Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1712

Search results for: pancreatic cancer

1712 Factors Associated with Ketamine Use in Pancreatic Cancer Patient in a Single Hospice Center

Authors: Kyung Min Kwom, Young Joo Lee


Purpose: Up to 90% of pancreatic cancer patient suffer from neuropathic pain. In palliative care setting, pain control in a pancreatic cancer patient is one of the major goals. Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist effective in neuropathic pain. Also, there have been studies about opioid sparing effect of ketamine. This study was held in palliative care unit among pancreatic cancer patients to find out the factors related to ketamine use and the opioid sparing effect. Methods: Medical records of pancreatic cancer patients admitted to St. Mary’s hospital palliative care unit from 2013.1 to 2014.12 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two categories according to ketamine use. Also, opioid use before and after ketamine use was compared in ketamine group. Results: Compared to non ketamine use group, patients in ketamine group required a higher dose of opioid. Total opioid dose, daily opioid dose, number of daily rescue medication, daily average rescue dose were statistically significantly higher in ketamine group. Opioid requirement was increased after ketamine administration. Conclusion: In this study, ketamine group required more opioid. Ketamine is frequently considered in patients with severe pain, requiring high amount of opioid. Also, ketamine did not have an opioid sparing effect. Future studies about palliative use of ketamine in a larger number of patients are required.

Keywords: ketamine, opioid sparing, palliative care, pancreatic cancer

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1711 Effect of Engineered Low Glycemic Foods on Cancer Progression and Healthy State

Authors: C. Panebianco, K. Adamberg, S. Adamberg, C. Saracino, M. Jaagura, K. Kolk, A. Di Chio, P. Graziano, R. Vilu, V. Pazienza


Background/Aims: Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the pancreatic cancer (PC) is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. However, diseased people may refuse to follow the fasting regimen and fasting may worsen the weight loss often occurring in cancer patients. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Engineered Low glycemic food ELGIF mimicking diet on growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in control and ELGIF mimicking diet culturing condition to evaluate the tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to ELGIF to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with control diet. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in ELGIF mimicking medium showed decreased levels of proliferation as compared to those cultured in the standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to ELGIF diet displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth. Conclusion: A positive effect of ELGIF diet on proliferation in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as synergistic approach to enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients.

Keywords: functional food, microbiota, mouse model, pancreatic cancer

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1710 The Cost-Effectiveness of Pancreatic Surgical Cancer Care in the US vs. the European Union: Results of a Review of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature

Authors: Shannon Hearney, Jeffrey Hoch


While all cancers are costly to treat, pancreatic cancer is a notoriously costly and deadly form of cancer. Across the world there are a variety of treatment centers ranging from small clinics to large, high-volume hospitals as well as differing structures of payment and access. It has been noted that centers that treat a high volume of pancreatic cancer patients have higher quality of care, it is unclear if that care is cost-effective. In the US there is no clear consensus on the cost-effectiveness of high-volume centers for the surgical care of pancreatic cancer. Other European countries, like Finland and Italy have shown that high-volume centers have lower mortality rates and can have lower costs, there however, is still a gap in knowledge about these centers cost-effectiveness globally. This paper seeks to review the current literature in Europe and the US to gain a better understanding of the state of high-volume pancreatic surgical centers cost-effectiveness while considering the contextual differences in health system structure. A review of major reference databases such as Medline, Embase and PubMed will be conducted for cost-effectiveness studies on the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer at high-volume centers. Possible MeSH terms to be included, but not limited to, are: “pancreatic cancer”, “cost analysis”, “cost-effectiveness”, “economic evaluation”, “pancreatic neoplasms”, “surgical”, “Europe” “socialized medicine”, “privatized medicine”, “for-profit”, and “high-volume”. Studies must also have been available in the English language. This review will encompass European scientific literature, as well as those in the US. Based on our preliminary findings, we anticipate high-volume hospitals to provide better care at greater costs. We anticipate that high-volume hospitals may be cost-effective in different contexts depending on the national structure of a healthcare system. Countries with more centralized and socialized healthcare may yield results that are more cost-effective. High-volume centers may differ in their cost-effectiveness of the surgical care of pancreatic cancer internationally especially when comparing those in the United States to others throughout Europe.

Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis, economic evaluation, pancreatic cancer, scientific literature review

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1709 The Cost-Effectiveness of High-Volume Hospital’s Surgical Care for Pancreatic Cancer: Economic Evidence Reviewed

Authors: Shannon Hearney, Jeffrey Hoch


Pancreatic cancer is a notoriously costly and deadly form of cancer. Many types of treatment centers exist for patients to seek care from, including high-volume centers which have shown promise to provide the highest quality of care. While it may be true that this type of center provides the best care it is unclear if that care is cost-effective. Studies in the US have confirmed that high-volume hospitals do provide higher quality of care but have shown inconsistencies in the cost-effectiveness of that care. Other studies, like those from Finland have shown that high-volume centers had lower mortality and lower costs than low-volume centers. This paper thus seeks to review the current scientific literature to better understand if high-volume centers are cost-effective in delivering care in both a European setting and in the US. A review of major reference databases such as Medline, Embase and PubMed will be conducted for cost-effectiveness studies on the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer at high-volume centers. Possible MeSH terms to be included, but not limited to, are: “pancreatic cancer”, “cost analysis”, “cost-effectiveness”, “economic evaluation”, “pancreatic neoplasms”, “surgical”, and “high-volume”. Studies must also have been available in the English language. This review will encompass European scientific literature, as well as those in the US. Based on our preliminary findings, we anticipate high-volume hospitals to provide better care at greater costs. We anticipate that high-volume hospitals may be cost-effective in different contexts depending on the national structure of a healthcare system. Countries with more centralized and socialized healthcare may yield results that are more cost-effective. High-volume centers may differ in their cost-effectiveness of the surgical care of pancreatic cancer internationally especially when comparing those in the United States to others throughout Europe.

Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis, economic evaluation, pancreatic cancer, scientific literature review

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1708 Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Correctly Diagnosed by EUS but nor CT or MRI

Authors: Yousef Reda


Pancreatic cancer has an overall dismal prognosis. CT, MRI and Endoscopic Ultrasound are most often used to establish the diagnosis. We present a case of a patient found on abdominal CT and MRI to have an 8 mm cystic lesion within the head of the pancreas which was thought to be a benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Further evaluation by EUS demonstrated a 1 cm predominantly solid mass that was proven to be an adenocarcinoma by EUS-guided FNA. The patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology confirmed a 1 cm pT1 N0 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Case: A 63-year-old male presented with left upper quadrant pain and an abdominal CT demonstrated an 8 mm lesion within the head of the pancreas that was thought to represent a side branch IPMN. An MRI also showed similar findings. Four months later due to ongoing symptoms an EUS was performed to re-evaluate the pancreatic lesion. EUS revealed a predominantly solid hypoechoic, homogeneous mass measuring 12 mm x 9 mm. EUS-guided FNA was performed and was positive for adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent a Whipple procedure that confirmed it to be a ductal adenocarcinoma, pT1N0. The solid mass was noted to be adjacent to a cystic dilation with no papillary architecture and scant epithelium. The differential diagnosis resided between cystic degeneration of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma versus malignant degeneration within a side-branch IPMN. Discussion: The reported sensitivity of CT for pancreatic cancer is approximately 90%. For pancreatic tumors, less than 3 cm the sensitivity of CT is reduced ranging from 67-77%. MRI does not significantly improve overall detection rates compared to CT. EUS, however is superior to CT in the detection of pancreatic cancer, in particular among lesions smaller than 3 cm. EUS also outperforms CT and MRI in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic cysts. In this case, both MRI and CT failed to detect a small pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The addition of EUS and FNA to abdominal imaging can increase overall accuracy for the diagnosis of neoplastic pancreatic lesions. It may be prudent that when small lesions although appearing as a benign IPMN should further be evaluated by EUS as this would lead to potentially identifying earlier stage pancreatic cancers and improve survival in a disease which has a dismal prognosis.

Keywords: IPMN, MRI, EUS, CT

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1707 Pancreatic Lipase and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitors from Thai Medicinal Plants

Authors: Kwanchai Ratanamanee, Pattra Ahmadi Pirshahid, Yaowaluk Khamphan, Sirinan Thubthimthad


Obesity is a main global health problem. The obesity rated has continued to be higher and higher. It causes to serious systems, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Oristat is one of the best drugs worldwide used as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. To develop the new therapeutic drugs from medicinal plant always explored. In this study, 24 medicinal plants were investigated for their pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory effects with Fluorometer assay and oristat as a positive control. It showed that the ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna (Willd.) D.C., possess pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of IC50 at 2.73 and 3.77 mg/ml respectively as well as oral acute toxicity of the extract (LD50) was 6,300 mg/kg body weight. The extract of A.concinna should be further investigated in animal testing. The results of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitor of the extracts will lead us to utilize A.concinna for developing as obesity dietary supplement from a medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acacia concinna (Willd.) D. C., cholesterol esterase, obesity, pancreatic lipase

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1706 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi


Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

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1705 Change of Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiency on Non-Diabetes Patients after Distal Pancreatectomy: A Nationwide Database Study

Authors: Jin-Ming Wu, Te-Wei Ho, Yu-Wen Tien


Background: The aim of this population-based study was to determine the occurrence of diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiencies (EPI) on non-diabetes subjects receiving distal pancreatectomy (DP). Method: A nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2010 was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Among 3264 DP patients, we identified 1410 non-diabetes and 966 non-diabetes non-EPI. Results. Of 1410 non-diabetes DP subjects, 312 patients (22.1%) developed newly-diagnosed diabetes after PD. On a multiple logistic regression model, co-morbid hyperlipidemia (odds ratio, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.362–2.763; P < 0.001) and pancreatitis (odds ratio, 2.428; 95% CI, 1.889–3.121; P < 0.001) significantly contributed to higher incidences of diabetes after DP. Moreover, 380 subjects (39.3%) developed EPI, and pancreatic cancer is the statistically significant risk factor (odds ratio, 4.663; 95% CI, 2.108–6.085; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The patients with co-morbid hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis had higher rates of newly-diagnosed diabetes after DP, moreover, pancreatic cancer subjects had higher rates of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after DP. The clinicians should be alert to follow up glucose metabolism and clinical symptoms of fat intolerance for DP patients.

Keywords: distal pancreatectomy, National database, diabetes, exocrine insufficiency

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1704 ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT Impact on Staging of Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Jiri Kysucan, Dusan Klos, Katherine Vomackova, Pavel Koranda, Martin Lovecek, Cestmir Neoral, Roman Havlik


Aim: The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. The median of survival after establishing diagnosis is 3-11 months without surgical treatment, 13-20 months with surgical treatment depending on the disease stage, 5-year survival is less than 5%. Radical surgical resection remains the only hope of curing the disease. Early diagnosis with valid establishment of tumor resectability is, therefore, the most important aim for patients with pancreatic cancer. The aim of the work is to evaluate the contribution and define the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in preoperative staging. Material and Methods: In 195 patients (103 males, 92 females, median age 66,7 years, 32-88 years) with a suspect pancreatic lesion, as part of the standard preoperative staging, in addition to standard examination methods (ultrasonography, contrast spiral CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonographic biopsy), a hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed. All PET/CT findings were subsequently compared with standard staging (CT, EUS, EUS FNA), with peroperative findings and definitive histology in the operated patients as reference standards. Interpretation defined the extent of the tumor according to TNM classification. Limitations of resectability were local advancement (T4) and presence of distant metastases (M1). Results: PET/CT was performed in a total of 195 patients with a suspect pancreatic lesion. In 153 patients, pancreatic carcinoma was confirmed and of these patients, 72 were not indicated for radical surgical procedure due to local inoperability or generalization of the disease. The sensitivity of PET/CT in detecting the primary lesion was 92.2%, specificity was 90.5%. A false negative finding in 12 patients, a false positive finding was seen in 4 cases, positive predictive value (PPV) 97.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) 76,0%. In evaluating regional lymph nodes, sensitivity was 51.9%, specificity 58.3%, PPV 58,3%, NPV 51.9%. In detecting distant metastases, PET/CT reached a sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity was 97.8%, PPV 96.9%, NPV 87.0%. PET/CT found distant metastases in 12 patients, which were not detected by standard methods. In 15 patients (15.6%) with potentially radically resectable findings, the procedure was contraindicated based on PET/CT findings and the treatment strategy was changed. Conclusion: PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific method useful in preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer. It improves the selection of patients for radical surgical procedures, who can benefit from it and decreases the number of incorrectly indicated operations.

Keywords: cancer, PET/CT, staging, surgery

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1703 New Experiences into Pancreatic Disease Science

Authors: Nadia Akbarpour


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a forceful and obliterating illness, which is portrayed by intrusiveness, fast movement, and significant protection from treatment. Advances in neurotic arrangement and malignant growth hereditary qualities have worked on our illustrative comprehension of this infection; be that as it may, significant parts of pancreatic disease science remain ineffectively comprehended. A superior comprehension of pancreatic disease science should lead the way to more viable medicines. In the course of the most recent couple of years, there have been significant advances in the sub-atomic and organic comprehension of pancreatic malignancy. This included comprehension of the genomic intricacy of the illness, the job of pancreatic malignant growth undifferentiated organisms, the importance of the growth microenvironment, and the one-of-a-kind metabolic transformation of pancreas disease cells to acquire supplements under hypoxic climate. Endeavors have been made towards the advancement of the practical answer for its treatment with compelled achievement due to its complicated science. It is grounded that pancreatic malignancy undifferentiated cells (CSCs), yet present in a little count, contribute extraordinarily to PC inception, movement, and metastasis. Standard chemo and radiotherapeutic choices, notwithstanding, grow general endurance, the connected aftereffects are a huge concern. In the midst of the latest decade, our understanding with regards to atomic and cell pathways engaged with PC and the job of CSCs in its movement has expanded massively. By and by, the center is to target CSCs. The natural items have acquired a lot of thought as of late as they, generally, sharpen CSCs to chemotherapy and target atomic flagging engaged with different cancers, including PC. Some arranged investigations have demonstrated promising outcomes recommending that assessments in this course bring a ton to the table for the treatment of PC. Albeit preclinical investigations uncovered the significance of natural items in lessening pancreatic carcinoma, restricted examinations have been led to assess their part in centers. The current survey gives another knowledge to late advances in pancreatic malignancy science, treatment, and the current status of natural items in its expectation.

Keywords: pancreatic, genomic, organic, cancer

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1702 Development of a Humanized Anti-CEA Antibody for the Near Infrared Optical Imaging of Cancer

Authors: Paul J Yazaki, Michael Bouvet, John Shively


Surgery for solid gastrointestinal (GI) cancers such as pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric adenocarcinoma remains the mainstay of curative therapy. Complete resection of the primary tumor with negative margins (R0 resection), its draining lymph nodes, and distant metastases offers the optimal surgical benefit. Real-time fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) promises to improve GI cancer outcomes and is rapidly advancing with tumor-specific antibody conjugated fluorophores that can be imaged using near infrared (NIR) technology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a non-internalizing tumor antigen validated as a surface tumor marker expressed in >95% of colorectal, 80% of gastric, and 60% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Our humanized anti-CEA hT84.66-M5A (M5A) monoclonal antibody (mAb)was conjugated with the NHS-IRDye800CW fluorophore and shown it can rapidly and effectively NIRoptical imageorthotopically implanted human colon and pancreatic cancer in mouse models. A limitation observed is that these NIR-800 dye conjugated mAbs have a rapid clearance from the blood, leading to a narrow timeframe for FGS and requiring high doses for effective optical imaging. We developed a novel antibody-fluorophore conjugate by incorporating a PEGylated sidearm linker to shield or mask the IR800 dye’s hydrophobicity which effectively extended the agent’s blood circulation half-life leading to increased tumor sensitivity and lowered normal hepatic uptake. We hypothesized that our unique anti-CEA linked to the fluorophore, IR800 by PEGylated sidewinder, M5A-SW-IR800 will become the next generation optical imaging agent, safe, effective, and widely applicable for intraoperative image guided surgery in CEA expressing GI cancers.

Keywords: optical imaging, anti-CEA, cancer, fluorescence-guided surgery

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1701 Progress Towards Optimizing and Standardizing Fiducial Placement Geometry in Prostate, Renal, and Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Shiva Naidoo, Kristena Yossef, Grimm Jimm, Mirza Wasique, Eric Kemmerer, Joshua Obuch, Anand Mahadevan


Background: Fiducial markers effectively enhance tumor target visibility prior to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy or Proton therapy. To streamline clinical practice, fiducial placement guidelines from a robotic radiosurgery vendor were examined with the goals of optimizing and standardizing feasible geometries for each treatment indication. Clinical examples of prostate, renal, and pancreatic cases are presented. Methods: Vendor guidelines (Accuray, Sunnyvale, Ca) suggest implantation of 4–6 fiducials at least 20 mm apart, with at least a 15-degree angular difference between fiducials, within 50 mm or less from the target centroid, to ensure that any potential fiducial motion (e.g., from respiration or abdominal/pelvic pressures) will mimic target motion. Also recommended is that all fiducials can be seen in 45-degree oblique views with no overlap to coincide with the robotic radiosurgery imaging planes. For the prostate, a standardized geometry that meets all these objectives is a 2 cm-by-2 cm square in the coronal plane. The transperineal implant of two pairs of preloaded tandem fiducials makes the 2 cm-by-2 cm square geometry clinically feasible. This technique may be applied for renal cancer, except repositioned in a sagittal plane, with the retroperitoneal placement of the fiducials into the tumor. Pancreatic fiducial placement via endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is technically more challenging, as fiducial placement is operator-dependent, and lesion access may be limited by adjacent vasculature, tumor location, or restricted mobility of the EUS probe in the duodenum. Fluoroscopically assisted fiducial placement during EUS can help ensure fiducial markers are deployed with optimal geometry and visualization. Results: Among the first 22 fiducial cases on a newly installed robotic radiosurgery system, live x-ray images for all nine prostatic cases had excellent fiducial visualization at the treatment console. Renal and pancreatic fiducials were not as clearly visible due to difficult target access and smaller caliber insertion needle/fiducial usage. The geometry of the first prostate case was used to ensure accurate geometric marker placement for the remaining 8 cases. Initially, some of the renal and pancreatic fiducials were closer than the 20 mm recommendation, and interactive feedback with the proceduralists led to subsequent fiducials being too far to the edge of the tumor. Further feedback and discussion of all cases are being used to help guide standardized geometries and achieve ideal fiducial placement. Conclusion: The ideal tradeoffs of fiducial visibility versus the thinnest possible gauge needle to avoid complications needs to be systematically optimized among all patients, particularly in regards to body habitus. Multidisciplinary collaboration among proceduralists and radiation oncologists can lead to improved outcomes.

Keywords: fiducial, prostate cancer, renal cancer, pancreatic cancer, radiotherapy

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1700 A Deep-Learning Based Prediction of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma with Electronic Health Records from the State of Maine

Authors: Xiaodong Li, Peng Gao, Chao-Jung Huang, Shiying Hao, Xuefeng B. Ling, Yongxia Han, Yaqi Zhang, Le Zheng, Chengyin Ye, Modi Liu, Minjie Xia, Changlin Fu, Bo Jin, Karl G. Sylvester, Eric Widen


Predicting the risk of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PA) in advance can benefit the quality of care and potentially reduce population mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop and prospectively validate a risk prediction model to identify patients at risk of new incident PA as early as 3 months before the onset of PA in a statewide, general population in Maine. The PA prediction model was developed using Deep Neural Networks, a deep learning algorithm, with a 2-year electronic-health-record (EHR) cohort. Prospective results showed that our model identified 54.35% of all inpatient episodes of PA, and 91.20% of all PA that required subsequent chemoradiotherapy, with a lead-time of up to 3 months and a true alert of 67.62%. The risk assessment tool has attained an improved discriminative ability. It can be immediately deployed to the health system to provide automatic early warnings to adults at risk of PA. It has potential to identify personalized risk factors to facilitate customized PA interventions.

Keywords: cancer prediction, deep learning, electronic health records, pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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1699 Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten on Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity in Pancreatic β Cell

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and have been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. However, very little information is currently available for their mechanism. The prikly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. Present study investigated the effects of OFS on pancreatic β-cell function using pancreatic islet β cells (HIT cell). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell proliferation were determined. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of OFS stem on α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Glucose uptake was determined using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity as well as glucose uptake. Insulinotrophic effect of OFS extract was observed at high glucose media in pancreatic β-islet cells. Furthermore, pancreatic β cell regeneration was also observed.These results suggest that OFS mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and improved insulin sensitivity.

Keywords: prickly pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, pancreatic islet HIT cells, α-glucosidase, glucose uptake, insulinotrophic

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1698 The Role of Txnrd2 Deficiency in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) and Tumor Formation in Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Chao Wu


Thioredoxin reductase 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that belongs to the cellular defense against oxidative stress. We deleted mitochondrial Txnrd2 in a KrasG12D-driven pancreatic tumor model. Despite an initial increase in precursor lesions, tumor incidence decreased significantly. We isolated cancer cell lines from these genetically engineered mice and observed an impaired proliferation and colony formation. Reactive Oxygen Species, as determined by DCF fluorescence, were increased. We detected a higher mitochondrial copy number in Txnrd2-deficient cells (KTP). However, measurement of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed no impairment of mitochondrial function and comparable O₂-consumption and extracellular acidification rates. In addition, the mitochondrial complex composition was affected in Txnrd2 deleted cell lines. To gain better insight into the role of Txnrd2, we deleted Txnrd2 in clones from parental KrasG12D cell lines using Crispr/Cas9 technology. The deletion was confirmed by western blot and activity assay. Interestingly, and in line with previous RNA expression analysis, we saw changes in EMT markers in Txnrd2 deleted cell lines and control cell lines. This might help us explain the reduced tumor incidence in KrasG12D; Txnrd2∆panc mice.

Keywords: PDAC, TXNRD2, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition, ROS

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1697 Role of Endotherapy vs Surgery in the Management of Traumatic Pancreatic Injury: A Tertiary Center Experience

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Ratnakar S. Kini, Bharat Narasimhan, Venkateswaran A. R, Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Mohammed Ali, Prem Kumar K., Kani Sheikh M., Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal


Introduction: Pancreatic injury remains a complicated condition requiring an individualized case by case approach to management. In this study, we aim to analyze the varied presentations and treatment outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injury in a tertiary care center. Methods: All consecutive patients hospitalized at our center with traumatic pancreatic injury between 2013 and 2017 were included. The American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification was used to stratify patients into five grades of severity. Outcome parameters were then analyzed based on the treatment modality employed. Results: Of the 35 patients analyzed, 26 had an underlying blunt trauma with the remaining nine presenting due to penetrating injury. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. 19 of these patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the remaining 16 managed nonoperatively. Nine patients had a severe injury ( > grade 3) – of which four underwent endotherapy, three had stents placed and one underwent an endoscopic pseudocyst drainage. Among those managed nonoperatively, three underwent a radiological drainage procedure. Conclusion: Mortality rates were clearly higher in patients managed operatively. This is likely a result of significantly higher degrees of major associated non-pancreatic injuries and not just a reflection of surgical morbidity. Despite this, surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, especially in higher grades of pancreatic injury. However we would like to emphasize that endoscopic intervention definitely remains the preferred treatment modality when the clinical setting permits. This is especially applicable in cases of main pancreatic duct injury with ascites as well as pseudocysts.

Keywords: endotherapy, non-operative management, surgery, traumatic pancreatic injury

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1696 Surgical Treatment Tumors and Cysts of the Pancreas in Children

Authors: Trunov V.O., Ryabov A. B., Poddubny I.V


Introduction: cystic and solid pancreatic tumors have a relevant and disruptive position in many positions. The results of the treatment of children with tumors and pancreatic cysts aged 3 to 17 years for the period from 2008 to 2019 on the basis of the Morozov State Children's Clinical Hospital in Moscow were analyzed. The total number of children with solid tumors was 17, and 31 with cysts. In all children, the diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasound, followed by CT and MRI. In most patients with solid tumors, they were located in the area of the pancreas tail - 58%, in the body area - 14%, in the area of the pancreatic head - 28%. In patients with pancreatic cysts, the distribution of patients by topography was as follows: head of the pancreas - 10%, body of the pancreas - 16%, tail of the pancreas - 68%, total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct - 6%. In pancreatic cysts, the method of surgical treatment was based on the results of MRCP, the level of amylase in the contents of the cyst, and the localization of the cyst. Thus, pathogenetically substantiated treatment included: excision of cysts, internal drainage on an isolated loop according to Ru, the formation of pancreatojejunoanastomosis in a child with the total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct. In patients with solid pancreatic lesions, pancretoduodenalresection, central resection of the pancreas, and distal resection from laparotomy and laparoscopic access were performed. In the postoperative period, in order to prevent pancreatitis, all children underwent antisecretory therapy, parenteral nutrition, and drainage of the omental bursa. Results: hospital stay ranged from 7 to 12 days. The duration of postoperative fermentemia in patients with solid formations lasted from 3 to 6 days. In all cases, according to the histological examination, a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas was revealed. In the group of children with pancreatic cysts, fermentemia was observed from 2 to 4 days, recurrence of cysts in the long term was detected in 3 children (10%). Conclusions: the treatment of cystic and solid pancreatic neoplasms is a difficult task in connection with the anatomical and functional features of the organ.

Keywords: pancreas, tumors, cysts, resection, laparoscopy, children

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1695 Therapeutic Potential of mAb KP52 in Human and Feline Cancers

Authors: Abigail Tan, Heng Liang Tan, Vanessa Ding, James Hui, Eng Hin Lee, Andre Choo


Introduction: Comparative oncology investigates the similarities in spontaneous carcinogenesis between humans and animals, in order to identify treatments that can benefit these patients. Companion animals (CA), like canines and felines, are of special interest when it comes to studying human cancers due to their exposure to the same environmental factors and develop tumours with similar features. The purpose of this study is to explore the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across cancers in humans and CA. Material and Methods: A panel of CA mAbs generated in the lab was screened on multiple human cancer cell lines through flow cytometry to identify for positive binders. Shortlisted candidates were then characterised by biochemical and functional assays e.g., antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) and western blot assays, including glycan studies. Results: Candidate mAb KP52 was generated from whole-cell immunisation using feline mammary carcinoma. KP52 showed strong positive binding to human cancer cells, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Furthermore, KP52 demonstrated strong killing ( > 50%) as an ADC with Saporin as the payload. Western blot results revealed the molecular weight of the antigen targets to be approximately 45kD and 50kD under reduced conditions. Glycan studies suggest that the epitope is glycan in nature, specifically an O-linked glycan. Conclusion: Candidate mAb KP52 has a therapeutic potential as an ADC against feline mammary cancer, human ovarian cancer, human mammary cancer, human pancreatic cancer, and human gastric cancer.

Keywords: ADC, comparative oncology, mAb, therapeutic

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1694 CP-96345 Rregulates Hydrogen Sulphide Induced TLR4 Signaling Pathway Adhesion Molecules in Caerulein Treated Pancreatic Acinar Cells

Authors: Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Leema George, Madhav Bhatia


We have earlier shown that mouse pancreatic acinar cells produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and play a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study is to determine the effect of H2S on TLR4 mediated innate immune signaling in acute pancreatitis via substance P (SP). Male Swiss mice were treated with hourly intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (50μg/kg) for 10 hour. DL-propargylglycine (PAG) (100 mg/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of H2S formation was administered 1h after the induction of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic acinar cells from male Swiss mice were incubated with or without caerulein (10–7 M for 60 min) and CP-96345 (NK1R inhibitor). To better understand the effect of H2S in inflammation, acinar cells were stimulated with caerulein after addition of H2S donor, NaHS. In addition, caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells were pretreated with PAG (30 µM), for 1h. H2S inhibitor, PAG, eliminated TLR4, IRAK4, TRAF6 and NF-kB levels in an in vitro and in vivo model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. PPTA gene deletion reduced TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6, adhesion molecules and NF-kB in caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells whereas administration of NaHS resulted in further rise in TLR4 and NF-kB levels in caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, acini isolated from mice and treated with PPTA gene receptor NK1R antagonist CP96345 did not exhibit further increase in TLR4, IRAK4, TRAF6, adhesion molecules and NF-kB levels after NaHS pretreatment. The present findings show for the first time that in acute pancreatitis, H2S up-regulates TLR4 pathway and NF-kB via substance P.

Keywords: preprotachykinin-A gene, H2S, TLR4, acute pancreatitis

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1693 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez


Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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1692 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Asma Zaib, Saeed Khan, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin


Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cytoproliferative, molecular docking, resveratrol

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1691 Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol

Authors: Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Sang Yoon Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee


In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, G1 arrest, panaxydol

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1690 Computational Approaches to Study Lineage Plasticity in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Almudena Espin Perez, Tyler Risom, Carl Pelz, Isabel English, Robert M. Angelo, Rosalie Sears, Andrew J. Gentles


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most deadly malignancies. The role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is gaining significant attention in cancer research. Despite ongoing efforts, the nature of the interactions between tumors, immune cells, and stromal cells remains poorly understood. The cell-intrinsic properties that govern cell lineage plasticity in PDAC and extrinsic influences of immune populations require technically challenging approaches due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of PDAC. Understanding the cell lineage plasticity of PDAC will improve the development of novel strategies that could be translated to the clinic. Members of the team have demonstrated that the acquisition of ductal to neuroendocrine lineage plasticity in PDAC confers therapeutic resistance and is a biomarker of poor outcomes in patients. Our approach combines computational methods for deconvolving bulk transcriptomic cancer data using CIBERSORTx and high-throughput single-cell imaging using Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) to study lineage plasticity in PDAC and its relationship to the infiltrating immune system. The CIBERSORTx algorithm uses signature matrices from immune cells and stroma from sorted and single-cell data in order to 1) infer the fractions of different immune cell types and stromal cells in bulked gene expression data and 2) impute a representative transcriptome profile for each cell type. We studied a unique set of 300 genomically well-characterized primary PDAC samples with rich clinical annotation. We deconvolved the PDAC transcriptome profiles using CIBERSORTx, leveraging publicly available single-cell RNA-seq data from normal pancreatic tissue and PDAC to estimate cell type proportions in PDAC, and digitally reconstruct cell-specific transcriptional profiles from our study dataset. We built signature matrices and optimized by simulations and comparison to ground truth data. We identified cell-type-specific transcriptional programs that contribute to cancer cell lineage plasticity, especially in the ductal compartment. We also studied cell differentiation hierarchies using CytoTRACE and predict cell lineage trajectories for acinar and ductal cells that we believe are pinpointing relevant information on PDAC progression. Collaborators (Angelo lab, Stanford University) has led the development of the Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) platform for spatial proteomics. We will use in the very near future MIBI from tissue microarray of 40 PDAC samples to understand the spatial relationship between cancer cell lineage plasticity and stromal cells focused on infiltrating immune cells, using the relevant markers of PDAC plasticity identified from the RNA-seq analysis.

Keywords: deconvolution, imaging, microenvironment, PDAC

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1689 Liraglutide Augments Extra Body Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy without Change in Intrahepatic and Intra-Pancreatic Fat in Obese Individuals: Randomized, Controlled Study

Authors: Ashu Rastogi, Uttam Thakur, Jimmy Pathak, Rajesh Gupta, Anil Bhansali


Introduction: Liraglutide is known to induce weight loss and metabolic benefits in obese individuals. However, its effect after sleeve gastrectomy are not known. Methods: People with obesity (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) underwent LSG. Subsequently, participants were randomized to receive either 0.6mg liraglutide subcutaneously daily from 6 week post to be continued till 24 week (L-L group) or placebo (L-P group). Patients were assessed before surgery (baseline) and 6 weeks, 12weeks, 18weeks and 24weeks after surgery for height, weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, body fat percentage, HbA1c, fasting C-peptide, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, GLP-1 levels (after standard OGTT). MRI abdomen was performed prior to surgery and at 24weeks post operatively for the estimation of intrapancreatic and intrahepatic fat content. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were changes in metabolic variables of fasting and stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin, c-peptide, plasma glucose levels. Secondary variables were indices of insulin resistance HOMA-IR, Matsuda index; and pancreatic and hepatic steatosis. Results: Thirty-eight patients undergoing LSG were screened and 29 participants were enrolled. Two patients withdrew consent and one patient died of acute coronary event. 26 patients were randomized and data analysed. Median BMI was 40.73±3.66 and 46.25±6.51; EBW of 49.225±11.14 and 651.48±4.85 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. Baseline FPG was 132±51.48, 125±39.68; fasting insulin 21.5±13.99, 13.15±9.20, fasting GLP-1 2.4± .37, 2.4± .32, AUC GLP-1 340.78± 44 and 332.32 ± 44.1, HOMA-IR 7.0±4.2 and 4.42±4.5 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. EBW loss was 47± 13.20 and 65.59± 24.20 (p<0.05) in the placebo versus liraglutide group. However, we did not observe inter-group difference in metabolic parameters between the groups in spite of significant intra-group changes after 6 months of LSG. Intra-pancreatic fat prior to surgery was 3.21±1.7 and 2.2±0.9 (p=0.38) that decreased to 2.14±1.8 and 1.06±0.8 (p=0.25) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Similarly, intra-pancreatic fat was 1.97±0.27 and 1.88±0.36 (p=0.361) at baseline that decreased to 1.14±0.44 and 1.36±0.47 (p=0.465) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Conclusion: Liraglutide augments extra body weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy. A decrease in intra-pancreatic and intra-hepatic fat is noticed after bariatric surgery without additive benefit of liraglutide administration.

Keywords: sleeve gastrectomy, liraglutide, intra-pancreatic fat, insulin

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1688 Phytochemical and Biological Study of Chrozophora oblongifolia

Authors: Al-Braa Kashegari, Ali M. El-Halawany, Akram A. Shalabi, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Hossam M. Abdallah


Chemical investigation of Chrozophora oblongifolia resulted in the isolation of five major compounds that were identified as apeginin-7-O-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid (2), quercetin-3-O-glacturonic acid (3), rutin (4), and 1,3,6-trigalloyl glucose (5). The identity of isolated compounds was assessed by different spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional NMR. The isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity using different assays viz., DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, ORAC, and metal chelation effects. In addition, the inhibition of target enzymes involved in the metabolic syndrome, such as alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, were carried out. Moreover, the effect of the compounds on the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) as one of the major complications of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic syndromes were carried out using BSA‐fructose (bovine serum albumin), BSA-methylglyoxal, and arginine methylglyoxal models. The pure isolates showed a protective effect in metabolic syndromes as well as promising antioxidant activity. The results showed potent activity of compound 5 in all measured parameters meanwhile, none of the tested compounds showed activity against pancreatic lipase.

Keywords: Chrozophora oblongifolia, antioxidant, pancreatic lipase, metabolic syndromes

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1687 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim


mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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1686 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj


In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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1685 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1684 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal


Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, segmentation, morphological operations

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1683 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi


Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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