Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 324

Search results for: fluorescent probes

324 Evaluation of Real Time PCR Methods for Food Safety

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic


In the last decades, real-time PCR has become a reliable tool preferred to use in many laboratories for pathogen detection. This technique allows for monitoring target amplification via fluorescent molecules besides admit of quantitative analysis by enabling of convert outcomes of thermal cycling to digital data. Sensitivity and traceability of real-time PCR are based on measuring of fluorescence that appears only when fluorescent reporter dye bound to specific target DNA.The fluorescent reporter systems developed for this purpose are divided into two groups. The first group consists of intercalator fluorescence dyes such as SYBR Green, EvaGreen which binds to double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the second group includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide probes that are separated into three subgroups due to differences in mechanism of action; initial primer-probes such as Cyclicons, Angler®, Amplifluor®, LUX™, Scorpions, and the second one hydrolysis probes like TaqMan, Snake assay, finally hybridization probes, for instance, Molecular Beacons, Hybprobe/FRET, HyBeacon™, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense®, Yin-Yang, MGB-Pleiades. In addition nucleic acid analogues, an increase of probe affinity to target site is also employed with fluorescence-labeled probes. Consequently, abundant real-time PCR detection chemistries are chosen by researcher according to the field of application, mechanism of action, advantages, and proper structures of primer/probes.

Keywords: fluorescent dye, food safety, molecular probes, nucleic acid analogues

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
323 The Response of Adaptive Mechanism of Fluorescent Proteins from Coral Species and Target Cell Properties on Signalling Capacity as Biosensor

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan


Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become very popular since green fluorescent protein discovered from crystal jellyfish. It is known that Anthozoa species have a wide range of chromophore organisms, and the initial crystal structure for non-fluorescent chromophores obtained from the reef-building coral has been determined. There are also differently coloured pigments in non-bioluminescent Anthozoa zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate which are frequently members of the GFP-like protein family. The development of fluorescent proteins (FPs) and their applications is an outstanding example of basic science leading to practical biotechnological and medical applications. Fluorescent proteins have several applications in science and are used as important indicators in molecular biology and cell-based research. With rising interest in cell biology, FPs have used as biosensor indicators and probes in pharmacology and cell biology. Using fluorescent proteins in genetically encoded metabolite sensors has many advantages than chemical probes for metabolites such as easily introduced into any cell or organism in any sub-cellular localization and giving chance to fixing to fluoresce of different colours or characteristics. There are different factors effects to signalling mechanism when they used as a biosensor. While there are wide ranges of research have been done on the significance and applications of fluorescent proteins, the cell signalling response of FPs and target cell are less well understood. In this study, it was aimed to clarify the response of adaptive mechanisms of coral species such as pH, temperature and symbiotic relationship and target cells properties on the signalling capacity. Corals are a rich natural source of fluorescent proteins that change with environmental conditions such as light, heat stress and injury. Adaptation mechanism of coral species to these types of environmental variations is important factor due to FPs properties have affected by this mechanism. Since fluorescent proteins obtained from nature, their own ecological property like the symbiotic relationship is observed very commonly in coral species and living conditions have the impact on FPs efficiency. Target cell properties also have an effect on signalling and visualization. The dynamicity of detector that used for reading fluorescence and the level of background fluorescence are key parameters for the quality of the fluorescent signal. Among the factors, it can be concluded that coral species adaptive characteristics have the strongest effect on FPs signalling capacity.

Keywords: biosensor, cell biology, environmental conditions, fluorescent protein, sea anemone

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
322 CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene

Authors: Zhengyu Yan, Yan Yu, Jianqiu Chen


A novel sensing system has been designed for naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism. Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as 97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.

Keywords: CdS quantum dots, modification, detection, naphthalene

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
321 Development of Micelle-Mediated Sr(II) Fluorescent Analysis System

Authors: K. Akutsu, S. Mori, T. Hanashima


Fluorescent probes are useful for the selective detection of trace amount of ions and biomolecular imaging in living cells. Various kinds of metal ion-selective fluorescent compounds have been developed, and some compounds have been applied as effective metal ion-selective fluorescent probes. However, because competition between the ligand and water molecules for the metal ion constitutes a major contribution to the stability of a complex in aqueous solution, it is difficult to develop a highly sensitive, selective, and stable fluorescent probe in aqueous solution. The micelles, these are formed in the surfactant aqueous solution, provides a unique hydrophobic nano-environment for stabilizing metal-organic complexes in aqueous solution. Therefore, we focused on the unique properties of micelles to develop a new fluorescence analysis system. We have been developed a fluorescence analysis system for Sr(II) by using a Sr(II) fluorescent sensor, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)-1-aza-18-crown-6-ether (BIC), and studied its complexation behavior with Sr(II) in micellar solution. We revealed that the stability constant of Sr(II)-BIC complex was 10 times higher than that in aqueous solution. In addition, its detection limit value was also improved up to 300 times by this system. However, the mechanisms of these phenomena have remained obscure. In this study, we investigated the structure of Sr(II)-BIC complex in aqueous micellar solution by combining use the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron reflectivity (NR) method to understand the unique properties of the fluorescence analysis system from the view point of structural chemistry. EXAFS and NR experiments were performed on BL-27B at KEK-PF and on BL17 SHARAKU at J-PARC MLF, respectively. The obtained EXAFS spectra and their fitting results indicated that Sr(II) and BIC formed a Sr(18-crown-6-ether)-like complex in aqueous micellar solution. The EXAFS results also indicated that the hydrophilic head group of surfactant molecule was directly coordinated with Sr(II). In addition, the NR results also indicated that Sr(II)-BIC complex would interact with the surface of micelle molecules. Therefore, we concluded that Sr(II), BIC, and surfactant molecule formed a ternary complexes in aqueous micellar solution, and at least, it is clear that the improvement of the stability constant in micellar solution is attributed to the result of the formation of Sr(BIC)(surfactant) complex.

Keywords: micell, fluorescent probe, neutron reflectivity, EXAFS

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
320 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila


A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
319 Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Detection of Bacteria and Archaea in Fecal Samples

Authors: Maria Nejjari, Michel Cloutier, Guylaine Talbot, Martin Lanthier


The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a staining technique that allows the identification, detection and quantification of microorganisms without prior cultivation by means of epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Oligonucleotide probes have been used to detect bacteria and archaea that colonize the cattle and swine digestive systems. These bacterial strains have been obtained from fecal samples issued from cattle manure and swine slurry. The collection of these samples has been done at 3 different pit’s levels A, B and C with same height. Two collection depth levels have been taken in consideration, one collection level just under the pit’s surface and the second one at the bottom of the pit. Cells were fixed and FISH was performed using oligonucleotides of 15 to 25 nucleotides of length associated with a fluorescent molecule Cy3 or Cy5. The double hybridization using Cy3 probe targeting bacteria (Cy3-EUB338-I) along with a Cy5 probe targeting Archaea (Gy5-ARCH915) gave a better signal. The CLSM images show that there are more bacteria than archaea in swine slurry. However, the choice of fluorescent probes is critical for getting the double hybridization and a unique signature for each microorganism. FISH technique is an easy way to detect pathogens like E. coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella that easily contaminate water streams, agricultural soils and, consequently, food products and endanger human health.

Keywords: archaea, bacteria, detection, FISH, fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
318 Proposal of Data Collection from Probes

Authors: M. Kebisek, L. Spendla, M. Kopcek, T. Skulavik


In our paper we describe the security capabilities of data collection. Data are collected with probes located in the near and distant surroundings of the company. Considering the numerous obstacles e.g. forests, hills, urban areas, the data collection is realized in several ways. The collection of data uses connection via wireless communication, LAN network, GSM network and in certain areas data are collected by using vehicles. In order to ensure the connection to the server most of the probes have ability to communicate in several ways. Collected data are archived and subsequently used in supervisory applications. To ensure the collection of the required data, it is necessary to propose algorithms that will allow the probes to select suitable communication channel.

Keywords: communication, computer network, data collection, probe

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
317 Gene Expression and Staining Agents: Exploring the Factors That Influence the Electrophoretic Properties of Fluorescent Proteins

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Chris Lowe, Hannah Krupa


Fluorescent proteins are self-sufficient in forming chromophores with a visible wavelength from 3 amino acids sequence within their own polypeptide structure. This chromophore – a molecule that absorbs a photon of light and exhibits an energy transition equal to the energy of the absorbed photon. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) consisted of a chain of 238 amino acid residues and composed of 11 beta strands shaped in a cylinder surrounding an alpha helix structure. A better understanding of the system of the chromospheres and the increasing advance in protein engineering in recent years, the properties of FPs offers the potential for new applications. They have used sensors and probes in molecular biology and cell-based research that giving a chance to observe these FPs tagged cell localization, structural variation and movement. For clarifying functional uses of fluorescent proteins, electrophoretic properties of these proteins are one of the most important parameters. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is used for determining electrophoretic properties commonly. While there are many techniques are used for determining the functionality of protein-based research, SDS-PAGE analysis can only provide a molecular level assessment of the proteolytic fragments. Before SDS-PAGE analysis, fluorescent proteins need to successfully purified. Due to directly purification of the target, FPs is difficult from the animal, gene expression is commonly used which must be done by transformation with the plasmid. Furthermore, used gel within electrophoresis and staining agents properties have a key role. In this review, the different factors that have the impact on the electrophoretic properties of fluorescent proteins explored. Fluorescent protein separation and purification are the essential steps before electrophoresis that should be done very carefully. For protein purification, gene expression process and following steps have a significant function. For successful gene expression, the properties of selected bacteria for expression, used plasmid are essential. Each bacteria has own characteristics which are very sensitive to gene expression, also used procedure is the important factor for fluorescent protein expression. Another important factors are gel formula and used staining agents. Gel formula has an effect on the specific proteins mobilization and staining with correct agents is a key step for visualization of electrophoretic bands of protein. Visuality of proteins can be changed depending on staining reagents. Apparently, this review has emphasized that gene expression and purification have a stronger effect than electrophoresis protocol and staining agents.

Keywords: cell biology, gene expression, staining agents, SDS-page

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
316 Enhanced Calibration Map for a Four-Hole Probe for Measuring High Flow Angles

Authors: Jafar Mortadha, Imran Qureshi


This research explains and compares the modern techniques used for measuring the flow angles of a flowing fluid with the traditional technique of using multi-hole pressure probes. In particular, the focus of the study is on four-hole probes, which offer great reliability and benefits in several applications where the use of modern measurement techniques is either inconvenient or impractical. Due to modern advancements in manufacturing, small multi-hole pressure probes can be made with high precision, which eliminates the need for calibrating every manufactured probe. This study aims to improve the range of calibration maps for a four-hole probe to allow high flow angles to be measured accurately. The research methodology comprises a literature review of the successful calibration definitions that have been implemented on five-hole probes. These definitions are then adapted and applied on a four-hole probe using a set of raw pressures data. A comparison of the different definitions will be carried out in Matlab and the results will be analyzed to determine the best calibration definition. Taking simplicity of implementation into account as well as the reliability of flow angles estimation, an adapted technique from a research paper written in 2002 offered the most promising outcome. Consequently, the method is seen as a good enhancement for four-hole probes and it can substitute for the existing calibration definitions that offer less accuracy.

Keywords: calibration definitions, calibration maps, flow measurement techniques, four-hole probes, multi-hole pressure probes

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
315 Reflector Arrangement Effect on Ultraviolet Lamp Performance by CFX Simulation

Authors: William Sidharta, Chin-Tu Lu


Fluorescent ultraviolet lamp generates ultraviolet light which is commonly used in industrial field with certain purposes especially for curing process. Due to the value of inefficiency, there are changes in energy from electrical energy to the heat energy and this would make a defect on the industrial product caused by high temperature of lamp tube during ultraviolet light emission. The condition of industrial scale is further worsening, since commonly using dozens of fluorescent ultraviolet lamps to support huge production process and then it will generates much more heat energy. The maximum temperature of fluorescent ultraviolet lamp will get affected by arranging the lamp tube reflector and this study presents CFX simulation results of the maximum lamp tube temperature with some different reflector arrangements on purely natural convection phenomena. There exists certain spaces value of the reflector and the lamp tube to obtaining lower maximum temperature of the fluorescent ultraviolet lamp.

Keywords: CFX simulation, fluorescent UV lamp, lamp tube reflector, UV light

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
314 Using Artificial Neural Networks for Optical Imaging of Fluorescent Biomarkers

Authors: K. A. Laptinskiy, S. A. Burikov, A. M. Vervald, S. A. Dolenko, T. A. Dolenko


The article presents the results of the application of artificial neural networks to separate the fluorescent contribution of nanodiamonds used as biomarkers, adsorbents and carriers of drugs in biomedicine, from a fluorescent background of own biological fluorophores. The principal possibility of solving this problem is shown. Use of neural network architecture let to detect fluorescence of nanodiamonds against the background autofluorescence of egg white with high accuracy - better than 3 ug/ml.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fluorescence, data aggregation, biomarkers

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
313 Detection of Latent Fingerprints Recovered from Arson Simulation by a Novel Fluorescent Method

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili, Afshin Khara


Fingerprints are area source of ubiquitous evidence and consequential for establishing identity. The detection and subsequent development of fingerprints are thus inevitable in criminal investigations. This becomes a difficult task in the case of certain extreme conditions like fire. A fire scene may be accidental or arson. The evidence subjected to fire is generally overlooked as there is a misconception that they are damaged. There are several scientific approaches to determine whether the fire was deliberate or not. In such as scenario, fingerprints may be most critical to link the perpetrator to the crime. The reason for this may be the destructive nature of fire. Fingerprints subjected to fire are exposed to high temperatures, soot deposition, electromagnetic radiation, and subsequent water force. It is believed that these phenomena damage the fingerprint. A novel fluorescent and a pre existing small particle reagent were investigated for the same. Zinc carbonates based fluorescent small particle reagent was capable of developing latent fingerprints exposed to a maximum temperature of 800 ̊C. Fluorescent SPR may prove very useful in such cases. Fluorescent SPR reagent based on zinc carbonate is a potential method for developing fingerprints from arson sites. The method is cost effective and non hazardous. This formulation is suitable for developing fingerprints exposed to fire/ arson.

Keywords: fingerprint, small particle reagent (SPR), arson, novel fluorescent

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
312 Plasma Properties Effect on Fluorescent Tube Plasma Antenna Performance

Authors: A. N. Dagang, E. I. Ismail, Z. Zakaria


This paper presents the analysis on the performance of monopole antenna with fluorescent tubes. In this research, the simulation and experimental approach is conducted. The fluorescent tube with different length and size is designed using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and the characteristics of antenna parameter are simulated throughout the software. CST was used to simulate antenna parameters such as return loss, resonant frequency, gain and directivity. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) was used to measure the return loss of plasma antenna in order to validate the simulation results. In the simulation and experiment, the supply frequency is set starting from 1 GHz to 10 GHz. The results show that the return loss of plasma antenna changes when size of fluorescent tubes is varied, correspond to the different plasma properties. It shows that different values of plasma properties such as plasma frequency and collision frequency gives difference result of return loss, gain and directivity. For the gain, the values range from 2.14 dB to 2.36 dB. The return loss of plasma antenna offers higher value range from -22.187 dB to -32.903 dB. The higher the values of plasma frequency and collision frequency, the higher return loss can be obtained. The values obtained are comparative to the conventional type of metal antenna.

Keywords: plasma antenna, fluorescent tube, CST, plasma parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
311 Advanced Real-Time Fluorescence Imaging System for Rat's Femoral Vein Thrombosis Monitoring

Authors: Sang Hun Park, Chul Gyu Song


Artery and vein occlusion changes observed in patients and experimental animals are unexplainable symptoms. As the fat accumulated in cardiovascular ruptures, it causes vascular blocking. Likewise, early detection of cardiovascular disease can be useful for treatment. In this study, we used the mouse femoral occlusion model to observe the arterial and venous occlusion changes without darkroom. We observed the femoral arterial flow pattern changes by proposed fluorescent imaging system using an animal model of thrombosis. We adjusted the near-infrared light source current in order to control the intensity of the fluorescent substance light. We got the clear fluorescent images and femoral artery flow pattern were measured by a 5-minute interval. The result showed that the fluorescent substance flowing in the femoral arteries were accumulated in thrombus as time passed, and the fluorescence of other vessels gradually decreased.

Keywords: thrombus, fluorescence, femoral, arteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
310 Fluorescent Imaging with Hoechst 34580 and Propidium Iodide in Determination of Toxic Changes of Cyanobacterial Oligopeptides in Rotifers

Authors: Adam Bownik, Małgorzata Adamczuk, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska


Certain strains of cyanobacteria, microorganisms forming water blooms, produce toxic secondary metabolites. Although various effects of cyanotoxins in aquatic animals are known, little data can be found on the influence of some cyanobacterial oligopeptides beyond microcystins. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of novel pure cyanobacterial oligopeptides: microginin FR-1 (MGFR1) and anabaenopeptin-A (ANA-A) on a transparent model rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus with the use of fluorescent double staining with Hoechst 34580 and propidium iodide. The obtained results showed that both studied oligopeptides decreased the fluorescence intensity of animals stained with Hoechst 34580 in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, a concentration-dependent increase of propidium iodide fluorescence was noted in the exposed rotifers. The results suggest that MGFR-1 and ANA-A should be considered as a potent toxic agent to freshwater rotifers, and fluorescent staining with Hoechst and propidium iodide may be a valuable tool for determination of toxicity of cyanobacterial oligopeptides in rotifers.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, brachionus, oligopeptides, fluorescent staining, hoechst, propidium iodide

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
309 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja


This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
308 Fluorescent Terbium-organic framework-doped Polyethylene Composites for FDM 3D Printing in Packaging Security Features

Authors: Youssef R. Hassan, Mohamed S. Hasanin, Reda M. Abdelhameed


Recently, innovations in packaging security features become more important to see the originality of packaging in industrial application. Luminescent 3d printing materials have been a promising property which can provides a unique opportunity for the design and application of 3D printing. Lack emission of terbium ions, as a source of green emission, in salt form prevent its uses in industrial applications, so searching about stable and highly emitter material become more essential. Nowadays, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) play an important role in designing light emitter material. In this work, novel fluorescent high density polyethylene (FHDPE) composite filament with Tb-benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Tb-BTC) MOFs for 3D printing have been successfully developed. HDPE pellets were mixed with Tb-BTC and melting extrustion with single screw extruders. It was found that Tb-BTC uniformly dispersed in the HDPE matrix and significantly increased the crystallinity of PE, which not only maintained the good thermal property but also improved the mechanical properties of [email protected] composites. Notably, the composite filaments emitted ultra-bright green light under UV lamp, and the fluorescence intensity increased as the content of Tb-BTC increased. Finally, several brightly luminescent exquisite articles could be manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer with these new fluorescent filaments. The development of novel fluorescent [email protected] composites combined with 3D printing technology.

Keywords: 3D printing, packaging, security, fluorescent

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
307 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo


The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
306 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications

Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret


Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bioimaging, cellular targeting, drug delivery, photostability

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
305 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
304 Functionalization of Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles with Fluorescent Protein

Authors: A. G. Pershina, P. S. Postnikov, M. E. Trusova, D. O. Burlakova, A. E. Sazonov


Invention of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites is a rapidly developing area of research. The magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite attractiveness is connected with the ability of simultaneous management and control of such nanocomposites by two independent methods based on different physical principles. These nanocomposites are applied for the solution of various essential scientific and experimental biomedical problems. The aim of this research is development of principle approach to nanobiohybrid structures with magnetic and fluorescent properties design. The surface of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles ([email protected]) were covalently modified by 4-carboxy benzenediazonium tosylate. Recombinant fluorescent protein TagGFP2 (Eurogen) was obtained in E. coli (Rosetta DE3) by standard laboratory techniques. Immobilization of TagGFP2 on the nanoparticles surface was provided by the carbodiimide activation. The amount of COOH-groups on the nanoparticle surface was estimated by elemental analysis (Elementar Vario Macro) and TGA-analysis (SDT Q600, TA Instruments. Obtained nanocomposites were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (Nicolet Thermo 5700) and fluorescence microscopy (AxioImager M1, Carl Zeiss). Amount of the protein immobilized on the modified nanoparticle surface was determined by fluorimetry (Cary Eclipse) and spectrophotometry (Unico 2800) with the help of preliminary obtained calibration plots. In the FTIR spectra of modified nanoparticles the adsorption band of –COOH group around 1700 cm-1 and bands in the region of 450-850 cm-1 caused by bending vibrations of benzene ring were observed. The calculated quantity of active groups on the surface was equal to 0,1 mmol/g of material. The carbodiimide activation of COOH-groups on nanoparticles surface results to covalent immobilization of TagGFP2 fluorescent protein (0.2 nmol/mg). The success of immobilization was proved by FTIR spectroscopy. Protein characteristic adsorption bands in the region of 1500-1600 cm-1 (amide I) were presented in the FTIR spectrum of nanocomposite. The fluorescence microscopy analysis shows that [email protected] nanocomposite possesses fluorescence properties. This fact confirms that TagGFP2 protein retains its conformation due to immobilization on nanoparticles surface. Magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite was obtained as a result of unique design solution implementation – the fluorescent protein molecules were fixed to the surface of superparamagnetic carbon-coated iron nanoparticles using original diazonium salts.

Keywords: carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, diazonium salts, fluorescent protein, immobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
303 Applications of Copper Sensitive Fluorescent Dye to the Studies of the Role of Copper in Cisplatin Resistance in Human Cancer

Authors: Sumayah Mohammed Asiri A., Aviva Levina B., Elizabeth New C., Peter Lay D.


Pt compounds have been among the most successful anticancer drugs in the last 40 years, but the development of resistance to them is an increasing problem. Cellular homeostasis of an essential metal, Cu, is known to be involved in Pt resistance, but mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. We used a novel ratiometric Cu(I)-sensitive fluorescent probeInCCu1 dye to detect Cu(I) in the mitochondria. Total Cu and labile Cu pool measured using AAS and InCCu1 dye in A2780 cells and their corresponding resistant cells A2780-cis.R cells treated with Cu and cisplatin. The main difference between both cell lines in the presence and absence of Cu(II) is that resistant cells have lower total Cu content but higher labile Cu levels than cisplatin-sensitive cells. This means that resistant cells can metabolize and export excess Cu more efficiently. Furthermore, InCCu1 has emerged not only as an indicator of labile cellular Cu levels in the mitochondria but as a potentially versatile multi-organelle probe.

Keywords: AAS and ICPMS, A2780 and its resistant cells, ratiometric fluorescent sensors, inCCu1, and total and labile Cu

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
302 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
301 Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions

Authors: Yao Xing, Hong Ling Liu, Wei Dong Yu


With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, copper ions, wool keratin, fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
300 An Efficient Emitting Supramolecular Material Derived from Calixarene: Synthesis, Optical and Electrochemical Features

Authors: Serkan Sayin, Songul F. Varol


High attention on the organic light-emitting diodes has been paid since their efficient properties in the flat panel displays, and solid-state lighting was realized. Because of their high efficient electroluminescence, brightness and providing eminent in the emission range, organic light emitting diodes have been preferred a material compared with the other materials consisting of the liquid crystal. Calixarenes obtained from the reaction of p-tert-butyl phenol and formaldehyde in a suitable base have been potentially used in various research area such as catalysis, enzyme immobilization, and applications, ion carrier, sensors, nanoscience, etc. In addition, their tremendous frameworks, as well as their easily functionalization, make them an effective candidate in the applied chemistry. Herein, a calix[4]arene derivative has been synthesized, and its structure has been fully characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (¹³C-NMR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and elemental analysis techniques. The calixarene derivative has been employed as an emitting layer in the fabrication of the organic light-emitting diodes. The optical and electrochemical features of calixarane-contained organic light-emitting diodes (Clx-OLED) have been also performed. The results showed that Clx-OLED exhibited blue emission and high external quantum efficacy. As a conclusion obtained results attributed that the synthesized calixarane derivative is a promising chromophore with efficient fluorescent quantum yield that provides it an attractive candidate for fabricating effective materials for fluorescent probes and labeling studies. This study was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Grant no. 117Z402).

Keywords: calixarene, OLED, supramolecular chemistry, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
299 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu


Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
298 Preparation of Metal Containing Epoxy Polymer and Investigation of Their Properties as Fluorescent Probe

Authors: Ertuğ Yıldırım, Dile Kara, Salih Zeki Yıldız


Metal containing polymers (MCPs) are macro molecules usually containing metal-ligand coordination units and are a multidisciplinary research field mainly based at the interface between coordination chemistry and polymer science. The progress of this area has also been reinforced by the growth of several other closely related disciplines including macro molecular engineering, crystal engineering, organic synthesis, supra molecular chemistry and colloidal and material science. Schiff base ligands are very effective in constructing supra molecular architectures such as coordination polymers, double helical and triple helical complexes. In addition, Schiff base derivatives incorporating a fluorescent moiety are appealing tools for optical sensing of metal ions. MCPs are well-known systems in which the combinations of local parameters are possible by means of fluoro metric techniques. Generally, without incorporation of the fluorescent groups with polymers is unspecific, and it is not useful to analyze their fluorescent properties. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare a new type epoxy polymers with fluorescent groups in terms of metal sensing prop and the other photo chemical applications. In the present study metal containing polymers were prepared via poly functional monomeric Schiff base metal chelate complexes in the presence of dis functional monomers such as diglycidyl ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA). The synthesized complexes and polymers were characterized by FTIR, UV-VIS and mass spectroscopies. The preparations of epoxy polymers have been carried out at 185 °C. The prepared composites having sharp and narrow excitation/emission properties are expected to be applicable in various systems such as heat-resistant polymers and photo voltaic devices. The prepared composite is also ideal for various applications, easily prepared, safe, and maintain good fluorescence properties.

Keywords: Schiff base ligands, crystal engineering, fluorescence properties, Metal Containing Polymers (MCPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
297 Thresholding Approach for Automatic Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms from Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Images

Authors: Zonglin Yang, Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S. Williamson, Michael J. Franklin, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that forms surface-associated microbial communities (biofilms) on artificial implant devices and on human tissue. Biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, in part, because the bacteria in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous. One measure of biological heterogeneity in a population of cells is to quantify the cellular concentrations of ribosomes, which can be probed with fluorescently labeled nucleic acids. The fluorescent signal intensity following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis correlates to the cellular level of ribosomes. The goals here are to provide computationally and statistically robust approaches to automatically quantify cellular heterogeneity in biofilms from a large library of epifluorescent microscopy FISH images. In this work, the initial steps were developed toward these goals by developing an automated biofilm detection approach for use with FISH images. The approach allows rapid identification of biofilm regions from FISH images that are counterstained with fluorescent dyes. This methodology provides advances over other computational methods, allowing subtraction of spurious signals and non-biological fluorescent substrata. This method will be a robust and user-friendly approach which will enable users to semi-automatically detect biofilm boundaries and extract intensity values from fluorescent images for quantitative analysis of biofilm heterogeneity.

Keywords: image informatics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm, FISH, computer vision, data visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
296 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi


Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
295 Moisture Variations in Unbound Layers in an Instrumented Pavement Section

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder


This study presents the moisture variations of unbound layers from April 2012 to January 2014 in the Interstate 40 (I-40) pavement section in New Mexico. Three moisture probes were installed at different layers inside the pavement which measure the continuous moisture variations of the pavement. Data show that the moisture contents of unbound layers are typically constant throughout the day and month unless there is rainfall. Moisture contents of all unbound layers change with rainfall. Change in ground water table may affect the moisture content of unbound layers which has not investigated in this study. In addition, the Level 3 predictions of moisture contents using the Pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) Design software are compared and found quite reasonable. However, results presented in the current study may not be applicable for pavement in other regions.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, moisture probes, resilient modulus, climate model

Procedia PDF Downloads 406