Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6744

Search results for: young people

6744 Factors Influencing the Uptake of Family Planning Services among Young People (18-24 Years) at Community Level in Rural Budaka District, Uganda

Authors: Mathew Nyashanu, George K. Kiggundu, Mandu S. Ekpenyong

Abstract:

There is an increased number of young people engaging in early sexual relationships worldwide. Furthermore, statistics for early pregnancy among young people have also increased, especially in low and middle-income countries. This has health implications for both the parents and the baby. High uptake in family planning contraception among young people can reduce early pregnancy and subsequent negative health outcomes on the young parents and the baby. This study was set to explore the factors influencing the uptake of family planning contraceptive services among young people (18-24 years) at a community level in rural Budaka district, Uganda. The study utilised an explorative qualitative approach. The study found out that religion, partner resistance; perceived loss of libido, perceived barren, long waiting time and distance from the health facility, lack of privacy/confidentiality, excessive menstrual bleeding, cancer, and fear of having disabled babies, limited the utilisation of family planning contraceptive services while contraception as HIV prevention and child spacing encouraged young people to use family planning contraceptive services. There is a need for a culturally orientated community-based contraceptive health promotion approach to increase the uptake of family planning contraception services among young people.

Keywords: Young people, Family Planning, Contraceptives, Black sub-Sahara African

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6743 Infertility Awareness: Knowledge and Attitude of Medical & Non-Medical Moroccan Young People

Authors: Sana El Adlani, Yassir Ait Ben Kaddour, Abdelhafid Benksim, Abderraouf Soummani, Mohamed Cherkaoui

Abstract:

Background: Infertility in all countries of the word is on an increase, it’s why the World Health Organization included an investigation into young people's fertility. In this sense, it’s important to increase efforts to improve the knowledge about fertility for the young population. The aim of this study is to describe the difference between knowledge and attitude of medical and non-medical Moroccan young people. Materials and Methods: 100 medical Moroccan students (group 1) participated in the study, between 18 and 30 years, by a simple random sampling method, during 2020 and using a previously validated questionnaire. The answers were confronted to the result of our same study among 355 non-medical Moroccan young people (group 2) in 2019. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 10). Result: Medical students had a significantly higher level of knowledge about infertility than non-medical young people. However, both groups were aware of the impact of lifestyle on infertility. The knowledge state of the first group about infertility management was higher than the second group. Moreover, all non-medical Moroccan young people believed that it is easier to conceive if the couples had already their first baby, whereas, among medical students, only 53% had confirmed this belief. The results showed that 65% of medical students had proposed to try fertility treatments more than one time if treatment fails. Besides, the first advice of the second group was polygamy and adoption. Conclusion: Following the result of our study, the investigation of young people is the measure to optimize reproductive health. So, it’s crucial that the government increase efforts to improve the knowledge about infertility not only for medical universities but for all scholar programs.

Keywords: attitude, infertility, knowledge, medical, non-medical, young people

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6742 Moving Images and Re-Articulations of Self-Identity: Young People's Experiences of Viewing Representations Disability in Films

Authors: Alison Wilde, Stephen Millett

Abstract:

The cultural value of disabled people has largely been overlooked within forms of media and cultural analysis until the 1980s, when disabled people and disability studies highlighted the cultural misrecognition of disabled people and called for improved forms of cultural recognition and representation. Despite an increase in cultural analysis of representations of disabled people, much has been assumed about how images are read, and little work has been done on the value attributed to disabled people by media audiences and the viewing interests and encounters of film audiences. In particular, there has been little work on film reception, or on the way that young people interpret images of disability. We set out to understand some of the ways that young people read disability imagery, by showing small groups of young people different types of film featuring impairments, chosen from three different eras in film. These were Freaks, Rear Window (remake), and Finding Nemo. The discussions after these films allowed them to explore their own experiences of disability alongside the evolution of cultural representations; in so doing they discussed significant themes of cultural value and reflected on their own identities, e.g. in/dependency, autonomy, and competency and the ways these intersected with self-identity, and attitudes to disabled people.

Keywords: film, audience, identity, disability

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6741 Questioning the Relationship Between Young People and Fake News Through Their Use of Social Media

Authors: Marion Billard

Abstract:

This paper will focus on the question of the real relationship between young people and fake news. Fake news is one of today’s main issues in the world of information and communication. Social media and its democratization helped to spread false information. According to traditional beliefs, young people are more inclined to believe what they read through social media. But, the individuals concerned, think that they are more inclined to make a distinction between real and fake news. This phenomenon is due to their use of the internet and social media from an early age. During the 2016 and 2017 French and American presidential campaigns, the term fake news was in the mouth of the entire world and became a real issue in the field of information. While young people were informing themselves with newspapers or television until the beginning of the ’90s, Gen Z (meaning people born between 1997 and 2010), has always been immersed in this world of fast communication. They know how to use social media from a young age and the internet has no secret for them. Today, despite the sporadic use of traditional media, young people tend to turn to their smartphones and social networks such as Instagram or Twitter to stay abreast of the latest news. The growth of social media information led to an “ambient journalism”, giving access to an endless quantity of information. Waking up in the morning, young people will see little posts with short texts supplying the essential of the news, without, for the most, many details. As a result, impressionable people are not able to do a distinction between real media, and “junk news” or Fake News. This massive use of social media is probably explained by the inability of the youngsters to find connections between the communication of the traditional media and what they are living. The question arises if this over-confidence of the young people in their ability to distinguish between accurate and fake news would not make it more difficult for them to examine critically the information. Their relationship with media and fake news is more complex than popular opinion. Today’s young people are not the master in the quest for information, nor inherently the most impressionable public on social media.

Keywords: fake news, youngsters, social media, information, generation

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6740 Youth and Radicalization: Main Causes Who Lead Young People to Radicalize in a Context with Background of Radicalization

Authors: Zineb Emrane

Abstract:

This abstract addresses the issue of radicalization of young people in a context with background of radicalization, in North of Morocco, 5 terrorist of Madrid's Attacts on 11th March, were coming from this context. It were developed a study pilot that describing young people perception about the main causes that lead and motivate for radicalization. Whenever we talk about this topic, we obtain information from studies and investigations by specialists in field, but we don’t give voice to the protagonists who in many cases are victims, specifically, young people at social risk because of social factors. Extremist radicalization is an expanding phenomenon, that affect young people, in north of Morocco. They live in a context with radical background and at risk of social exclusion, their social, economic and familiar needs make them vulnerable. The extremist groups take advantage of this vulnerability to involve them in a process of radicalization, offering them an alternative environment where they can found all they are looking for. This study pilot approaches the main causes that lead and motivates young people to become radicals, analyzing their context with emphasis on influencing factors, and bearing in mind the analysis of young people about how the radical background affect them and their opinion this phenomenon. The pilot study was carried out through the following actions: - Group dynamics with young people to analyze the process of violent radicalization of young people. -A participatory workshop with members of organizations that work directly with young people at risk of radicalization. -Interviews with institutional managers -Participant observation. The implementation of actions has led to the conclusion that young people define violent radicalization as a sequential process, depending on the stage, it can be deconstructed. Young people recognize that they stop feeling belonging to their family, school and neighborhood when they see behavior contrary to what they consider good and evil. The emotional rupture and the search for references outside their circle, push them to sympathize with groups that have an extremist ideology and that offer them what they need. The radicalization is a process with different stages, the main causes and the factors which lead young people to use extremist violence are related their low level of belonging feeling to their context, and lack of critical thinking about important issues. The young people are in a vulnerable stage, searching their identity, a space in which they can be accepted, and when they don't find it they are easily manipulated and susceptible to being attracted by extremist groups.

Keywords: exclusion, radicalization, vulnerability, youth

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6739 Features of Annual Junior Men's Kayak Training Loads in China

Authors: Liu Haitao, Wang Hengyong

Abstract:

This paper attempts to kayak, Zhaoqing City, the annual training program for young men, the deconstruction and analysis, describe the characteristics of their training load, Young people to extract the key issues for training kayak, kayak training young people to clarify in Zhaoqing City, and the cause of the bottlenecks. On one hand, scientifically arranging for the coaches to adjust training load and provide the basis for periodic structure, for young people to provide practical reference kayak athletes. On the other hand, through their training load research, enrich the theoretical system kayak training project for junior kayak athletes to provide a theoretical basis.

Keywords: juniors, kayak, training programs, full year

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6738 Representation of “Gezi Parkı Actions” in Media and Resistance

Authors: Sibel Özkan

Abstract:

This study aims to set forth the perception of young people in Turkey about “Gezi Parkı Actions” which has been represented by different views on social and traditional media. In-depth interview method was carried out with all of the participants who consisted of high school students. All interviews has been conducted in areas where the actions take place and the numbers of participants who are using and not using social media were equal. There are minor differences between young people who are using and not using social media. Participants who are not using social media had an opinion only about saving nature aspect of Gezi Parkı Actions. On the other hand, people who are using social media had another reasons such as freedom of expression, respect to the lifestyles etc. to join Gezi Parkı Actions. It was found that young people do not completely trust traditional media anymore.

Keywords: Gezi Parkı, resistance, social media, hegemony

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6737 ‘Social Health’, ‘Physical Health’ and Wellbeing: Analyzing the Interplay between the Practices of Heavy Drinking and Exercise among Young People with Bourdieusian Concepts

Authors: Jukka Törrönen

Abstract:

In the article, we examine the interplay between the practices of heavy drinking and exercise among young people as patterned around the ‘social’ and ‘physical health’ approaches. The comparison helps us to clarify why young people are currently drinking less than earlier and how the neoliberal healthism discourse, as well as the feminine tradition of taking care of one’s body, are modifying young people’s heavy drinking practices. The data is based on interviews (n = 56) in Sweden among 15-16-year-olds and 18˗19-year-olds. By drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we examine what kinds of resources of wellbeing young people accumulate in the fields of heavy drinking and exercise, how these resources carry symbolic value for distinction, and what kind of health-related habitus they imply. The analysis suggests that as heavy drinking is no longer able to stand as a practice through which one may acquire capital that is more valuable than the capital acquired in other fields, this lessens peer pressure to drink among young people. Our analysis further shows that the healthism discourse modifies young people’s heavy drinking practices both from inside and from outside. The interviewees translate the symbolic value of healthism discourse to social vulnerability and deploy it for the purposes of increasing one’s social status among peers. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates that the social spaces and positions in intoxication and exercise are shaped by gendered dualisms of masculine dominance. However, while the interviewees naturalize the gender binaries in intoxication as based on biological drives, they understand gender binaries in exercise as normative social constructions of neoliberal society. As these binaries emphasize the struggle for recognition of the symbolic value of bodily look, they may shift young men’s attention from risk-taking to issues that traditionally have been female concerns.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking , health, intoxication, exercise, Bourdieu

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6736 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

Abstract:

The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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6735 Young People’s Participation in Decision-Making Using Information and Communication Technology

Authors: Marina Diković

Abstract:

By giving personal opinions, suggestions and criticism through e-democracy, young people can reinforce the adoption of decisions which they have an impact on. The purpose of this research was to examine the opinion of university students about the possibility of their decision-making by using information and communication technology (ICT). The questionnaire examined young people's values and behaviour associated with e-democracy and the related decision-making. Students are most active online when it comes to finding information connected with their academic responsibilities, but less frequently take part in democratic processes in society, both at the national and local level. E-democracy as a tool can be learned in programmes of Human Rights Education and Citizenship Education. 

Keywords: active citizens, e-democracy, information and communication technology (ICT), university students

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6734 Effects of Polyvictimization in Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents in Chile

Authors: Oscar E. Cariceo

Abstract:

In Chile, there is a lack of evidence about the impact of polyvictimization on the emergence of suicidal thoughts among children and young people. Thus, this study aims to explore the association between the episodes of polyvictimization suffered by Chilean children and young people and the manifestation of signs related to suicidal tendencies. To achieve this purpose, secondary data from the First Polyvictimization Survey on Children and Adolescents of 2017 were analyzed, and a binomial logistic regression model was applied to establish the probability that young people are experiencing suicidal ideation episodes. The main findings show that women between the ages of 13 and 15 years, who are in seventh grade and second in subsidized schools, are more likely to express suicidal ideas, which increases if they have suffered different types of victimization, particularly physical violence, psychological aggression, and sexual abuse.

Keywords: Chile, polyvictimization, suicidal ideation, youth

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6733 The Benefits of Mountain Climbing in the Physical Well-Being of Young People

Authors: Zylfi Shehu, Rozeta Shatku

Abstract:

The aim of this study is the identification of the goods and the consequences it brings up the mountain climbing to the youth, how mountain climbing influences in physical activity and the health of young people. Taken to study 37 young people aged 18-30 years, 25 males and 12 females. The selection was made at random and voluntary. Subjects were not professionals but amateurs climbing in the mountain. They were informed and instructed for the test to be carried out. The ascent was made in January 2016 in the Mount of Gjallica in Kukës, Albania, the height of the mountain is 2489 m above sea level. Backpack for each subject weighing 32 kg. Time of ascent, attitude and descent was 6 days. In 22 males, 2 of them did not afford the ascent on the first day and went back. Of the 12 women, 5 of them withdrew on the first day. During the descent on day six, 20 males 7 of them had minor injuries, three with serious injuries. While a total of 7 women, 4 of them had minor injuries and one with serious injuries. Most of the men and women who deal with physical activity throughout life faced the light and were not injured, and the rest that were not dealt with physical activity were more injured. Lack of experience and knowledge was one of the causes of injuries. The subjects had anxiety all the time, uncertainty and fear of avalanches of snow and difficult terrain.

Keywords: climbing, physical activity, young people

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6732 Analyzing the Participation of Young People in Politics: An Exploratory Study Applied on Motivation in Croatia

Authors: Valentina Piric, Maja Martinovic, Zoran Barac

Abstract:

The application of marketing to the domain of politics has become relevant in recent times. With this article the authors wanted to explore the issue of the current political engagement among young people in Croatia. The question is what makes young people (age 18-30) politically active in young democracies such as that of the Republic of Croatia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to discover the real or hidden motivations behind the decision to actively participate in politics among young members of the two largest political parties in the country – the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. The study expected to find that the motivation for political engagement of young people is often connected with a possible achievement of individual goals and egoistic needs such as: self-acceptance, social success, financial success, prestige, reputation, status, recognition from the others etc. It was also expected that, due to the poor economic and social situation in the country, young people feel an increasing disconnection from politics. Additionally, the authors expected to find that there is a huge potential to engage young people in the political life of the country through a proper and more interactive use of marketing communication campaigns and social media platforms, with an emphasis on highly ethical motives of political activity and their benefits to society. All respondents included in the quantitative survey (sample size [N=100]) are active in one of the two largest political parties in Croatia. The sampling and distribution of the survey occurred in the field in September 2016. The results of the survey demonstrate that in Croatia, the way young people feel about politics and act accordingly, are in fact similar to what the theory describes. The research findings reveal that young people are politically active; however, the challenge is to find a way to motivate even more young people in Croatia to actively participate in the political and democratic processes in the country and to encourage them to see additional benefits out of this practice, not only related to their individual motives, but related more to the well-being of Croatia as a country and of every member of society. The research also discovered a huge potential for political marketing communication possibilities, especially related to interactive social media. It is possible that the social media channels have a stronger influence on the decision-making process among young people when compared to groups of reference. The level of interest in politics among young Croatians varies; some of them are almost indifferent, whilst others express a serious interest in different ways to actively contribute to the political life of the country, defining a participation in the political life of their country almost as their moral obligation. However, additional observations and further research need to be conducted to get a clearer and more precise picture about the interest in politics among young people in Croatia and their social potential.

Keywords: Croatia, marketing communication, motivation, politics, young people

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6731 Patriotic Education through Private/Everyday Narratives: What We Can Learn from Young People

Authors: Yijie Wang, Hanwei Cheng

Abstract:

Under the Chinese educational context, the materials for patriotic education typically take the form of grand narratives. However, in post-modern times the younger members of society tend to welcome elements of more micro and personal nature. It is therefore important to explore how patriotism can be integrated into an ‘everyday’, private narrative that holds more attraction for the young. Based on semi-structured interviews of eight Chinese graduate students, this research examines how Chinese young people draw materials to establish national identity and develop love for the country from everyday-life details, as well as how they perceive, interpret and articulate their patriotism through private narratives. And implications for patriotic education are proposed accordingly. Several conclusions are drawn from the pre-interviews. Firstly, sensory experiences that remind people of their country—such as the taste of Chinese delicacies and the sound of a traditional instrument—are a major source of patriotic feelings. Secondly, the love for the country often stems from and is continued to be mediated by the emotional attachment with other people, typically significant others, and patriotism is articulated (or acknowledged) by the young as a kind of ‘sentiment’ rather than ‘faith’ or ‘belief’. Thirdly, for young people who are currently studying abroad, their birth country represents a kind of familiar, well-accustomed life or lifestyle, and any nostalgic realization of it leads to increased national belonging and sense of identity. Fourthly, the awareness of the country’s transformations—positive ones and neutral ones alike—triggers young people affections towards the country, and even negative transformations may result in promoted sense of self-involvement and therefore consolidate national identity. Implications for patriotic education can be drawn accordingly, and although the research is conducted under the Chinese context, it will hopefully contribute to the understanding of relevant fields.

Keywords: national identity, patriotic education, private narrative, young people

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6730 Outcomes from a Qualitative Research: Ethnic Prejudice and Identity Difficulties in Experiences of Young People of Foreign Origin Adopted in Italy

Authors: Stefania Lorenzini

Abstract:

Italy is a country where the phenomenon of international adoption is very considerable: indeed, it is second in the world only to the United States. This contribution deals with issues related to the development of children's identities in international and interethnic adoption. Process of identity construction can be complex in adopted children born and, often, lived for some years of their young life, in geographical, human, social and cultural contexts very different from those they live after adoption. The results of a qualitative research conducted by interviewing young people adopted in Italy make it possible to grasp the different facets of discrimination episodes related to somatic traits, and in particular to the color of the skin, that refer to these young people foreign origin. Outcomes from the research show difficulties in identy construction but also highlight how that evolution of an "intercultural identity" during international and interethnic adoption is possible.

Keywords: discrimination, identity, intercultural education, international adoption

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6729 Enabling Affirmative Futures: Making Use of Virtual Spaces and New Social Technologies in Co-Production Research with Marginalised Young People

Authors: Kirsty Liddiard

Abstract:

In this paper, we detail the politics and practicalities of co-produced disability research with disabled young people with life-limiting and life-threatening impairments in our ESRC funded project, Life, Death, Disability and the Human: Living Life to the Fullest. We centre our Co-Researcher Collective of disabled young people who, through virtual research methods and social technologies, are co-leading this innovative project exploring the lives, hopes, desires and ambitions of young disabled people living short(er) lives. Co-production is an established approach; however, our co-researchers have led us to develop inclusive and transformative research practices that engage with online social research methods in innovative ways. Through this discussion, we demarcate the Academy and ‘research process’ as potentially deeply ableist spaces that propogate the normative researcher as non-disabled; someone integrated into the Academy and insecure employment; and who enacts normative modes of leadership. We use our experiences of co-production in Living Life to the Fullest, then, to show that research – as a discipline, a set of politics, and scholarly practice – must be transformed in order to enable new inclusive research futures that support meaningful co-production with marginalised young people. In conclusion, as we detail our experiences, we aim to encourage disability studies researchers and others to adopt virtual environments and social technologies when researching with and for the lives of disabled people.

Keywords: co-production, illness, youth, technology

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6728 The Use of Robots for Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum: A Systematic Review

Authors: Athanasia Kouroupa

Abstract:

Existing research highlights the effect of employing robots in sessions with children and young people on the autism spectrum to develop and practice skills important to independent and functional living. The systematic review aimed to explore the way robots has been used with children and young people on the autism spectrum and the effect of using robots as a therapeutic interface. An electronic bibliographic database search using a combination of expressions was conducted. Data were extracted in relation to robot types, session characteristics, and outcomes and analysed using narrative synthesis. Forty studies were selected in the review. Humanoid robots were predominantly used to practice a range of social and communication skills. On average, children and young people on the autism spectrum had five sessions, twice a week, for approximately half an hour. Having sessions with a robot was commonly equal to or more effective than 'traditional' interventions delivered by a human therapist or having no therapy. The review reported encouraging outcomes to practice and develop a range of skills with children and young people on the autism spectrum. These findings suggest that some form of intervention is favourable over no intervention. However, there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of the robot-based intervention as an innovative alternative option. Many of the studies had methodological weaknesses that make them vulnerable to bias. There is a need for further research that adheres to strict scientific methods making direct comparisons between different treatment options.

Keywords: autism, children, robots, outcomes

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6727 Working with Children and Young People as a much Neglected Area of Education within the Social Studies Curriculum in Poland

Authors: Marta Czechowska-Bieluga

Abstract:

Social work education in Poland focuses mostly on developing competencies that address the needs of individuals and families affected by a variety of life's problems. As a result of the ageing of the Polish population, much attention is equally devoted to adults, including the elderly. However, social work with children and young people is the area of education which should be given more consideration. Social work students are mostly trained to cater to the needs of families and the competencies aimed to respond to the needs of children and young people do not receive enough attention and are only offered as elective classes. This paper strives to review the social work programmes offered by the selected higher education institutions in Poland in terms of social work training aimed at helping children and young people to address their life problems. The analysis conducted in this study indicates that university education for social work focuses on training professionals who will provide assistance only to adults. Due to changes in the social and political situation, including, in particular, changes in social policy implemented for the needy, it is necessary to extend this area of education to include the specificity of the support for children and young people; especially, in the light of the appearance of new support professions within the area of social work. For example, family assistants, whose task is to support parents in performing their roles as guardians and educators, also assist children. Therefore, it becomes necessary to equip social work professionals with competencies which include issues related to the quality of life of underage people living in families. Social work curricula should be extended to include the issues of child and young person development and the patterns governing this phase of life.

Keywords: social work education, social work programmes, social worker, university

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6726 Disabled Young People’s Hopes and Dreams in a Rapidly Changing Society: Co-Production Peer Research

Authors: Tillie Curran

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This co-production project aimed for an expansive exploration of disabled young people’s hopes and dreams in the context of unprecedented societal changes. The research questions developed with disabled young people acting as peer researchers, ask ‘what does a good life look like now, and, what are your hopes and dreams for the future?’ Disabled children’s childhood studies and an asset-based approach placed the voice of disabled young people at the centre of the research process and inviting participants to ‘think big’! Over 18 months, academics, members of a Centre for Independent Living and peer researchers, came together to facilitate knowledge cafes with fifty disabled young people aged between 14 and 25 in a college and youth club setting. Methods used included trigger questions, photos voice, video, and cartooning. The peer researchers also investigated how house robots and connected autonomous vehicles might support their future aspirations and sense of freedom in this new era with a trip to the university robotic laboratory. Key themes arising from participants’ hopes and dream were about ‘being responsible’, ‘loving’, ‘freedom and happiness’ and a ‘strong sense of self and togetherness’ and suggest alternative narratives and rich visions of the future possibilities for disabled young people. The five key messages peer researchers produced for the report emphasised freedom to define their futures, desires to make the world a better place, to belong and have the chance of their own family life. Thematic analysis, production of the report and impact activities were all co-produced and as the project progressed peer researchers increasingly demonstrated a role as ‘change makers’ and have formed a young people’s co-production group going on into the future. Discussion of the project highlights the factors that made these processes successful and the ethical dilemmas encountered in the context of normalcy. Finally, we consider the implications for all involved as we rethink ‘the future’, not in terms of normative ideals or trajectories, or seeing service ‘transition’ as an end, but in terms of disabled young people’s contribution, participation, freedoms, and possibilities.

Keywords: co-production, disability, robotic, youth

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6725 Geographies of Blackness: An Exploration of the Subaltern Public Spheres of the African Diaspora in European Cities

Authors: Teju N. Adisa-Farrar

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In European cities, social, political and cultural geographies of blackness exist. Organizations create spaces to discuss, express, and expose the realities of young people of African descent creating an Afropean lifestyle with transnational affiliations. Focusing on black and brown spaces produced by and for the young people of African descent in Vienna and Brussels, it became clear a multidisciplinary approach would be necessary. Using Cultural Studies frameworks along with Communications Theories on Black Public Spheres and Social-Geography, a basis was created for exploring the creative, political, and economic responses of young people who are apart of the historically (and contemporary) oppressed and excluded groups of the African Diaspora. Through this intrinsic study, it became apparent that spaces created and reclaimed by young people of the African Diaspora were more inclusive and democratic than other spaces. The organizations studied have used city life as the platform to express their struggles and celebrations of their multicultural identity; clearly using historical, global black and Pan-African movements as the basis for local adaptation of an African Diaspora identity.

Keywords: African diaspora, black public sphere, identity, spaces, geographies

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6724 Participatory Planning of the III Young Sea Meeting: An Experience of the Young Albatroz Collective

Authors: Victor V. Ribeiro, Thais C. Lopes, Rafael A. A. Monteiro

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The Albatroz, Baleia Jubarte, Coral Vivo, Golfinho Rotador and Tamar projects make up the Young Sea Network (YSN), part of the BIOMAR Network, which aims to integrate the environmental youths of the Brazilian coast. For this, three editions of the Young Sea Meeting (YSM) were performed. Seeking to stimulate belonging, self-knowledge, participation, autonomy and youth protagonism, the Albatroz Project hosted the III YSM, in Bertioga (SP), in April 2019 and aimed to collectively plan the meeting. Five pillars of Environmental Education were used: identity, community, dialogue, power to act and happiness, the OCA Method and the Young Educates Young; Young Chooses Young; and One Generation Learns from the Other principals. In December 2018, still in the II YSM, the participatory planning of the III YSM began. Two "representatives" of each group were voluntarily elected to facilitate joint decisions, propose, receive and communicate demands from their groups and coordinators. The Young Albatroz Collective (YAC) facilitated the organization process as a whole. The purpose of the meeting was collectively constructed, answering the following question: "What is the YSM for?". Only two of the five pairs of representatives responded. There was difficulty gathering the young people in each group, because it was the end of the year, with people traveling. Thus, due to the short planning time, the YAC built a pre-programming to be validated by the other groups, defining as the objective of the meeting the strengthening of youth protagonism within the YSN. In the planning process, the YAC held 20 meetings, with 60 hours of face-to-face work, in three months, and two technical visits to the headquarters of the III YSM. The participatory dynamics of consultation, when it occurred, required up to two weeks, evidencing the limits of participation. The project coordinations stated that they were not being included in the process by their young people. There is a need to work more to be able to aloud the participation, developing skills and understanding about its principles. This training must take place in an articulated way between the network, implying the important role of the five projects in jointly developing and implementing educator processes with this objective in a national dimension, but without forgetting the specificities of each young group. Finally, it is worth highlighting the great potential of the III YSM by stimulating the exercise of leading environmental youth in more than 50 young people from Brazilian coast, linked to the YSN, stimulating the learning and mobilization of young people in favor of coastal and marine conservation.

Keywords: Marine Conservation, Environmental Education, Youth, Participation, Planning

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6723 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

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The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration

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6722 African Folklore for Critical Self-Reflection, Reflective Dialogue, and Resultant Attitudinal and Behaviour Change: University Students’ Experiences

Authors: T. M. Buthelezi, E. O. Olagundoye, R. G. L. Cele

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This article argues that whilst African folklore has mainly been used for entertainment, it also has an educational value that has power to change young people’s attitudes and behavior. The paper is informed by the findings from the data that was generated from 154 university students who were coming from diverse backgrounds. The qualitative data was thematically analysed. Referring to the six steps of the behaviour change model, we found that African Folklore provides relevant cultural knowledge and instills values that enable young people to engage on self-reflection that eventually leads them towards attitudinal changes and behaviour modification. Using the transformative learning theory, we argue that African Folklore in itself is a pedagogical strategy that integrates cultural knowledge, values with entertainment elements concisely enough to take the young people through a transformative phase which encompasses psychological, convictional and life-style adaptation. During data production stage all ethical considerations were observed including obtaining gatekeeper’s permission letter and ethical clearance certificate from the Ethics Committee of the University. The paper recommends that African Folklore approach should be incorporated into the school curriculum particularly in life skills education with aims to change behaviour.

Keywords: African folklore, young people, attitudinal, behavior change, university students

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6721 Young People, Well-Being and Risk-Taking: Doing Gender in Relation to Health and Heavy Drinking

Authors: Jukka Torronen

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Introduction: Alcohol consumption and health are areas where gender binaries have persisted. By intoxication, men have displayed their masculinity as strong, while matters of health have formed a feminine undertaking. However, in recent years young people’s alcohol consumption has declined and been challenged by competing activities, including the rising health trend. This makes the comparison of young people’s masculinities and femininities in health and heavy drinking an important case to study. Methods: The data consists of semi-structured interviews about alcohol, health, and leisure activities among young people aged between 15 and 19 (N=56). By drawing on Butler’s work on “gender as performative” and Connell’s understanding of gendered identities as “configurations of practices,” the paper analyzes how the interviewees are doing masculinities and femininities in relation to health and heavy drinking, and how their gender performances are dichotomous, naturalized and contested. Results: The interviewees approach health from two perspectives, which are called “social health” and “physical health” approaches. They are both gendered. Especially in the “social health” approach, in which intoxication and risk-taking are used to increase well-being, the interviewees perform stereotypical gender binaries. The interviewees’ gendered performances in the “physical health” approach show more variability and are more reflective and critical. In contrast to intoxication, in relation to which the interviewees perform biologically driven gender binaries, they perform culturally driven genders in relation to health. Conclusions: Health seems to provide for the interviewees a field in which they feel more liberated to perform flexible and alternative genders.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking, qualitative interviews, gender, health, risk-taking

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6720 Being ‘Sciencey’: Scottish, South-Asian and Muslim Young People

Authors: Saima Salehjee, Mike Watts

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In our school-based world, we are commonly confronted by young people for whom the study of science is an unpalatable ‘other world’: they simply do not see themselves as science (sciencey) people. To be clear, we are not interested in all young people becoming career scientists – although some small modicum of that would be quite agreeable. We are, though, keen to form or transform (trans(form)) their appreciations of science and retain open minds on matters scientific to develop the feeling of being ‘sciencey’ with or without the aspiration of becoming scientists. Our discussion in this paper draws upon research undertaken in a co-education primary- and lower-secondary school in Scotland, and our arguments chart the trans(formations) of thirty under-representative and under-researched Scottish South-Asian Muslim students (aged 11-13) over a school term. We use science identity theory as the basis for our analysis: what it means to be ‘sciencey’ and whether (or not) structural forces have impacted their decision of being ‘sciencey’. This work offers new insights into how Scottish, South-Asian, and Muslim students perceive and engage with in and out of school science and highlight some science nudges aimed to support their development of being ‘sciencey’.

Keywords: science identity, science nudges, transformative moments, south-Asian, Muslim, scottish, sciencey

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6719 Civil Discourse in the Digital Age: Perceptions of Age as a Barrier to Civic Engagement

Authors: Julianne Viola

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Young people are at a critical stage in their lives, developing from young participants to adult participants in democratic society. At this time, civic engagement is crucial for young people’s sense of belonging and future participation in their communities. In adolescence, individuals form their own identities and associations with others and may accomplish this with the help of technology and social media. In the Digital Age, young people and adults use technology as a platform to discuss political issues, including human rights and social justice but do not always engage in civil discourse. There is an urgent need to investigate this complex interplay of social media, identity formation, and civil discourse as it relates to how teenagers become participants in democratic society and how they engage in civil discourse. This qualitative study draws on theories of identity formation in adolescence and is situated within the literature surrounding teen civic engagement and technology use. Through in-depth interviews with participants ages 14 through 17, this study investigates the ways in which teens conceptualize their civic identities and engagement, presence online, and civil discourse. The context in which the young people in this study have grown up has the potential to impact and inform these processes. Early results of this study illustrate what it means to be a young person in today’s world, and how perceptions of others’ opinions may influence young people’s engagement in their communities and online. Participants in this study often indicated concerns of their age as a constraint on participation in their communities and in society, and a self-imposed restriction around the people with whom they engage in conversation about political and social issues. While the participants shared common concerns and experiences, each participant’s unique perspectives and beliefs are viewed with equal importance. The results from this research will help students, teachers, and community groups learn about the reasons for engagement and disengagement among this age group, and how technology has influenced teens’ dialogue about political issues. With this knowledge, academics and school leaders can devise new ways to best teach citizenship skills and civil discourse to students in the Digital Age.

Keywords: civics, digital age, discourse, sociology of youth, youth studies

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6718 The Development of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness in China from Reviewing Their Studies from the Journal of China Sports Science

Authors: Dong Zhan

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China sports science is the core periodical of scientific research in the field of sports in China at present. It is the first academic periodical ranked in China. The author has studied the characteristics and trends of articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the journal since it founded. Now, the articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the Journal of Sports Science from 2013 to 2017 are reviewed. The results show that 1) The characteristics of previous sports medicine articles showed that there were more articles on the basis of sports medicine than that on the application. The research on animal experiments was far more than that on the human body. Moreover, the trend was getting worse and worse as time goes on. But in the past five years, there had been a marked improvement. The basic/application has been improved from 2.1/1 to 1.3/1. This shows that sports medicine researchers have been paid more attention to the application research in sports medicine. 2) There are few articles on sports injury, because the state put the sports injury specialty into the medical colleges, and the research scope of sports research institutes does not include sports injury. It cannot meet the need for the development of sports medicine, and it should change sooner or later. 3) In the past, researchers’ effort was on athletes' physical health, not on ordinary people. Now, there is a great change, they not only research on the sportsmen’s health but also research on the health of the ordinary people. 4) Researchers mainly studied on the young people’s physical fitness in the past; now, it has been greatly improved. Researchers study on the physical health of the elderly, especially those over the age of 60. Numbers of paper researching on the young were much more than those on the old. In the past 10 years, the ratio of number of paper researching on the young to the old people was (young/old) 16.6/1, while in the past 5 years, this ratio was 6.3/1. However, this is not enough. China has a large population and needs to focus on promoting the health of the people. Conclusion: It is important to pay more attention to the application research on sports medicine and on the physical fitness, and it is also important to make a research on physical health of the elderly.

Keywords: sports medicine, people's health, the young, the old

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6717 Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites

Authors: Yuko Hiramatsu, Fumihiro Sato, Atsushi Ito, Hiroyuki Hatano, Mie Sato, Yu Watanabe, Akira Sasaki

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This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.

Keywords: BLE beacon, smartphone application, Zeigarnik effect, world heritage site, school trip

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
6716 Adequacy of Museums' Internet Resources to Infantile and Young Public

Authors: Myriam Ferreira

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Websites and social networks allow museums to divulge their works by new and attractive means. Besides, these technologies provide tools to generate a new history of art’s contents and promote visits to their installations. At the same time, museums are proposing more and more activities to families, children and young people. However, these activities usually take place in the museum’s physical installations, while websites and social networks seem to be mainly targeted to adults. The problem is that being children and young people digital natives, they feel apart from museums, so they need a presence of museums in digital means to feel attracted to them. Some institutions are making efforts to fill this vacuum. In this paper, resources designed specifically for children and teenagers have been selected from websites and social networks of five Spanish Museums: Prado Museum, Thyssen Museum, Guggenheim Museum, America Museum and Cerralbo Museum. After that, we have carried out an investigation in a school with children and teenagers between 11 and 15 years old. Those young people have been asked about their valuation of those web pages and social networks, with quantitative-qualitative questions. The results show that the least rated resources were videos and social networks because they were considered ‘too serious’, while the most rated were games and augmented reality. These ratings confirm theoretical papers that affirm that the future of technologies applied to museums is edutainment and interaction.

Keywords: children, museums, social networks, teenagers, websites

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6715 The Exercise of Choice by Children and Young People in the British Public Care System

Authors: Siobhan Laird

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Under article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which extends human rights in their application to those under the age of 18 years, children must be consulted ‘in all matters affecting the child’. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England is responsible for improving the welfare of children and young people by ensuring that their Convention rights are respected and realised and their views taken seriously. In 2014 the Children’s Commissioner engaged a team of researchers at the Centre for Social Work, University of Nottingham to develop and roll out an online survey to gather information from children and young people about their exercise of choice within the public care system. Approximately 3,000 children responded to this survey, which comprised both closed and open-ended questions. SPSS was used to analyse the numerical data and a thematic analysis of textual data was conducted on answers to open-ended questions. Findings revealed that children exercised considerable choice over personal space and their spare time, but had much less choice in relation to contact with their birth families, where they lived, or the timings of moves from one placement into another. The majority of children described how they were supported to express their opinions and believed that these were taken seriously. However, a significant number reported problems and explained how specific behaviours by professionals and carers made it difficult for them to express their opinion or to feel that they had influenced decisions which affected them. In open-ended questions eliciting information about their experiences, children and young people were asked to describe how they could be better supported to make choices and what changes would assist for these to be better acknowledged and acted upon by professionals and carers. This paper concludes by presenting the ideas and suggestions of children and young people for improving the public care system in Britain in relation to their exercise of choice.

Keywords: children, choice, participation, public care

Procedia PDF Downloads 206