard drywall grade fibers was used to bring the added toughness. Both thermal and mechanical characterization was performed and properties are documented. For higher temperature applications (up to 1,000 C), a hybrid system was developed using an aerogel mat. Properties of combined material was characterized and documented. Thermal tests were conducted on both the bare modified Eco-Core and hybrid materials to assess the suitability of the material to a thermal barrier application. The hybrid material system was found to meet the requirement of the application.

Keywords: aerogel, fly ash, porous material, thermal barrier

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6762 Material Characterization and Numerical Simulation of a Rubber Bumper

Authors: Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kállai, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó


Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. In this paper, a comprehensive investigation is introduced including laboratory measurements, mesh density analysis and complex finite element simulations to obtain the load-displacement curve of the chosen rubber bumper. Contact and friction effects are also taken into consideration. The aim of this research is to elaborate an FEM model which is accurate and competitive for a future shape optimization task.

Keywords: rubber bumper, finite element analysis, compression test, Mooney-Rivlin material model

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
6761 Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Doped in Degradation of Acid Dye

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami, B. Boury


The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and UV- vis DRS. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Zn -Fe TiO2 treated at 500°C was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Zn-Fe-TiO2 (500°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the Rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV-visible diffuse reflection material showed that the Fe-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Zn -Fe- TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Fe-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
6760 Carbon Nanocomposites : Structure, Characterization and Environmental Application

Authors: Bensacia Nabila, Hadj-Ziane Amel, Sefah Karima


Carbon nanocomposites have received more attention in the last years in view of their special properties such as low density, high specific surface area, and thermal and mechanical stability. Taking into account the importance of these materials, many studies aimed at improving the synthesis process have been conducted. However, the presence of impurities could affect significantly the properties of these materials, and the characterization of these compounds is an important challenge to assure the quality of the new carbon nanocomposites. The present study aims to develop a new recyclable decontaminating material for dyes removal. This new material consists of an active element based on carbon nanotubes wrapped in a microcapsule of iron oxide. The adsorbent is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and the surface area was measured by the BET method.

Keywords: carbon nanocomposite, chitozen, elimination, dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
6759 Development and Characterization of Ceramic-Filled Composite Filaments and Functional Structures for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: B. Khatri, K. Lappe, M. Habedank, T. Müller, C. Megnin, T. Hanemann


We present a process flow for the development of ceramic-filled polymer composite filaments compatible with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. Thermoplastic-ceramic composites were developed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and 10- and 20 vol.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (corresponding to 39.47- and 58.23 wt.% respectively) and characterized for their flow properties. To make them compatible with the existing FDM process, the composites were extruded into filaments. These composite filaments were subsequently structured into tensile stress specimens using a commercially available FDM 3D printer and characterized for their mechanical properties. Rheometric characterization of the material composites revealed non-Newtonian behavior with the viscosity logarithmically decreasing over increasing shear rates, as well as higher viscosities for samples with higher BaTiO3 filler content for a given shear rate (with the ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3 composite being over 50% more viscous compared to pure ABS at a shear rate of 1x〖10〗^3 s^(-1)). Mechanical characterization of the tensile stress specimens exhibited increasingly brittle behavior as well as a linearly decreasing ultimate tensile strength of the material composites with increasing volumetric ratio of BaTiO3 (from σ_max=32.4MPa for pure ABS to σ_max=21.3MPa for ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3). Further studies being undertaken include the development of composites with higher filler concentrations, sintering of the printed composites to yield pure dielectric structures and the determination of the dielectric characteristics of the composites.

Keywords: ceramic composites, fused deposition modeling, material characterization, rapid prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
6758 The Study of Visible Light Active Bismuth Modified Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatlysts

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury


The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi -N- TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
6757 Comparison of Johnson-Cook and Barlat Material Model for 316L Stainless Steel

Authors: Yiğit Gürler, İbrahim Şimşek, Müge Savaştaer, Ayberk Karakuş, Alper Taşdemirci


316L steel is frequently used in the industry due to its easy formability and accessibility in sheet metal forming processes. Numerical and experimental studies are frequently encountered in the literature to examine the mechanical behavior of 316L stainless steel during the forming process. 316L stainless steel is the most common material used in the production of plate heat exchangers and plate heat exchangers are produced by plastic deformation of the stainless steel. The motivation in this study is to determine the appropriate material model during the simulation of the sheet metal forming process. For this reason, two different material models were examined and Ls-Dyna material cards were created using material test data. These are MAT133_BARLAT_YLD2000 and MAT093_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK. In order to compare results of the tensile test & hydraulic bulge test performed both numerically and experimentally. The obtained results were evaluated comparatively and the most suitable material model was selected for the forming simulation. In future studies, this material model will be used in the numerical modeling of the sheet metal forming process.

Keywords: 316L, mechanical characterization, metal forming, Ls-Dyna

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6756 Characterization and Comparative Analysis of North Bengal Sand

Authors: Marzia Hoque Tania, Oishy Roy, ASW Kurny, Fahmida Gulshan


This paper presents results of the investigation on the characterization of silica sand of northern region of Bangladesh on the basis of material composition, particle shape, and size, density, transportation, crystallinity, etc. before and after upgradation. The raw sand samples collected from Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat district were studied and compared for the prospect silica as a high valued commodity rather than heavy minerals. The raw sand particles were colorful in appearance with varying particle size distribution. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed uniformity in grain size and mineralogical composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated the silica content of the as-received sample to be 75%. Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) did not detect the presence of any organic material. These tests revealed the sample to be alpha-quartz. Samples were washed with organic and inorganic acid with a combination of varying rotation speed, concentration, solid-liquid ratio. Experiments showed the silica content could be enhanced to more than 85% by washing with 15% sulphuric acid in room temperature. Beneficiation can be improved in further work considering the effect of varying temperature or advanced technology.

Keywords: beneficiation, characterization, commercial grade sand, glass sand, silica, upgradation

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6755 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander


In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: lamb waves, industry 4.0, process control, elasticity, acoustoelasticity, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
6754 Characterization of a Hypoeutectic Al Alloy Obtained by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Jairo A. Muñoz, Alexander Komissarov, Alexander Gromov


In this investigation, a hypoeutectic AlSi11Cu alloy was printed. This alloy was obtained in powder form with an average particle size of 40 µm. Bars 20 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length were printed with the building direction parallel to the bars' longitudinal direction. The microstructural characterization demonstrated an Al matrix surrounded by a Si network forming a coral-like pattern. The microstructure of the alloy showed a heterogeneous behavior with a mixture of columnar and equiaxed grains. Likewise, the texture indicated that the columnar grains were preferentially oriented towards the building direction, while the equiaxed followed a texture dominated by the cube component. On the other hand, the as-printed material strength showed higher values than those obtained in the same alloy using conventional processes such as casting. In addition, strength and ductility differences were found in the printed material, depending on the measurement direction. The highest values were obtained in the radial direction (565 MPa maximum strength and 4.8% elongation to failure). The lowest values corresponded to the transverse direction (508 MPa maximum strength and 3.2 elongation to failure), which corroborate the material anisotropy.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, aluminium alloy, melting pools, tensile test

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6753 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae


Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: human toxicity potential, major building material, life cycle assessment, production stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6752 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann


This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
6751 Synthesis and Characterization of Renewable Resource Based Green Epoxy Coating

Authors: Sukanya Pradhan, Smita Mohanty, S. K Nayak


Plant oils are a great renewable source for being a reliable starting material to access new products with a wide spectrum of structural and functional variations. Even though petroleum products might also render the same, but it would also impose a high risk factor of environmental and health hazard. Since epoxidized vegetable oils are easily available, eco-compatible, non-toxic and renewable, hence these have drawn much of the attentions in the polymer industrial sector especially for the development of eco-friendly coating materials. In this study a waterborne epoxy coating was prepared from epoxidized soyabean oil by using triethanolamine. Because of its hydrophobic nature, it was a tough and tedius task to make it hydrophilic. The hydrophobic biobased epoxy was modified into waterborne epoxy by the help of a plant based anhydride as curing agent. Physico-mechanical, chemical resistance tests and thermal analysis of the green coating material were carried out which showed good physic-mechanical, chemical resistance properties as well as environment friendly. The complete characterization of the final material was done in terms of scratch hardness, gloss test, impact resistance, adhesion and bend test.

Keywords: epoxidized soybean oil, waterborne, curing agent, green coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
6750 Mechanical Characterization and Metallography of Sintered Aluminium-Titanium Diboride Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Sai Harshini Irigineni, Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala


The industrial applicability of aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) has been rapidly growing due to their exceptional materials traits such as low weight, high strength, excellent thermal performance, and corrosion resistance. The increasing demand for AMMCs in automobile, aviation, aerospace and defence ventures has opened up windows of opportunity for the development of processing methods that facilitate low-cost production of AMMCs with superior properties. In the present work, owing to its economy, efficiency, and suitability, powder metallurgy (P/M) technique was employed to develop AMMCs with pure aluminium as matrix material and titanium diboride (TiB₂) as reinforcement. AMMC samples with different weight compositions (Al-0.1%TiB₂, Al-5%TiB₂, Al-10%TiB₂, and Al-15% TiB₂) were prepared through hot press compacting followed by traditional sintering. The developed AMMC was subjected to metallographic studies and mechanical characterization. Experimental evidences show significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness with increasing reinforcement content. The current study demonstrates the superiority of AMMCs over conventional metals and alloys and the results obtained may be of immense in material selection for different structural applications.

Keywords: AMMCs, mechanical characterization, powder metallurgy, TiB₂

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6749 Characterization of Porosity and Flow in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with 3D Focused Ion Beam Serial Slicing

Authors: Daniel Phifer, Anna Prokhodtseva


DualBeam (FIB-SEM) has long been the technology of choice to sub-sample and characterize materials at site-specific locations which are difficult or impossible to extract by conventional embedding/polishing methods. Whereas Ga based FIB provides excellent resolution and enables precise material removal, the current is usually limited and only allows the extraction of small material biopsies typically ranging from 5-70um wide. Xe Plasma FIB, by contrast, has around 38x more current and can remove more material at the same time to extract significant sized chunks (100-1000um) of materials for further analysis. This increased volume has enabled time-prohibitive investigations like large grain 3D serial sectioning and EBSD and micro-machining for micro-mechanical testing. Investigation of the pore spaces with 3D modeling can determine the relative characteristics of the materials to help design or select properties for best function. Pore spaces can be described with a tortuosity number which is calculated by modules in the 3D analysis software. Xe Plasma FIB technology provides a workflow with sufficient volume to characterize porosity when both large-volume 3D materials characterization and nanometer resolution is required to understand the system.

Keywords: dual-beam, FIB-SEM, porosity, SOFC, solid oxide fuel cell

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6748 Reverse Engineering of a Secondary Structure of a Helicopter: A Study Case

Authors: Jose Daniel Giraldo Arias, Camilo Rojas Gomez, David Villegas Delgado, Gullermo Idarraga Alarcon, Juan Meza Meza


The reverse engineering processes are widely used in the industry with the main goal to determine the materials and the manufacture used to produce a component. There are a lot of characterization techniques and computational tools that are used in order to get this information. A study case of a reverse engineering applied to a secondary sandwich- hybrid type structure used in a helicopter is presented. The methodology used consists of five main steps, which can be applied to any other similar component: Collect information about the service conditions of the part, disassembly and dimensional characterization, functional characterization, material properties characterization and manufacturing processes characterization, allowing to obtain all the supports of the traceability of the materials and processes of the aeronautical products that ensure their airworthiness. A detailed explanation of each step is covered. Criticality and comprehend the functionalities of each part, information of the state of the art and information obtained from interviews with the technical groups of the helicopter’s operators were analyzed,3D optical scanning technique, standard and advanced materials characterization techniques and finite element simulation allow to obtain all the characteristics of the materials used in the manufacture of the component. It was found that most of the materials are quite common in the aeronautical industry, including Kevlar, carbon, and glass fibers, aluminum honeycomb core, epoxy resin and epoxy adhesive. The stacking sequence and volumetric fiber fraction are a critical issue for the mechanical behavior; a digestion acid method was used for this purpose. This also helps in the determination of the manufacture technique which for this case was Vacuum Bagging. Samples of the material were manufactured and submitted to mechanical and environmental tests. These results were compared with those obtained during reverse engineering, which allows concluding that the materials and manufacture were correctly determined. Tooling for the manufacture was designed and manufactured according to the geometry and manufacture process requisites. The part was manufactured and the mechanical, and environmental tests required were also performed. Finally, a geometric characterization and non-destructive techniques allow verifying the quality of the part.

Keywords: reverse engineering, sandwich-structured composite parts, helicopter, mechanical properties, prototype

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6747 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya


Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

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6746 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani


Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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6745 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka


The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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