Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: vaccination

120 Hepatitis B Vaccination Status and Its Determinants among Primary Health Care Workers in Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rubina Qasim

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We assessed Hepatitis B vaccination and its determinants among health care workers (HCW) in Northwest Pakistan. HCWs from both public and private clinics were interviewed about hepatitis B vaccination, socio-demographic, hepatitis B virus transmission modes, disease threat and benefits of vaccination. Logistic regression was performed. Hepatitis B vaccination was 40% (Qualified Physicians: 86% and non-qualified Dispensers:16%). Being Qualified Physician (Adj. OR 26.6; 95%CI 9.3-73.2), Non-qualified Physician (Adj.OR 1.9; 95%CI 0.8-4.6), qualified Dispensers (Adj. OR 3.6; 95%CI 1.3-9.5) compared to non-qualified Dispensers, working in public clinics (Adj. OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1-5.7) compared to private, perceived disease threat after exposure to blood and body fluids (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) and perceived benefits of vaccination (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) were significant predictors of hepatitis B vaccination. Improved perception of disease threat and benefits of vaccination and qualification of HCWs are associated with hepatitis B vaccination.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, immunization, healthcare workers, primary health

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119 Parental Discourse on Childhood Vaccination Programme: A Case Study

Authors: Tengku Farah Petri Tengku Mahmood, Shameem Rafik-Galea, Zalina Mohd Kasim, Norlijah Othman

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Childhood vaccination programme is mandatory in Malaysia. However, the decision to vaccinate or not vaccinate children is still left to the parents. Presently, there are parents who are opting out of vaccination claiming that it causes autism and other chronic disorders despite inconclusive evidence. There appears to be a dangerous trend among some Malaysian parents to not vaccinate their children and to not participate in the childhood vaccination programme. This study presents preliminary findings of parental discourse on childhood vaccination programme through the perspective of the Integrated Threat Theory. An in-depth interview was carried out to investigate a parent’s concern of the effects of childhood vaccination on children. A thematic discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. The emerging themes based on the analysis and their relevance to our understanding of a parent’s concerns of the effects of childhood vaccination on children are discussed.

Keywords: case study, parental discourse, thematic discourse analysis, childhood vaccination

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118 Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Tunisian Health Care Workers

Authors: Asma Ammar, Nabiha Bouafia , Asma BenCheikh, Mohamed Mahjoub, Olfa Ezzi, Wadiaa Bannour, Radhia Helali, Mansour Njah

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Background: The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with vaccination against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among healthcare workers (HWs) in the University Hospital Center (UHC) Farhat Hached Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study all licensed physicians (n= 206) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 372) exercising at UHC Hached Sousse (Tunisia) during two months (January and February 2014). Data were collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire, which composed by 21 questions. In order to determinate factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B among HWs, this questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, one of the most classical behavior theories. Logistic regression with the stepwise method of Hosmer and Lemeshow was used to identify the determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV. Results: The response rates were 79.8%. Fifty two percent believe that HBV is frequent in our healthcare units and 60.6% consider it a severe infection. The prevalence of HWs vaccination was 39%, 95% CI [34.49%; 43.5%]. In multivariate analysis, determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV among HWs were young age (p=10-4), male gender (p = 0. 006), high or very high importance accorded to health (p = 0.035), perception membership in a risk group for HBV infection (p = 0.038) and very favorable or favorable opinion about vaccination against HVB (p=10-4). Conclusion: The results of our study should be considered in any strategy for preventing VHB infection in HWs. In the mean time, coverage with standard vaccines should be improved also by supplying complete information on the risks of VHB infection and on the safety and efficacy of vaccination.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, healthcare workers, prevalence, vaccination

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117 An Optimal Control Model for the Dynamics of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Ibrahim M. Elmojtaba, Rayan M. Altayeb

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus leishmania. The transmission of the parasite to humans and animals occurs via the bite of adult female sandflies previously infected by biting and sucking blood of an infectious humans or animals. In this paper we use a previously proposed model, and then applied two optimal controls, namely treatment and vaccination to that model to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of the disease using treatment and vaccination as the system control variables. The possible impact of using combinations of the two controls, either one at a time or two at a time on the spread of the disease is also examined. Our results provide a framework for vaccination and treatment strategies to reduce susceptible and infection individuals of VL in five years.

Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis, treatment, vaccination, optimal control, numerical simulation

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116 Analysis of Impact of Flu Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Viral Infections (ARVI) Morbidity among Population in South Kazakhstan Region, 2010-2015

Authors: Karlygash Tulendieva

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Presently vaccination is the most effective method of prevention of flu and its complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the increase of coverage of the population of South Kazakhstan region with flu vaccination and decrease of the ARVI morbidity. The analysis was performed on the data of flu vaccination of risk groups, including children under one year and pregnant women. Data on ARVI morbidity during 2010-2015 and data on vaccination were taken from the reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of Department of Consumers’ Rights Protection of South Kazakhstan region. Coverage with flu vaccination of the risk groups was annually increasing and in 2015 it reached 16% (450,000/2,800,682) from the total population. The ARVI morbidity rate in the entire population in 2010 was 2,010.4 per 100,000 of the population and decreased 3.2 times to 609.9 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Annual growth was observed from 2010 to 2015 of specific weight of the vaccinated main risk groups: healthcare workers by 51% (from 17,331 in 2010 to 33,538 in 2015), children with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases, immune deficiency, weak and sickly children above six months by 39% (from 63,122 in 2010 to 158,023 in 2015), adults with chronic co-morbidities by 27% (from 44,271 in 2010 to 162,595 in 2015), persons above 65 by 17% (from 10,276 in 2010 to 57,875 in 2015), and annual coverage of pregnant women on second or third trimester from 34,443 in 2010 to 37,969 in 2015. Starting from 2013 and until 2015 vaccination was performed in the region with coverage of at least 90% of children from 6 months to one year. The ARVI morbidity in this age group decreased 3.3 times from 8,687.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2010 to 2,585.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Vaccination of pregnant women on 2-3 trimester was started in the region in 2012. Annual increase of vaccination coverage of pregnant women from 86.1% (34,443/40,000) in 2012 to 95% (37,969/40,000) in 2015 decreased the morbidity 1.5 times from 4,828.8 per 100,000 of population in 2012 to 3,022.7 per 100,000 of population in 2015. Following the increase of vaccination coverage of the population in South Kazakhstan region, the trend was observed of decrease of ARVI morbidity rates among the population and main risk groups, among pregnant women and children under one year.

Keywords: acute respiratory viral infections, flu, risk groups, vaccination

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115 Stability Analysis of Rabies Model with Vaccination Effect and Culling in Dogs

Authors: Eti Dwi Wiraningsih, Folashade Agusto, Lina Aryati, Syamsuddin Toaha, Suzanne Lenhart, Widodo, Willy Govaerts

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This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of rabies virus in the wild dogs-domestic dogs-human zoonotic cycle. The effect of vaccination and culling in dogs is considered on the model, then the stability was analysed to get basic reproduction number. We use the next generation matrix method and Routh-Hurwitz test to analyze the stability of the Disease-Free Equilibrium and Endemic Equilibrium of this model.

Keywords: stability analysis, rabies model, vaccination effect, culling in dogs

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114 Low Influenza Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Katarzyna Zycinska, Ewa Gyrczuk, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Kazimierz Wardyn

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Introduction: Influenza is an important clinical and epidemiological problem and should be considered as a possible nosocomial infection. The aim of the study was to determine the influenza vaccine coverage rates among Polish nurses and to find out drivers and barriers for influenza vaccination among this group of health care workers (HCWs). Material and methods: The self- fulfilled survey with 26 questions about the knowledge, perception, and influenza coverage rates was distributed among 461 nurses. Results: Only 15% of nurses were vaccinated against influenza in the consecutive seasons. The majority (75%) of the regularly vaccinated nurses were ambulatory careworkers. The difference between the number of vaccinated hospitals and ambulatory care nurses was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main motivating factors for an influenza vaccination were: a fear of the illness and its complications (97%) and a free of charge vaccine available at the workplace (87%). Ambulatory care nurses more often declared that they were vaccinated mainly to protect themselves while hospital care nurses more often declared the will to protect their patients, these differences in the perception and attitudes to an influenza vaccination among hospital and ambulatory care nurses were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main barriers for an influenza vaccination among the nursing staff were: a lack of reimbursement of the vaccine (95%), a lack of insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness, and safety of the influenza vaccine (54%). The ambulatory care nurses more often found influenza vaccination as the ethical duty compared to hospital care nurses (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The influenza vaccine coverage rates among the Polish nurses are low and must be improved in the future. More educational activities dedicated to HCWs may result in the increased awareness of influenza vaccination benefits for both medical professionals and patients.

Keywords: influenza, vaccination, nurses, ambulatory careworkers

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113 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor, J. P. Chollom

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This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, epidemiology, vaccination, mathematical model

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112 Activities for Increasing Childhood Vaccination Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Population, Greece, European Program PHILOS, 2017

Authors: C. Silvestros, K. Mellou, T. Georgakopoulou, A. Koustenis, E. Kokkinou, C. Botsi, A. Terzidis

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'PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis' is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. One of the main objectives of the program is the immunization coverage of the target – population to assure the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. The program foresees vaccination needs assessment of children hosted at camps at the mainland and implementation of interventions to cover the vaccination gaps in co-operation with the Ministry of Health. The National Immunization Advisory Committee in Greece recommended that MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) and HEXA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccines should be performed in priority. Recording was completed at 24 camps (May - June 2017); 3381 children (0-18 years) were recorded. The median number of children hosted at each camp was 95 (range: 5-553). For 68% of the children, the WHO vaccination booklet was available. 44%, 48.5% and 61% of the children were vaccinated with at least one dose of PCV, HEXA, and MMR, respectively. The proportion of vaccinated children for the three vaccines mentioned above is significantly lower for the remaining doses; PCV (second dose 8%, third dose 1.3%), HEXA (second dose 13%, third dose 2.7%, forth dose 0.1%) and MMR (second dose 23%). None of the 37 (10 from Afghanistan, 3 from Bangladesh, 23 from Pakistan, 1 from Syria) recorded unaccompanied children did not have a WHO vaccination booklet and were considered unvaccinated. There is no differentiation in vaccination coverage among different ethnicities. Massive catch up vaccination was performed at 4 camps, and 671 vaccinations were performed (245 PCV, 307 HEXA, and 119 MMR). Similar interventions are planned for all camps of the country. Recording reveled gaps in vaccination coverage of the population, mainly because of the mobility of the population, the influx of refugees- which is still ongoing- and new births. Mass vaccination campaigns are considered vital in order to increase vaccination coverage, and continuous efforts are needed in order all children living at the camps to have full access to the National Childhood Immunization Program.

Keywords: vaccine preventable, refugee–migrants camps, vaccination coverage, PCV, MMR, HEXA

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111 Influenza Vaccination Acceptance and Refusal Reasons among Tunisian Elderly

Authors: Ghassen Kharroubi, Ines Cherif, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret McCarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb

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Influenza vaccination (IV) is recommended for elderly persons, especially those with underlying conditions. In countries where IV rates in the elderly remain unsatisfactory, exploring attitudes of older persons toward the flu vaccine could be useful to identify barriers and facilitators to IV. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for IV acceptance or decline in the Tunisian elderly. A national cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019, among persons aged 60 years and over with chronic disease. Data were collected using a standard administered questionnaire. Of the 1191 older persons included, 19.4% received the influenza vaccine in the 2018-2019 flu season. The two main reasons that may lead to refusal of vaccination were concerns that the vaccine could cause side effects (71.5%) and a belief that the vaccine was ineffective (33.9%). The main reason that may lead to accepting vaccination was a doctor’s recommendation (41.1%). Doctors were by far the most trusted source for information regarding influenza vaccine (91.5%) followed by pharmacists (17.6%). Our results highlighted the important role that doctors could play in promoting IV among the Tunisian elderly. Physicians should correct misconceptions about adverse events and the efficiency of the vaccine. In fact, influenza vaccines are generally effective and safe among older persons.

Keywords: attitudes, influenza vaccination, older persons, Tunisia

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110 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

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Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS), India

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109 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan

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Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

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108 Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Clostridium botulinum Types B Vaccine Candidate

Authors: Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Kichan Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

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Botulism is a paralytic disease of human beings and animals caused by neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxins are genetically distinguished into 8 types, A to H. Ingestion of performed toxin, usually types B, C, and D, have been shown to produce diseases in most cases of cattle botulism. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent cattle botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. We produced recombinant protein using gene of heavy chain domain of botulinum toxin B of which binds to cellular receptor of neuron cells and used as immunogen. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of botulism vaccine composed of recombinant types B. Safety test was done by National Regulation for Veterinary Biologicals. For efficacy test, female ICR mice (5 weeks old) were subcutaneously injected, intraperitoneally challenged, and examined the survival rates compared with vaccination and non-vaccination group. Mouse survival rate of recombinant types B vaccine was above 80%, while one of non-vaccination group was 0%. A vaccine composed of recombinant types B was safe and efficacious in mouse. Our results suggest that recombinant heavy chain receptor binding domain can be used as an effective vaccine candidate for type B botulism.

Keywords: botulism, livestock, vaccine, recombinant protein, toxin

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107 Uptake and Determinants of Rabies Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among At-Risk Travelers

Authors: Florian Lienert, Peter Costa, Caroline Aurensan, Elaine Melander

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Introduction: Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be given before travel and simplifies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). We studied the knowledge about rabies, the uptake of PrEP, and reasons for deciding for or against PrEP in at-risk travelers. We also examined how healthcare professionals (HCPs) counsel on rabies prevention. Methods: On behalf of Bavarian Nordic, Ipsos MORI conducted two online surveys in the USA. Fieldwork from February 24th to April 23rd, 2021, 689 participants aged 18-85 years, visited one of 91 endemic rabies countries in the past 3 years for at least one week, involved in at least 1 of 7 at-risk activities, heard of rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed travelers). Secondly, 76 HCPs, with responsibility for advising/ making decisions about vaccination requirements for their patients, personally recommend or prescribe vaccines for rabies, positive towards vaccination and chose to take part (surveyed HCPs). Results: A minority (36%) of surveyed travelers classified rabies as a life-threatening disease. A third of surveyed HCPs (37%) did not discuss rabies vaccination with at-risk travelers, 18% discussed only PEP, 23% only PrEP and 22% both. A minority (21%) of surveyed travelers reported having received rabies vaccination since they were 18. Among those participants (n=145), the most common reasons for deciding to get PrEP were for their own peace of mind (35%) and following an HCP recommendation (32%). Of those who decided not to receive the rabies vaccine (n=319), the most common reasons were that they did not think their risk of rabies was sufficient (23%) and that the HCP did not suggest it (23%). Conclusions: The survey demonstrated knowledge gaps around rabies and low PrEP coverage among surveyed travelers. It also highlighted the role of HCP recommendations and showed that most HCPs did not discuss PrEP with at-risk travelers.

Keywords: rabies, pre-exposure prophylaxis, travel, travel health, post-travel care, rabies treatment, vaccine, post-exposure, prophylaxis, at-risk, education, PrEP, PEP

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106 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak

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Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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105 Consumer Cognitive Models of Vaccine Attitudes: Behavioral Informed Strategies Promoting Vaccination Policy in Greece

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Antonopoulou Hera

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Immunization appears to be an essential part of health care service in times of pandemics such as covid-19 and aims not only to protect the health of the population but also the health and sustainability of the economies of the countries affected. It is reported that more than 3.44 billion doses have been administered so far, which accounts for 45 doses for 100 people. Vaccination programs in various countries have been promoted and accepted by people differently and therefore they proceeded in different ways and speed; most countries directing them towards people with vulnerable chronic or recent health statuses. Large scale restriction measures or lockdown, personal protection measures such as masks and gloves and a decrease in leisure and sports activities were also implemented around the world as part of the protection health strategies against the covid-19 pandemic. This research aims to present an analysis based on variations on people’s attitudes towards vaccination based on demographic, social and epidemiological characteristics, and health status on the one hand and perception of health, health satisfaction, pain, and quality of life on the other hand. 1500 Greek e-consumers participated in the research, mainly through social media who took part in an online-based survey voluntarily. The questionnaires included demographic, social and medical characteristics of the participants, and questions asking people’s willingness to be vaccinated and their opinion on whether there should be a vaccine against covid-19. Other stressor factors were also reported in the questionnaires and participants’ loss of someone close due to covid-19, or staying at home quarantine due to being infected from covid-19. WHOQUOL-BREF and GLOBAL PSYCHOTRAUMA SCREEN- GPS were used with kind permission from WHO and from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in this study. Attitudes towards vaccination varied significantly related to aging, level of education, health status and consumer behavior. Health professionals’ attitudes also varied in relation to age, level of education, profession, health status and consumer needs. Vaccines have been the most common technological aid of human civilization so far in the fight against viruses. The results of this study can be used for health managers and digital marketers of pharmaceutical companies and also other staff involved in vaccination programs and for designing health policy immunization strategies during pandemics in order to achieve positive attitudes towards vaccination and larger populations being vaccinated in shorter periods of time after the break out of pandemic. Health staff needs to be trained, aided and supervised to go through with vaccination programs and to be protected through vaccination programs themselves. Feedback in each country’s vaccination program, short backs, deficiencies and delays should be addressed and worked out.

Keywords: consumer behavior, cognitive models, vaccination policy, pandemic, Covid-19, Greece

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104 Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Forward to Post-COVID-19

Authors: Achiron Anat, Mathilda Mandel, Mayust Sue, Achiron Reuven, Gurevich Michael

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Introduction: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is currently spreading around the world, it is of importance to assess the ability of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to mount an appropriate immune response to the vaccine in the context of disease-modifying treatments (DMT’s). Objectives: Evaluate immunity generated following COVID-19 vaccination in MS patients, and assess factors contributing to protective humoral and cellular immune responses in MS patients vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) virus infection. Methods: Review our recent data related to (1) the safety of PfizerBNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in adult MS patients; (2) the humoral post-vaccination SARS-CoV2 IgG response in MS vaccinees using anti-spike protein-based serology; and (3) the cellular immune response of memory B-cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and memory T-cells secreting IFN-g and/or IL-2 in response to SARS-CoV2 peptides using ELISpot/Fluorospot assays in MS patients either untreated or under treatment with fingolimod, cladribine, or ocrelizumab; (4) covariate parameters related to mounting protective immune responses. Results: COVID-19 vaccine proved safe in MS patients, and the adverse event profile was mainly characterised by pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. Not any increased risk of relapse activity was noted and the rate of patients with acute relapse was comparable to the relapse rate in non-vaccinated patients during the corresponding follow-up period. A mild increase in the rate of adverse events was noted in younger MS patients, among patients with lower disability, and in patients treated with DMTs. Following COVID-19 vaccination protective humoral immune response was significantly decreased in fingolimod- and ocrelizumab- treated MS patients. SARS-CoV2 specific B-cell and T-cell cellular responses were respectively decreased. Untreated MS patients and patients treated with cladribine demonstrated protective humoral and cellular immune responses, similar to healthy vaccinated subjects. Conclusions: COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccine proved as safe for MS patients. No increased risk of relapse activity was noted post-vaccination. Although COVID-19 vaccination is new, accumulated data demonstrate differences in immune responses under various DMT’s. This knowledge can help to construct appropriate COVID-19 vaccine guidelines to ensure proper immune responses for MS patients.

Keywords: covid-19, vaccination, multiple sclerosis, IgG

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103 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin

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Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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102 Characterization of the Immune Response of Inactivated RVF Vaccine: A Comparative Study in Sheep and Goats as Experimental Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaghawa

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Rift Valley Fever is an economically specific disease of the health and arboviral disease that affects many types of animals, causing significant economic losses in livestock, and it is transmitted to humans and has public health issues. The vaccine program is the backbone for the control of this disease. The goal of this study was to apply a new approach to evaluate the inactivated RVF vaccine developed in Egypt. In this study, the RVF vaccine was evaluated in young puppies and compared with sheep; the findings showed that young puppies were susceptible to infection with the inhibitory RVF virus and had a strong response of antibodies with two doses of the RVF vaccine within the two-week interval. The neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.35 and steadily elevated at 14,21 and 28 days to 1.35, 1.43, and 1.20, respectively, in comparison to the control group. While in sheep, the neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.10 and remain strongly at high titer at 14, 21, and 28 days with NI values 1.20, 1.50, and 1.50, respectively. The new approach for comparing the immune response in puppies and sheep via SNT indicated the high response in both species was evident as well as the neutralization indices values in young puppies at different periods after RVF vaccination reported the value of 1.08±0.03, 1.23±0.04, 1.30±0.03, and 1.45±0.02 after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination respectively. On the other side, a nearly similar immune response was noticed in sheep with NI values of 1.15±0.02, 1.27±0.02, 1.42±0.05, and 1.55±0.03 at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, young puppies are similar to sheep in developing antibodies after vaccination with the RVF vaccine and can replace sheep for evaluating the efficacy of the RVF vaccine. Further studies are mandatory to assess more recent methods for evaluating inhibition of the RVF vaccine.

Keywords: immune response, puppies, RVF, sheep, vaccine

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101 Effects of Propolis on Immunomodulatory and Antibody Production in Broilers

Authors: Yu-Hsiang Yu

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The immunomodulatory effect of propolis has been widely investigated in the past decade. However, the beneficial effects in broilers are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis added in drinking water on immunomodulatory and antibody production in broiler. Total of 48 chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 12 broilers per group. All birds were intranasal inoculated with Newcastle Disease vaccine at 4 and 14 days old of age. Four groups, including control without any treatment, groups of A, B and F [3 days of anterior (A), 3 days of posterior (P) and 6 days of full (F)] were supplied the propolis at 300 ppm in drinking water when vaccination was performed, respectively. Our results showed that no significant difference was found in growth performance, antibody production and immune organ index among groups. However, propolis treatments in broilers significantly reduced IL-4 expression in spleen at 14 days-old of age and bursa at 28 days-old of age compared with control group. The expression of IFN-gamma in spleen (A, P and F group) and bursal (F group) were elevated compared with control group at 28 days-old of age. In conclusion, our results indicated that propolis-treated birds could bear the capability for immunomodulatory effects by change Th1 subset cytokine expression in vaccination.

Keywords: propolis, broiler, immunomodulatory, vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
100 Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers

Authors: Beryl Rene R. Lopez, Lesley Anne M. Lipat, Rhogene Barbette C. Lirio, Laurice Joy H. Llanes, Karl Philippe M. Llapitan, Einstein James R. Lopez, Socorro S. GuanHing

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Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.

Keywords: socio-demographic, health beliefs, compliance, measles vaccination

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99 A Vaccination Program to Control an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A among MSM in Taiwan, 2016

Authors: Ying-Jung Hsieh, Angela S. Huang, Chu-Ming Chiu, Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang

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Background and Objectives: Hepatitis A is primarily acquired by the fecal-oral route through person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. During 2010 to 2014, an average of 83 cases of locally-acquired disease was reported to Taiwan’s notifiable disease system. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) identified an outbreak of acute hepatitis A which began in June 2015. Of the 126 cases reported in 2015, 103 (82%) cases were reported during June–December and 95 cases (92%) of them were male. The average age of all male cases was 31 years (median, 29 years; range, 15–76 years). Among the 95 male cases, 49 (52%) were also infected with HIV, and all reported to have had sex with other men. To control this outbreak, TCDC launched a free hepatitis A vaccination program in January 2016 for close contacts of confirmed hepatitis A cases, including family members, sexual partners, and household contacts. Effect of the vaccination program was evaluated. Methods: All cases of hepatitis A reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System were included. A case of hepatitis A was defined as a locally-acquired disease in a person who had acute clinical symptoms include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea or abdominal discomfort compatible with hepatitis, and tested positive for anti-HAV IgM during June 2015 to June 2016 in Taiwan. The rate of case accumulation was calculated using a simple regression model. Results: During January–June 2016, there were 466 cases of hepatitis A reported; of the 243 (52%) who were also infected with HIV, 232 (95%) had a history of having sex with men. Of the 346 cases that were followed up, 259 (75%) provided information on contacts but only 14 (5%) of them provided the name of their sexual partners. Among the 602 contacts reported, 349 (58%) were family members, 14 (2%) were sexual partners, and 239 (40%) were other household contacts. Among the 602 contacts eligible for free hepatitis A vaccination, 440 (73%) received the vaccine. There were 87 (25%) cases that refused to disclose their close contacts. The average case accumulation rate during January–June 2016 was 21.7 cases per month, which was 6.8 times compared to the average case accumulation rate during June–December 2015 of 3.2 cases per month. Conclusions: Despite vaccination program aimed to provide free hepatitis A vaccine to close contacts of hepatitis A patients, the outbreak continued and even gained momentum in transmission. Refusal by hepatitis A patients to provide names of their close contacts and rejection of contacts to take the hepatitis A vaccine may have contributed to the poor effect of the program. Targeted vaccination efforts of all MSM may be needed to control the outbreak among this population in the short term. In the long term, universal vaccination program is needed to prevent the infection of hepatitis A.

Keywords: hepatitis A, HIV, men who have sex with men, vaccination

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98 Comparison of Susceptibility to Measles in Preterm Infants versus Term Infants

Authors: Joseph L. Mathew, Shourjendra N. Banerjee, R. K. Ratho, Sourabh Dutta, Vanita Suri

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Background: In India and many other developing countries, a single dose of measles vaccine is administered to infants at 9 months of age. This is based on the assumption that maternal transplacentally transferred antibodies will protect infants until that age. However, our previous data showed that most infants lose maternal anti-measles antibodies before 6 months of age, making them susceptible to measles before vaccination at 9 months. Objective: This prospective study was designed to compare susceptibility in pre-term vs term infants, at different time points. Material and Methods: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval and a formal informed consent process, venous blood was drawn from a cohort of 45 consecutive term infants and 45 consecutive pre-term infants (both groups delivered by the vaginal route); at birth, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (prior to measles vaccination). Serum was separated and anti-measles IgG antibody levels were measured by quantitative ELISA kits (with sensitivity and specificity > 95%). Susceptibility to measles was defined as antibody titre < 200mIU/ml. The mean antibody levels were compared between the two groups at the four time points. Results: The mean gestation of term babies was 38.5±1.2 weeks; and pre-term babies 34.7±2.8 weeks. The respective mean birth weights were 2655±215g and 1985±175g. Reliable maternal vaccination record was available in only 7 of the 90 mothers. Mean anti-measles IgG antibody (±SD) in terms babies was 3165±533 IU/ml at birth, 1074±272 IU/ml at 3 months, 314±153 IU/ml at 6 months, and 68±21 IU/ml at 9 months. The corresponding levels in pre-term babies were 2875±612 IU/ml, 948±377 IU/ml, 265±98 IU/ml, and 72±33 IU/ml at 9 months (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). The proportion of susceptible term infants at birth, 3months, 6months and 9months was 0%, 16%, 67% and 96%. The corresponding proportions in the pre-term infants were 0%, 29%, 82%, and 100% (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). Conclusion: Majority of infants are susceptible to measles before 9 months of age suggesting the need to anticipate measles vaccination, but there was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of susceptible term and pre-term infants, at any of the four-time points. A larger study is required to confirm these findings and compare sero-protection if vaccination is anticipated to be administered between 6 and 9 months.

Keywords: measles, preterm, susceptibility, term infant

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97 Migrant and Population Health, Two Sides of a Coin: A Descriptive Study

Authors: A. Sottomayor, M. Perez Duque, M. C. Henriques

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Introduction: Migration is not a new phenomenon; nomads often traveled, seeking better living conditions, including food and water. The increase of migrations affects all countries, rising health-related challenges. In Portugal, we have had migrant movements in the last decades, pairing with economic behavior. Irregular immigrants are detained in Santo António detention center from Portuguese Immigration and Borders Service (USHA-SEF) in Porto until court decision for a maximum of 60 days. It is the only long stay officially designated detention center for immigrants in Portugal. Immigrant health is important for public health (PH). It affects and is affected by the community. The XXVII Portuguese Government considered immigrant integration, including access to health, health promotion, protection and reduction of inequities a political priority. Many curative, psychological and legal services are provided for detainees, but until 2015, no structured health promotion or prevention actions were being held at USHA-SEF. That year, Porto Occidental PH Local Unit started to provide vaccination and health literacy on this theme for detainees and SEF workers. Our activities include a vaccine lecture, a medical consultation with vaccine prescription and administration, along with documented proof of vaccination. All vaccines are volunteer and free of charge. This action reduces the risk of importation and transmission of diseases, contributing to world eradication and elimination programs. We aimed to characterize the demography of irregular immigrant detained at UHSA-SEF and describe our activity. Methods: All data was provided by Porto Occidental Public Health Unit. All paper registers of vaccination were uploaded to MicrosoftExcel®. We included all registers and collected demographic variables, nationality, vaccination date, category, and administered vaccines. Descriptive analysis was performed using MicrosoftExcel®. Results: From 2015 to 2018, we delivered care to 256 individuals (179 immigrants; 77 workers). Considering immigrants, 72% were male, and 8 (16%) women were pregnant. 85% were between 20-54 years (ᵡ=30,8y; 2-71y), and 11 didn’t report any age. Migrants came from 48 countries, and India had the highest number (9%). MMR and Tetanus vaccines had > 90% vaccination rate and Poliomyelitis, hepatitis B and flu vaccines had around 85% vaccination rates. We had a consistent number of refusals. Conclusion: Our irregular migrant population comes from many different countries, which increases the risk of disease importation. Pregnant women are present as a particular subset of irregular migrants, and vaccination protects them and the baby. Vaccination of migrant is valuable for them and for the countries in which they pass. It contributes to universal health coverage, for eradication programmes and accomplishment of the Sustainable Development Goals. Peer influence may present as a determinant of refusals so we must consistently educate migrants before vaccination. More studies would be valuable, particularly on the migrant trajectory, duration of stay, destiny after court decision and health impact.

Keywords: migrants, public health, universal health coverage, vaccination

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96 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

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Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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95 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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94 Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases

Authors: H. Al-Khalaifa, A. Al-Nasser

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The viewpoint towards the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of a vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.

Keywords: drugs, parasitology, poultry, vaccines

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
93 Factors Associated with Uptake of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination in Pregnant Women

Authors: Hassen Mohammed, Michelle Clarke, Helen Marshall

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Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to protect pregnant women and their offspring from vaccine-preventable diseases. Despite the recommendation of maternal influenza and more recently pertussis immunization in Australia, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal. Monitoring the impact of the current funded vaccine programs for pregnant women is limited. The study aimed to assess the impact of the funded program and determine factors associated with vaccine uptake in pregnant women. This observational prospective study was undertaken between November 2014 and July 2016 at the Women’s and Children’s Hospital in South Australia (WCH). Demographic details and vaccination history from South Australian pregnant women who attended the WCH were reviewed. A standardized self-reported survey was conducted in antenatal care with a follow up telephone interview at 8-10 weeks post-delivery. A midwife delivered immunization program for pregnant women in antenatal clinic commenced in April 2015. Of the 180 pregnant women who completed the survey questionnaire, 75.5% and 80.5 % received maternal influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. First-time mothers had twice the odds of having received influenza vaccine during pregnancy than multiparous women (OR 2.4; CI 1.14 - 4.94; p= 0.021). The proportion of women who received pertussis vaccine during pregnancy, following the introduction of the midwife delivered pertussis vaccination program (140/155, 90.3%) was significantly higher compared with women who received maternal pertussis vaccination prior to the introduction of the program (5/22, 23.7%, p < 0.001). The odds of women receiving maternal pertussis vaccine following the implementation of the midwife delivered program were 31 times higher than women who delivered babies prior to the program (OR 31.7, CI 10.24- 98.27; p < 0.001). High uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy can be attained with health care provider recommendation and inclusion of maternal immunization as part of standard antenatal care.

Keywords: influenza, maternal immunization, pertussis, provider recommendation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
92 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

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Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
91 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

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Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 206