Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Suzana Leitão Russo

21 Spectral Analysis Applied to Variables of Oil Wells Profiling

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, José Augusto Andrade Filho, Mayara Laysa de Oliveira Silva, Vitor Hugo Simon

Abstract:

Currently, seismic methods and prospecting methods are commonly applied in the oil industry and, according to the information reported every day; oil is a source of non-renewable energy. It is easier to understand why the ownership of areas of oil extraction is coveted by many nations. It is necessary to think about ways that will enable the maximization of oil production. The technique of spectral analysis can be used to analyze the behavior of the variables already defined in oil well the profile. The main objective is to verify the series dependence of variables, and to model the variables using the frequency domain to observe the model residuals.

Keywords: Oil, Spectral Analysis, oil extraction, well

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20 Comparatives Studies about Moser´s Light and Conventional Lights

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, Carlos Tadeu Santana Tatum

Abstract:

This paper aims to show comparative studies of different types of innovation applied to lighting, along with a theoretical review by means of a bibliographic method. We demonstrate that it is possible to understand the impacts of industries with a conventional innovation that uses natural resources to manufacture lights, and the opposite, when a frugal innovation solves the problems of a society at the bottom of the pyramid, helping people without access to electricity to get home lighting. The frugal innovation is simply the use of recycled PET bottles. We achieved the objective of our study by gathering data from environment, electrical engineering, international rules, and innovation, which gave us the best results. With all these variables, we can characterize this work as an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: Innovation, Light, frugal, PET bottle

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19 Technologic Information about Photovoltaic Applied in Urban Residences

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, Stephanie Fabris Russo, Daiane Costa Guimarães, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Maria Emilia Camargo, José Augusto Andrade Filho

Abstract:

Among renewable energy sources, solar energy is the one that has stood out. Solar radiation can be used as a thermal energy source and can also be converted into electricity by means of effects on certain materials, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic panels. These panels are often used to generate energy in homes, buildings, arenas, etc., and have low pollution emissions. Thus, a technological prospecting was performed to find patents related to the use of photovoltaic plates in urban residences. The patent search was based on ESPACENET, associating the keywords photovoltaic and home, where we found 136 patent documents in the period of 1994-2015 in the fields title and abstract. Note that the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number of applicants, with respectively, 11, 13, 23, 29, 15 and 21. Regarding the country that deposited about this technology, it is clear that China leads with 67 patent deposits, followed by Japan with 38 patents applications. It is important to note that most depositors, 50% are companies, 44% are individual inventors and only 6% are universities. On the International Patent classification (IPC) codes, we noted that the most present classification in results was H02J3/38, which represents provisions in parallel to feed a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers. Among all categories, there is the H session, which means Electricity, with 70% of the patents.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Technology Forecasting, urban residences, prospecting

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18 Times Series Analysis of Depositing in Industrial Design in Brazil between 1996 and 2013

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Maria Emilia Camargo, Alberth Almeida Amorim Souza

Abstract:

With the law Nº. 9279, of May 14, 1996, the Brazilian government regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property considering the economic development of the country as granting patents, trademark registration, registration of industrial designs and other forms of protection copyright. In this study, we show the application of the methodology of Box and Jenkins in the series of deposits of industrial design at the National Institute of Industrial Property for the period from May 1996 to April 2013. First, a graphical analysis of the data was done by observing the behavior of the data and the autocorrelation function. The best model found, based on the analysis of charts and statistical tests suggested by Box and Jenkins methodology, it was possible to determine the model number for the deposit of industrial design, SARIMA (2,1,0)(2,0,0), with an equal to 9.88% MAPE.

Keywords: Industrial Design, Time series, autocorrelation, ARIMA Models, Box and Jenkins Models, MAPE

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17 The Industrial Property in the Context of Wine Production in Brazil

Authors: Fátima R. Zan, Daniela C. Guimarães, Rosângela O. Soares, Suzana L. Russo

Abstract:

The wine until it reaches the consumer has a long way to go, from planting the wine to the bottling and the placing on the market, bringing many years of experimentation, and through several generations to have recognition for quality and excellence. The winemaking grew dramatically and are today many brands, including the associated locations, demonstrating their origin and cultural order that is associated with their production. The production, circulation and marketing of wines and products of grape and wine in Brazil is regulated by Law 7.678/88, amended by Law 10970/04, and adjusting the legislation to Regulation Wine Mercosur. This study was based on a retrospective study, and aimed to identify and characterize the modalities of industrial property used in wine production in Brazil. The wineries were selected from the 2014 ranking list, drawn up by the World Association of Journalists and Writers of Wines and Spirits (WAWWJ). The results show that the registration with INPI, regarding Patents, Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications, is not used by the wineries analyzed.

Keywords: Protection, Counterfeiting, industrial property, wine production

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16 Sponsorship Strategy, Its Visibility, and Return: A Case Study on Brazilian Olympic Games

Authors: Elizabeth F. Rodrigues, Julia da R. Mattos, Naira Q. Leitão, Roberta T. da Cunha

Abstract:

The business strategy of many companies has two factors in common: the search for the competitive edge and its long term maintenance. The thing that differentiates the companies’ performance in their abilities to set the right strategy, which depends on their capacity to analyze and apply all sort of management support tools. In this context, the sponsorship of events stands out as an important way to increase brand awareness, especially when it is a worldwide event, such as Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This paper will present the case of a car maker company, which chose to invest on sponsorship as a way to reach its goals and grow in the brazilian market.

Keywords: Management, Strategy, Events, Sponsorship

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15 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

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Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, rewards

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14 Expatriation Success: Different Perceptions

Authors: Graziele Zwielewski, Suzana R. Tolfo

Abstract:

The globalization of markets, the need to develop competitive advantages and core competencies, among other things, lead organizations to increasingly cross borders to operate in other countries. The expatriation of professionals who go to work in another country besides their own becomes increasingly common. In order to generate data about this issue, research was conducted concerning the perception of expatriate employees concerning expatriation success. The research method used was case study through a qualitative approach. This research was done through interviews with five India expatriates and five China expatriates, interview with expatriate department heads and analysis of company documents. It was found that there are differences between the organizational perception and perception of expatriates of what constitutes mission success. The paper also provides suggestions for further research and suggestions for future expatriates.

Keywords: International assignments, success factors, expatriation success, success for expatriates

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13 Prospection of Technology Production in Physiotherapy in Brazil

Authors: C. M. Priesnitz, G. Zanandrea, J. P. Fabris, S. L. Russo, M. E. Camargo

Abstract:

This study aimed to the prospection the physiotherapy area technological production registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) in Brazil, for understand the evolution of the technological production in the country over time and visualize the distribution this production request in Brazil. There was an evolution in the technology landscape, where the average annual deposits had an increase of 102%, from 3.14 before the year 2004 to 6,33 after this date. It was found differences in the distribution of the number the deposits requested to each Brazilian region, being that of the 132 request, 68,9% were from the southeast region. The international patent classification evaluated the request deposits, and the more found numbers were A61H and A63B. So even with an improved panorama of technology production, this should still have incentives since it is an important tool for the development of the country.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Evolution, Distribution, patent, technological prospecting

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12 Ageing Population and Generational Turn-Over in the Italian Labour Market: Towards a Sustainable Solidarity

Authors: Marianna Russo

Abstract:

Ageing population and youth unemployment are the major challenges that Western Countries – and Italy in particular – are facing in recent years. These phenomena have a significant impact not only on the labour market and the welfare system, but also on the organisational models of work. Therefore, in Italy, in the past few years, there have been some attempts to regulate the management of generational turn-over: intergenerational pacts, early retirement incentives, solidarity contracts, etc. In particular, this paper aims to focus on the expansive solidarity contracts, that were introduced in the Italian legal system for the first time in 1984. Indeed, they have been little used during the thirty years of their lives, so the Legislative Decree no. 148/2015, implementing the so-called Jobs Act, has given them another opportunity. The paper tries to analyse the rules and the empirical data, looking for a sustainable model of generational turn-over management.

Keywords: ageing population, generational turn-over, Italian jobs' act, solidarity contracts

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11 GIS Application in Surface Runoff Estimation for Upper Klang River Basin, Malaysia

Authors: Wardah Tahir, Suzana Ramli

Abstract:

Estimation of surface runoff depth is a vital part in any rainfall-runoff modeling. It leads to stream flow calculation and later predicts flood occurrences. GIS (Geographic Information System) is an advanced and opposite tool used in simulating hydrological model due to its realistic application on topography. The paper discusses on calculation of surface runoff depth for two selected events by using GIS with Curve Number method for Upper Klang River basin. GIS enables maps intersection between soil type and land use that later produces curve number map. The results show good correlation between simulated and observed values with more than 0.7 of R2. Acceptable performance of statistical measurements namely mean error, absolute mean error, RMSE, and bias are also deduced in the paper.

Keywords: Environment, Geographic Information System, surface runoff, curve number method

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10 Territorial Disputes behind the Declaration of Independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Some Latin American States

Authors: Besik Goginava

Abstract:

Several days later after the end of 2008 Russo-Georgian War, Venezuela and Nicaragua formally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 2009-10 both countries established diplomatic relations with self-declared republics. It is a paradoxical fact that after neighboring Russia-Georgian conflict territories were internationally recognized by two Latin American states with ongoing territorial disputes. The Venezuela-Guyana territorial dispute which officially began in the early XIX century became conflict-ridden again in the late 1990s and 2000s. Venezuela has long claimed the land which comprises 40% of Guyana’s current territory. Territorial disputes of Nicaragua include dispute with Colombia over Caribbean Islands, with Costa Rica over the San Juan River and maritime dispute with Honduras. Based on historical and analytical research methods the purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Venezuela and Nicaragua and Venezuela’s territorial dispute with Guyana, as well as Nicaragua’s with Colombia, Costa Rica and Honduras. The objective of the study is to investigate the factors that led Venezuela and Nicaragua to formally recognize Georgian conflict territories and how could their own territorial disputes affect on their decision.

Keywords: Latin America, Georgia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Abkhazia, South Ossetia

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9 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Joana Cabral, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Ermelindo Peixoto, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira

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Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, parenting styles, Shame, early memories, paranoid ideation, submissiveness

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8 Motivating Factors of Couple Involvement in Copreneurship Businesses in Malaysia

Authors: Norasmah Othman, Suzana Mohamed, Salpiah Suradi

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Copreneurship is a term used to describe the business pattern of operations run by married couples who share commitment, goals, and responsibilities in handling a business. Research conducted overseas showed that copreneurship business activities grew quickly and played a role in elevating families’ and nations’ socio-economic standards. In Malaysia, copreneurship has long been cultivated by spouses. Thus, this study aimed to explore the factors that motivate married partners to start a copreneurship business, and who is the dominant partner in the management of this business. The study participants are four entrepreneurial couples who are SME business operators selected through purposive sampling. In-depth interviews and direct observation were used as methods of measurement for triangulation of qualitative data in this study. The findings of the interviews were administered using NVivo 8.0 software. The result shows that freedom is a key factor that drives entrepreneurs to set up copreneurship businesses, and that the husband dominates the management aspects of the business. The study gives an overview of the parties involved in entrepreneurship to provide understanding of the copreneurship concept as it is practiced. This study provides academic value by creating understanding of the importance of a harmonious family institution specifically for forming entrepreneurs in the familial environment in Malaysia.

Keywords: Business Management, Enterprise, copreneurs, copreneurship

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7 Utilization of Bottom Ash as Catalyst in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen and Syngas Production: Lab Scale Approach

Authors: Suzana Yusup, Muhammad Shahbaz, Angga Pratama Herman

Abstract:

Bottom ash is a solid waste from thermal power plant and it is usually disposed of into landfills and ash ponds. These disposal methods are not sustainable since new lands need to be acquired as the landfills and ash ponds are fill to its capacity. Bottom ash also classified as hazardous material that makes the disposal methods may have contributed to the environmental effect to the area. Hence, more research needs to be done to explore the potential of recycling the bottom ash as more useful product. The objective of this research is to explore the potential of utilizing bottom ash as catalyst in biomass steam gasification. In this research, bottom ash was used as catalyst in gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA/MS). The effects of temperature (650 – 750 °C), particle size (0.5 – 1.0 mm) and bottom ash percentage (2 % - 10 %) were studied with and without steam. The experimental arrays were designed using expert method of Central Composite Design (CCD). Results show maximum yield of hydrogen gas was 34.3 mole % for gasification without steam and 61.4 Mole % with steam. Similar trend was observed for syngas production. The maximum syngas yield was 59.5 mole % for without steam and it reached up to 81.5 mole% with the use of steam. The optimal condition for both product gases was temperature 700 °C, particle size 0.75 mm and cool bottom ash % 0.06. In conclusion, the use of bottom ash as catalyst is possible for biomass steam gasification and the product gases composition are comparable with previous researches, however the results need to be validated for bench or pilot scale study.

Keywords: Catalyst, bottom ash, biomass steam gasification, lab scale

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6 Assessment of Conditions and Experience for Plantation of Agro-Energy Crops on Degraded Agricultural Land in Serbia

Authors: Djordjevic J. Sladjana, Djordjevic-Milošević B. Suzana, Milošević M. Slobodan

Abstract:

The potential of biomass as a renewable energy source leads Serbia to be the top of European countries by the amount of available but unused biomass. Technologies for its use are available and ecologically acceptable. Moreover, they are not expensive high-tech solutions even for the poor investment environment of Serbia, while other options seem to be less achievable. From the other point of view, Serbia has a huge percentage of unused agriculture land. Agricultural production in Serbia languishes: a large share of agricultural land therefore remains untreated, and there is a significant proportion of degraded land. From all the above, biomass intended for energy production is becoming an increasingly important factor in the stabilization of agricultural activities. Orientation towards the growing bioenergy crops versus conventional crop cultivation becomes an interesting option. The aim of this paper is to point out the possibility of growing energy crops in accordance with the conditions and cultural practice in rural areas of Serbia. First of all, the cultivation of energy crops on lower quality land is being discussed, in order to revitalize the rural areas of crops through their inclusion into potential energy sector. Next is the theme of throwing more light on the increase in the area under this competitive agricultural production to correct land use in terms of climate change in Serbia. The goal of this paper is to point out the contribution of the share of biomass in energy production and consumption, and the effect of reducing the negative environmental impact.

Keywords: agro-energy crops, conditions for plantation, revitalization of rural areas, degraded and unused soils

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5 Catalytic Soot Gasification in Single and Mixed Atmospheres of CO2 and H2O in the Presence of CO and H2

Authors: Yeidy Sorani Montenegro Camacho, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino

Abstract:

LiFeO2 nano-powders were prepared via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method and were used as carbon gasification catalyst in a reduced atmosphere. The gasification of soot with CO2 and H2O in the presence of CO and H2 (syngas atmosphere) were also investigated under atmospheric conditions using a fixed-bed micro-reactor placed in an electric, PID-regulated oven. The catalytic bed was composed of 150 mg of inert silica, 45 mg of carbon (Printex-U) and 5 mg of catalyst. The bed was prepared by ball milling the mixture at 240 rpm for 15 min to get an intimate contact between the catalyst and soot. A Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) of 38.000 h-1 was used for the tests campaign. The furnace was heated up to the desired temperature, a flow of 120 mL/min was sent into the system and at the same time the concentrations of CO, CO2 and H2 were recorded at the reactor outlet using an EMERSON X-STREAM XEGP analyzer. Catalytic and non-catalytic soot gasification reactions were studied in a temperature range of 120°C – 850°C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min (non-isothermal case) and at 650°C for 40 minutes (isothermal case). Experimental results show that the gasification of soot with H2O and CO2 are inhibited by the H2 and CO, respectively. The soot conversion at 650°C decreases from 70.2% to 31.6% when the CO is present in the feed. Besides, the soot conversion was 73.1% and 48.6% for H2O-soot and H2O-H2-soot gasification reactions, respectively. Also, it was observed that the carbon gasification in mixed atmosphere, i.e., when simultaneous carbon gasification with CO2 and steam take place, with H2 and CO as co-reagents; the gasification reaction is strongly inhibited by CO and H2, as well has been observed in single atmospheres for the isothermal and non-isothermal reactions. Further, it has been observed that when CO2 and H2O react with carbon at the same time, there is a passive cooperation of steam and carbon dioxide in the gasification reaction, this means that the two gases operate on separate active sites without influencing each other. Finally, despite the extreme reduced operating conditions, it has been demonstrated that the 32.9% of the initial carbon was gasified using LiFeO2-catalyst, while in the non-catalytic case only 8% of the soot was gasified at 650°C.

Keywords: syngas, soot gasification, nanostructured catalyst, reducing environment

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4 Evaluation of Electro-Flocculation for Biomass Production of Marine Microalgae Phaodactylum tricornutum

Authors: Luciana C. Ramos, Leandro J. Sousa, Antônio Ferreira da Silva, Valéria Gomes Oliveira Falcão, Suzana T. Cunha Lima

Abstract:

The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.

Keywords: biomass, Microalgae, Flocculation, diatom

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3 Effects of IMUNO-2865® as Immune Supplement for the Aquaculture Industry

Authors: Ivan Zupan, Tomislav Saric, Suzana Tkalcic

Abstract:

IMUNO-2865® is a commercially available, β–glucan based, natural hemicellulose compound with proven immunostimulative properties in people, domestic and some aquatic animals. During the experimental feeding trial with IMUNO-2865® in juvenile wild-caught chub under laboratory conditions, supplementation resulted in overall higher growth performance for all experimental groups regardless of the concentration of the added compound. The maximum, 5% concentration of the supplement, resulted in highest weight gain and calculated specific growth rate. In sea bream, as economically most important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, significant increases in numbers of monocytes and heterophils were observed in the group supplemented with 2.5 % of IMUNO-2865® in the feed. An overall increase of erythrocytes was noted by the end of the experiment, although with variable distribution among groups. Blood Ca++ levels, total proteins, and total NH₃ were significantly higher after 60 days of feeding in all treatment groups compared to the control and remained elevated in the treated group following the secession of supplementation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum paraoxonase PON1 (U/L) showed similar trends. All these parameters are playing a significant role in either oxygen supplementation of tissues, or anabolic and catabolic processes that on molecular levels contribute to the overall health and immune-building capacity of cells and tissues. The complete lack of mortality in sea bream and presented increases in cellular, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the blood suggest that the IMUNO-2865® represents a safe dietary supplement for in aquaculture, with an overall positive and potentially immunostimulative effect on farmed fish.

Keywords: IMUNO-2865®, β–glucans, Mediterranean aquaculture, fish imunnostimulans

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2 A Design Methodology and Tool to Support Ecodesign Implementation in Induction Hobs

Authors: Anna Costanza Russo, Daniele Landi, Michele Germani

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Nowadays, the European Ecodesign Directive has emerged as a new approach to integrate environmental concerns into the product design and related processes. Ecodesign aims to minimize environmental impacts throughout the product life cycle, without compromising performances and costs. In addition, the recent Ecodesign Directives require products which are increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performances. It is very important for producers measuring performances, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use, and a low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point, also in terms of ecodesign requirements. The Ecodesign Directive provides a clear framework about the sustainable design of products and it has been extended in 2009 to all energy-related products, or products with an impact on energy consumption during the use. The European Regulation establishes measures of ecodesign of ovens, hobs, and kitchen hoods, and domestic use and energy efficiency of a product has a significant environmental aspect in the use phase which is the most impactful in the life cycle. It is important that the product parameters and performances are not affected by ecodesign requirements from a user’s point of view, and the benefits of reducing energy consumption in the use phase should offset the possible environmental impact in the production stage. Accurate measurements of cooking appliance performance are essential to help the industry to produce more energy efficient appliances. The development of ecodriven products requires ecoinnovation and ecodesign tools to support the sustainability improvement. The ecodesign tools should be practical and focused on specific ecoobjectives in order to be largely diffused. The main scope of this paper is the development, implementation, and testing of an innovative tool, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of induction hobs. In particular, a prototypical software tool is developed in order to simulate the energy performances of the induction hobs. The tool is focused on a multiphysics model which is able to simulate the energy performances and the efficiency of induction hobs starting from the design data. The multiphysics model is composed by an electromagnetic simulation and a thermal simulation. The electromagnetic simulation is able to calculate the eddy current induced in the pot, which leads to the Joule heating of material. The thermal simulation is able to measure the energy consumption during the operational phase. The Joule heating caused from the eddy currents is the output of electromagnetic simulation and the input of thermal ones. The aims of the paper are the development of integrated tools and methodologies of virtual prototyping in the context of the ecodesign. This tool could be a revolutionary instrument in the field of industrial engineering and it gives consideration to the environmental aspects of product design and focus on the ecodesign of energy-related products, in order to achieve a reduced environmental impact.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, virtual prototyping, ecodesign, induction hobs

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1 In vivo Evaluation of LAB Probiotic Potential with the Zebrafish Animal Model

Authors: Iñaki Iturria, Pasquale Russo, Montserrat Nacher-Vázquez, Giuseppe Spano, Paloma López, Miguel Angel Pardo

Abstract:

Introduction: It is known that some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present an interesting probiotic effect. Probiotic bacteria stimulate host resistance to microbial pathogens and thereby aid in immune response, and modulate the host's immune responses to antigens with a potential to down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, probiotic therapy is valuable against intestinal infections and may be beneficial in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Several in vitro tests are available to evaluate the probiotic potential of a LAB strain. However, an in vivo model is required to understand the interaction between the host immune system and the bacteria. During the last few years, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained interest as a promising vertebrate model in this field. This organism has been extensively used to study the interaction between the host and the microbiota, as well as the host immune response under several microbial infections. In this work, we report on the use of the zebrafish model to investigate in vivo the colonizing ability and the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic LAB. Methods: Lactobacillus strains belonging to different LAB species were fluorescently tagged and used to colonize germ-free zebrafish larvae gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some of the strains had a well-documented probiotic effect (L. acidophilus LA5); while others presented an exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing phenotype, thus allowing evaluating the influence of EPS in the colonization and immunomodulatory effect. Bacteria colonization was monitored for 72 h by direct observation in real time using fluorescent microscopy. CFU count per larva was also evaluated at different times. The immunomodulatory effect was assessed analysing the differential expression of several innate immune system genes (MyD88, NF-κB, Tlr4, Il1β and Il10) by qRT- PCR. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using a chemical enterocolitis zebrafish model. The protective effect against a pathogen was also studied. To that end, a challenge test was developed using a fluorescently tagged pathogen (Vibrio anguillarum-GFP+). The progression of the infection was monitored up to 3 days using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Mortality rates and CFU counts were also registered. Results and conclusions: Larvae exposed to EPS-producing bacteria showed a higher fluorescence and CFU count than those colonized with no-EPS phenotype LAB. In the same way, qRT-PCR results revealed an immunomodulatory effect on the host after the administration of the strains with probiotic activity. A downregulation of proinflammatory cytoquines as well as other cellular mediators of inflammation was observed. The anti-inflammatory effect was found to be particularly marked following exposure to LA% strain, as well as EPS producing strains. Furthermore, the challenge test revealed a protective effect of probiotic administration. As a matter of fact, larvae fed with probiotics showed a decrease in the mortality rate ranging from 20 to 35%. Discussion: In this work, we developed a promising model, based on the use of gnotobiotic zebrafish coupled with a bacterial fluorescent tagging in order to evaluate the probiotic potential of different LAB strains. We have successfully used this system to monitor in real time the colonization and persistence of exogenous LAB within the gut of zebrafish larvae, to evaluate their immunomodulatory effect and for in vivo competition assays. This approach could bring further insights into the complex microbial-host interactions at intestinal level.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Immune System, zebrafish, gnotobiotic

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