Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: selenium

63 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed


During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growths, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favourable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: date palms, Zaghloul, silicon, selenium, leaf area

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62 The Effects of Soil Chemical Characteristics on Accumulation of Native Selenium by Zea mays Grains in Maize Belt in Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno, T. S. Jayne, M. Muyanga


Selenium which is an-antioxidant is important for human health enters food chain through crops. In Kenya Zea mays is consumed by 96% of population hence is a cheap and convenient method to provide selenium to large number of population. Several soil factors are known to have antagonistic effects on selenium speciation hence the uptake by Zea mays. No investigation in Kenya has been done to determine the effects of soil characteristics (pH, Tcarbon, CEC, Eh) affect accumulation of selenium in Zea mays grains in Maize Belt in Kenya. About 100 Zea mays grain samples together with 100 soil samples were collected from the study site, put in separate labeled Ziplocs and were transported to laboratories at room temperature for analysis. Maize grains were analyzed for selenium while soil samples were analyzed for pH, Cat Ion Exchange Capacity, total carbon, and electrical conductivity. The mean selenium in Zea mays grains varied from 1.82 ± 0.76 mg/Kg to 11±0.86 mg/Kg. There was no significant difference between selenium levels between different grain batches {χ (Df =76) = 26.04 P= 1.00} The pH levels varied from 5.43± 0.58 to 5.85± 0.32. No significant correlations between selenium in grains and soil pH (Pearson’s correlations = - 0.143), and between selenium levels in grains and the four (pH,Tcarbon,CEC,Eh) soil chemical characteristics {F (4,91) = 0.721 p = 0.579} was observed.It can be concluded that the soil chemical characteristics in the study site did not significantly affect the accumulation of native selenium in Zea mays grains.

Keywords: maize, native, soil, selenium

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61 Improvement of Total Phenolic Contents and Anti-oxidative Properties of Ricegrass (Oryza sativa L.) using Selenium Bio-fortification

Authors: Rattanamanee Chomchan, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Panupong Puttarak


Ricegrass or young rice sprouts can be introduced as one of functional product since cereal sprouts have been much interested in this era due to their high nutritive values. Bio-fortification of selenium is one strategy to improve plant bioactive compounds. However, the level of selenium used are varied among species of plants, hence, the proper level need to be investigated. In this current study, influence of selenium bio-fortification hydroponically in the form of sodium selenite following the range 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Se/L on growth characteristics, selenium content, total extractable phenolic content (TPC) accumulation, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative properties of ricegrass were investigated. Results revealed that selenium bio-fortified exogenously increased the accumulation of selenium in ricegrass by 5.3 fold at 40 mg Se/L treatment without significant changes in leaves biomass at harvesting day while root part weight were slightly decreased when increased selenium level, respectively. Selenium at low concentration (10 and 20 mg Se/L) can stimulate the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in young ricegrass as measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay. Conversely, higher level of selenium fortification reduced the accumulation of phenolics in ricegrass afterward by acting as pro-oxidant. Moreover, highest significant reduction in oxidative stress, measured as malondialdehyde content was also observed at 20 mg Se/L treatment which in correlation to high TPC and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, selenium bio-fortification can be used as a technique to improve precious to ricegrass.

Keywords: antioxidant activities, bio-fortification, ricegrass, selenium

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60 Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process

Authors: Lakshmikanth Reddy, Bhavin Desai, Chandrakala Kari, Sanjay Sarkar, Pradeep Binu


The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.

Keywords: copper, selenium, copper selenide, sludge, roasting, SeO₂

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59 Radioprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin-E against 6Mv X-Rays in Human Volunteers Blood Lymphocytes by Micronuclei Assay

Authors: Vahid Changizi, Aram Rostami, Akbar Mosavi


Purpose of study: Critical macromolecules of cells such as DNA are in exposure to damage of free radicals that induced from interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems. Selenium and vitamin-E are natural compound that has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo/in vitro radioprotective effect of selenium and vitamin-E separately and synergistically against genotoxicity induced by 6MV x-rays irradiation in cultured blood lymphocytes from 15 human volunteers. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were divided in three groups include A, B and C. These groups were given slenium(800 IU), vitamin-E(100 mg) and selenium(400 IU) + vitamin-E(50 mg), respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each group before(0 hr) and 1, 2 and 3 hr after selenium and vitamin-E administration (separately and synergistically). Then the blood samples were irradiated to 200 cGy of 6 Mv x-rays. After that, lymphocyte samples were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the chromosomal aberrations wih micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: The lymphocytes in the blood samples collected at 1 hr after ingestion selenium and vitamin-E, exposed in vitro to x-rays exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei, compared with control group at 0 hr. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei(50%) was observed at 1 hr after administration of selenium and vitamin-E synergistically. Conclusion: The data suggest that ingestion of selenium and vitamin-E as a radioprotector substances before exposures may reduce genetic damage caused by x-rays irradiation.

Keywords: x-rays, selenium, vitamin-e, lymphocyte, micronuclei

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58 Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: Samwel Boaz Otieno, Fred Were, Ephantus Kabiru, Kaunda Waza


A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p<0.000}, and that most of them (91.2%) had up to college level education {χ2.(1, N=386) p<0.000}, while the number of males and females were not significantly different {χ (1, N=386) p=0.263} and 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000}. The study showed that adults take on average 2.68 meals a day (N=382, SD=0.603), while children take 3.02 meals (N=386, SD=1.031) a day, and that in most households (82.6%) food is prepared by the women {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000} and further that 50% of foods eaten in that community are purchased {χ2 (1, N=386)=0.1818, p=0.6698}. The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Sorghum bicolour, 64.1% vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food, and further that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-locations varies with traditional vegetables having higher levels of selenium; for example, Laurnea cornuta (148.5 mg/kg), Cleome gynandra (121.5 mg/kg), Vignia ungulata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51 mg/kg), Lates niloticus (0), Oreochromis niloticus (0) Sorgum bicolour (19.97 mg/kg), and Sorgum bicolour (0). The study showed that there is an inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels {RR=1.21, p=0.000}, with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium. The four soil types identified in the study area had varying selenium levels with pleat loam (13.3 mg/kg), sandy loam (10.7 mg/kg), clay (2.8 mg/kg) and loam (4.8 mg/kg). It was concluded from this study that for the foods eaten by most of the respondents the selenium levels were below Daily Reference Intake.

Keywords: determinants, HIV, food, fishing, Selenium

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57 Prophylactic and Curative Effect of Selenium on Infertility Induced by Formaldehyde Using Male Albino Mice

Authors: Suhera M. Aburawi, Habiba A. El Jaafari, Soad A. Treesh, Abdulssalam M. Abu-Aisha, Faisal S. Alwaer, Reda A. Eltubuly, Medeha Elghedamsi


Introduction: Infertility is a source of psychological, and sometimes social, stress on parents who desire to have children. Formaldehyde is used chiefly as disinfectant, preservative and in the chemical synthesis. The medical uses of formaldehyde are limited, but focused especially on laboratory use. Selenium is an essential trace mineral element for human; it is essential for sperm function and male fertility. Selenium deficiency has been linked to reproductive problems in animals. Objectives: To investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of selenium on male infertility induced by formaldehyde using male albino mice. Method: Forty male albino mice were used, weight 25-30 gm. Five groups of male mice (n=8) were used. Group 1 was daily administered water for injection (5ml/kg) for five days, group 2 was daily administered selenium (100 μg/kg) for five days, group 3 was daily administered formaldehyde (30mg/kg) for five days, group 4 (prophylaxis) was daily administered a combination of formaldehyde and selenium for five days, while group 5 (curative) was daily administered formaldehyde for five days followed by daily administration of selenium for the next five days. Intraperitoneal administration was adopted. At the end of the administration, seminal fluid was collected from vas deferens. Sperm count, morphology and motility were scored; histopathological screening of genital system was carried out. SPSS was applied for comparing groups. Results and conclusion: It was found that formaldehyde toxicity did not change the sperm count and percentage of motile sperm; unhealthy sperm was increased, while healthy sperm was decreased. Formaldehyde produces degeneration/damage to the male mice genital system. Selenium alone produce an increase in sperm count, volume of seminal fluid and the percentage of motile sperm. Selenium has prophylactic and curative effects against formaldehyde-induce genital system toxicity. Future work is recommended to find out if selenium protective effect is through antioxidant or other mechanisms.

Keywords: infertility, formaldehyde, selenium, male mice

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56 A Straightforward Method for Determining Inorganic Selenium Speciations by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Water Samples

Authors: Sahar Ehsani, David James, Vernon Hodge


In this experimental study, total selenium in solution was measured with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, GFAAS, then chemical reactions with sodium borohydride were used to reduce selenite to hydrogen selenide. Hydrogen selenide was then stripped from the solution by purging the solution with nitrogen gas. Since the two main speciations in oxic waters are usually selenite, Se(IV) and selenate, Se(VI), it was assumed that after Se(IV) is removed, the remaining total selenium was Se(VI). Total selenium measured after stripping gave Se(VI) concentration, and the difference of total selenium measured before and after stripping gave Se(IV) concentration. An additional step of reducing Se(VI) to Se(IV) was performed by boiling the stripped solution under acidic conditions, then removing Se(IV) by a chemical reaction with sodium borohydride. This additional procedure of removing Se(VI) from the solution is useful in rare cases where the water sample is reducing and contains selenide speciation. In this study, once Se(IV) and Se(VI) were both removed from the water sample, the remaining total selenium concentration was zero. The method was tested to determine Se(IV) and Se(VI) in both purified water and synthetic irrigation water spiked with Se(IV) and Se(VI). Average recovery of spiked samples of diluted synthetic irrigation water was 99% for Se(IV) and 97% for Se(VI). Detection limits of the method were 0.11 µg L⁻¹ and 0.32 µg L⁻¹ for Se(IV) and Se(VI), respectively.

Keywords: Analytical Method, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Selenate, Selenite, Selenium Speciations

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55 Plasma Selenium Concentration and Polymorphism of Selenoprotein and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Chao-Yuan Huang


Prostate Cancer (PC) is a malignant tumor originated in prostate and is a second common male’s cancer in the world. Incidence of PC in Asia countries, have still been rising over the past few decades. As an antioxidant, selenium can slow down prostate cancer tumor progression, but the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of aggressive prostate cancer may be modified by different genotype of selenoprotein. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinaty total arsenic, and prostate cancer. Two hundred ninety five pathologically-confirmed cases of PC and 295 cancer-free controls were individually matched to case subjects by age (± 5 years) were recruited from Department of Urology of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. Personal interview and biospeciment of urine and blood collection from participants were conducted by well-trained interviewers after participants’ informed consent was obtained. Plasma selenium was measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass. Urinary arsenic concentration was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of SEPP1rs3797310 and SEP15 rs5859 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The higher plasma selenium was the lower OR of PC with a dose-response relationship. Prostate cancer patients with high plasma selenium had low tumor stage and grade. Participants carried SEPP1rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a lower OR of PC in crude model; then this relationship was disappeared after confounder was adjusted. Prostate cancer patients with high urinary total arsenic concentration had high tumor stage and grade. Urinary total arsenic concentration was significantly positively related with plasma selenium and prostate specific antigen concentration. Participants with lower plasma selenium concentration and higher urinary total arsenic concentration compared to those with higher plasma selenium concentration and lower urinary total arsenic concentration had a higher OR of PC with a dose-response relationship.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary arsenic concentration, prostate specific antigen

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54 Mercury and Selenium Levels in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fished in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic of Seychelles

Authors: Stephanie Hollanda, Nathalie Bodin, Carine Churlaud, Paco Bustamante


Total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and Hg-Se ratios were analyzed in the white muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish, in order to compare concentration between the different tissues and sex, and also the effect of size (fork length). The results show significant difference between tissue types, with the liver having the highest concentration of both Hg and Se. Positive significant correlations between moles of Hg and Se were obtained in the liver and white muscle, but no relationship was obtained in the gonads. No difference in the concentration of Hg and Se was obtained between the sexes in the tissue types, except for Hg in the gonads, which were found to be higher in males. Significant negative relationships were obtained when the Hg-Se ratio was plotted against fork length in all three tissue types.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, large pelagic fish, mercury, selenium, western Indian Ocean

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53 The Impact of Co-Administration of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Sodium Selenite on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Ovary Model: Biochemical and Histopathologic Evaluation

Authors: Waleed Aly Sayed Ahmed, Eman Kishk, Tahani Shams


Aim: To study the effects of co-administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) and sodium selenite against the damage induced by ovarian ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of forty-two sexually mature, virgin, female rats were divided randomly into six groups of seven each: sham group (C), ischemia group (I), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), ischemia/reperfusion plus 1.4mg/kg sildenafil (I/R+S) group, ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2mg/kg selenium (I/R+Se) group and ischemia/reperfusion plus combination of sildenafil and selenium (I/R+S+Se) group. In ischemia group (I), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 hours (h). In ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 h followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Treated groups received 1.4mg/kg sildenafil or 0.2 mg/kg selenium or both 30 min before reperfusion. Both ovaries were surgically removed carefully. One ovary was examined for histopathological changes and the other was subject to biochemical analysis including malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results: Assessment of ovarian tissue damage using a scoring system showed marked vascular congestion, interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, hemorrhage, and follicular degeneration in ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups. Tissue damage score for I, IR and all treated groups were significantly higher than those of the sham group (p<0.001), while tissue damage score decreased significantly in I/R+S and I/R+Se groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05), and notably, the difference was highly significant in I/R+S+Se group (p<0.001). There was significant increase in MDA levels and reduction in activities of CAT and GPx in I/R group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). In I/R+S and I/R+Se groups, MDA was significantly decreased compared to the I/R group (p<0.05) and the difference was highly significant with co-administration of sildenafil and selenium (p<0.001). CAT and GPx were higher in all treated groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The co-administration of sildenafil citrate and selenium are highly protective against damage induced by ovarian ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Keywords: phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, antioxidant, selenium, ovarian ischemia

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52 Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cell and WAZ of HIV1 Positive Children in Nyamasaria in Kisumu Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno1, F. Were, A. Afullo, K. Waza


Background: Multi drug resistance HIV has emerged rendering the current conventional treatment of HIV ineffective. There is a need for new treatment regime which is cheap, effective and not prone to resistance development by HIV. Methods: In randomized clinical study of 68 HIV positive children 3 – 15 years to asses the efficacy of yeast selenium in HIV/AIDS patients, 50μ yeast selenium was administered to 34 children while in matched control of 34 were put on placebo. Blood samples and weight of the both groups which were taken every 3 months intervals up to 6 months, were analyzed by ELIZA for CD4T cells, the data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, WAZ scores were analyzed by Epi Info version 6. Results: No significant difference in age { χ2 (1, 62) =0.03, p =0.853}, cause of morbidity between test and controls {χ2 (1, 65) = 5.87, p= 0.015} and on condition of foster parents {χ2 ( 1,63) = 5.57, p= 0.0172} was observed. Children on selenium showed progressive improvement of WAZ and significant difference at six months {F (5,12) = =5.758, P=0.006}, and weight gain of up to 4.1 kilograms in six months, and significant CD4 T cell count increase t= -2.943, p<0.05 compared to matched controls t = -1.258 p> 0.05. CD4 T cell count increased among all age groups on test 3-5 years (+ 267.1),5-8 years (+200.3) 9-15 years (+71.2) cells/mm3 and in matched controls a decrease 3-5 years (-71), 5-8 years (-125) and 9-13 years (-10.1) cells/mm3 . No significant difference inCD4 T cell count between boys {F (2, 32) = 1.531 p= 0.232} and between boys {F (2, 49) = 1.040, p= 0.361} on test and between boys and girls {F (5, 81) = 1.379, p= 0.241} on test. Similarly no significant difference between boys and girls were observed {F (5, 86) = 1.168, p= 0.332}.In the test group there was significant positive correlation β =252.23 between weight for age (WAZ), and CD4 T Cell Count p=0.007, R2= 0.252, F< 0.05. In matched controls no significant correlation between weight gain and CD4 T cell count change was observed at six months p > 0.05. No positive correlation β =-138.23 was observed between CD4T Cell count, WAZ, p=0.934, R2 =0.0337 F >0.05. Majority (96.78%) of children on test either remained or progressed to WHO immunological stage I. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that yeast Selenium is effective in slowing the progress of HIV 1 in children from WHO clinical stage I by improving CD4 T cell count and hence the immunity.

Keywords: selenium, HIV, AIDS, WAZ

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51 Approximation of Selenium Content in Watermelons for Use as a Food Supplement

Authors: Roggers Mutwiri Aron


Watermelons are fruits that belong to the family cucurbitaceous. There are many types of watermelons have been positively identified to exist in the world. A watermelon consists of four distinct parts namely; seeds, pink flesh, white flesh and peel. It also contains high content of water of approximately 90% that is rich in essential minerals such as, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, sodium trace amounts of copper, iron, zinc and selenium. Watermelons have substantial amounts of boron, iodine, chromium, silicon and molybdenum. The levels of nutrients in different parts of the watermelons may be different. Selenium has been found to be a very useful food supplement especially for people living with HIV/AIDS. An experimental study was carried out to estimate the amount Se in different parts of the watermelon. Analysis of sampled watermelons was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study indicated that high content of Se was present in the seeds compared to the other parts. High content of Se was also found in the water contained in the watermelon seeds.

Keywords: food supplement, watermelons, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, fruits

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50 Role of Selenium and Vitamin E in Occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium): Impact of Working in Lamp Factory

Authors: Tarek Elnimr, Rabab El-kelany


Heavy metals are environmental contaminants that may pose long-term health risks. Unfortunately, the consequent implementation of preventive measures was generally delayed, causing important negative effects to the exposed populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether co-consumption of nutritional supplements as selenium and vitamin E would treat the hazardous effects of exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium. 108 workers (60 males and 48 females) were the subject of this study, their ages ranged from 19-63 years, (M = 29.5±10.12). They were working in lamp factory for an average of 0.5-40 years (M= 5.3±8.8). Twenty control subjects matched for age and gender were used for comparison. All workers were subjected to neuropsychiatric evaluation. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) revealed that 44.4% were complaining of anxiety, 52.7% of depression, 41.6% of social dysfunction and 22.2% of somatic symptoms. Cognitive tests revealed that long-term memory was not affected significantly when compared with controls, while short term memory and perceptual ability were affected significantly. Blood metal levels were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma – optical emission spectrometry(ICP-OES), and revealed that the mean blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations before treatment were 1.6 mg/l, 0.39 mg/l and 1.7 µg/l, while they decreased significantly after treatment to 1.2 mg/l, 0.29 mg/l and 1.3 µg/l respectively. Anti-oxidative enzymes (paraoxonase and catalase) and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde) were measured before and after treatment with selenium and vitamin E, and showed significant improvement. It could be concluded that co-consumption of selenium and vitamin E produces significant decrease in mercury, lead and cadmium levels in blood.

Keywords: mercury, lead, cadmium, neuropsychiatric impairment, selenium, vitamin E

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49 Selenium Content in Agricultural Soils and Wheat from the Balkan Peninsula

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, P. Zaprjanova


Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for human and animals but it is highly toxic. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Concentration levels of this element in the different regions of the world vary considerably. This study aimed to compare the availability and levels of the Se in some rural areas of the Balkan Peninsula and relationship with the concentrations of other trace elements. For this purpose soil samples and wheat grains from different regions of Bulgaria, Serbia, Nord Macedonia, Romania, and Greece situated far from large industrial centers have been analyzed. The main methods for their determination were the atomic spectral techniques – atomic absorption and plasma atomic emission. As a result of this study, data on microelements levels from the main grain-producing regions of the Balkan Peninsula were determined and systematized. The presented results confirm the low levels of Se in this region: 0.222– 0.962 in soils and 0.001 - 0.005 in wheat grains and require measures to offset the effect of this deficiency.

Keywords: agricultural soils, balkan peninsula, rural areas, selenium

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48 Effect of Graded Level of Nano Selenium Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Raj Kishore Swain, Kamdev Sethy, Sumanta Kumar Mishra


Selenium is an essential trace element for the chicken with a variety of biological functions like growth, fertility, immune system, hormone metabolism, and antioxidant defense systems. Selenium deficiency in chicken causes exudative diathesis, pancreatic dystrophy and nutritional muscle dystrophy of the gizzard, heart and skeletal muscle. Additionally, insufficient immunity, lowering of production ability, decreased feathering of chickens and increased embryo mortality may occur due to selenium deficiency. Nano elemental selenium, which is bright red, highly stable, soluble and of nano meter size in the redox state of zero, has high bioavailability and low toxicity due to the greater surface area, high surface activity, high catalytic efficiency and strong adsorbing ability. To assess the effect of dietary nano-Se on performance and expression of gene in Vencobb broiler birds in comparison to its inorganic form (sodium selenite), four hundred fifty day-old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 9 dietary treatment groups with two replicates with 25 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were: T1 (Control group): Basal diet; T2: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T3: Basal diet with 0.01875 ppm of nano-Se; T4: Basal diet with 0.0375 ppm of nano-Se; T5: Basal diet with 0.075 ppm of nano-Se, T6: Basal diet with 0.15 ppm of nano-Se, T7: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of nano-Se, T8: Basal diet with 0.60 ppm of nano-Se, T9: Basal diet with 1.20 ppm of nano-Se. Nano selenium was synthesized by mixing sodium selenite with reduced glutathione and bovine serum albumin. The experiment was carried out in two phases: starter phase (0-3 wks), finisher phase (4-5 wk) in deep litter system. The body weight at the 5th week was best observed in T4. The best feed conversion ratio at the end of 5th week was observed in T4. Erythrocytic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all the nano selenium treated groups at 5th week. The antibody titers (log2) against Ranikhet diseases vaccine immunization of 5th-week broiler birds were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the treatments T4 to T7. The selenium levels in liver, breast, kidney, brain, and gizzard were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increasing dietary nano-Se indicating higher bioavailability of nano-Se compared to inorganic Se. The real time polymer chain reaction analysis showed an increase in the expression of antioxidative gene in T4 and T7 group. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of nano-selenium at 0.0375 ppm over and above the basal level can improve the body weight, antioxidant enzyme activity, Se bioavailability and expression of the antioxidative gene in broiler birds.

Keywords: chicken, growth, immunity, nano selenium

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47 What Are the Problems in the Case of Analysis of Selenium by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Food and Food Raw Materials?

Authors: Béla Kovács, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási


For analysis of elements in different food, feed and food raw material samples generally a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS), an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) are applied. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing food and food raw material samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays, it is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium (arsenic, germanium, vanadium, and chromium). To elaborate an analytical method for selenium with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) isobaric elemental, 2) isobaric molecular, and 3) physical interferences. Analysing food and food raw material samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food, feed and food raw material samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of selenium. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease the error of selenium analysis. To analyse selenium in food, feed and food raw material samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of Se, which can be corrected using internal standard (arsenic or tellurium).

Keywords: selenium, ICP-MS, food, food raw material

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46 Interaction between NiCl2 and Selenium on Energy Profiles in Wistar albino Preimplanted Rats

Authors: O. Adjroud


The present study was conducted to investigate the interaction between selenium (Se) and chloride nickel (NiCl2) on energy profiles in Wistar albino preimplanted rats. NiCl2 was given on day 3 of pregnancy either in distilled drinking water at a dose of 20 mg/L/day for 16 consecutive days or as a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose of 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg. Se was given as a s.c. injection (0.3 mg/kg) together with the higher dose (100 mg/kg) of NiCl2. Changes in energy profiles were evaluated in treated and control groups on days 5 and 20 of gestation. NiCl2 s.c. induced a significant increase in plasma glucose on day 20 of pregnancy. NiCl2 s.c. induced on day 5 and 20 of gestation a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides, with the higher dose. This decrease was maintained at day 20 of gestation with doses of 50 mg /kg. In addition, NiCl2 s.c. caused on day 5 of gestation a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol with the low and medium doses. The pretreatment with Se reversed the effects of NiCl2 on plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. NiCl2 administered in the drinking water augmented significantly the plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels and slighty the plasma glucose on day 20 of gestation, while on day 5 of gestation NiCl2 s.c. Induced a significant decrease in cholesterol. Three doses of NiCl2 (sc) induced severe alterations in liver and architecture which are markedly improved by Selenium. These results suggested that selenium has protective effects on energy profiles against the toxicity induced by NiCl2 administered subcutaneously in preimplanted rats.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, nickel chloride, preimplanted rat, biochemical parameters

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45 Cumulus Cells of Mature Local Goat Oocytes Vitrified with Insulin Transferrin Selenium and Heat Shock Protein 70

Authors: Izzatul Ulfana, Angga Pratomo Cahyadi, Rimayanti, Widjiati


Freezing oocyte could cause temperature stress. Temperature stress triggers cell damage. Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) had been used to prevent damage to the oocyte after freezing. ITS and HSP70 could cause the difference protective effect. The aim of this research was to obtain an effective cryoprotectant for freezing local goat oocyte in cumulus cells change. The research began by collecting the ovary from a local slaughterhouse in Indonesia, aspiration follicle, in vitro maturation and the freezing had been used vitrification method. Examination of the morphology cells by native staining method. Data on the calculation morphology oocyte analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis Test. After the Kruskall-Wallis Test which indicated significance, followed by Mann-Whitney Test to compare between treatment groups. As a result, cryoprotectant ITS has the best culumus cells after warming

Keywords: Insulin Transferrin Selenium, Heat Shock Protein 70, cryoprotectant, vitrification

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44 Enzyme Involvement in the Biosynthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles by Geobacillus wiegelii Strain GWE1 Isolated from a Drying Oven

Authors: Daniela N. Correa-Llantén, Sebastián A. Muñoz-Ibacache, Mathilde Maire, Jenny M. Blamey


The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms, on the contrary to chemical synthesis, is an environmentally-friendly process which has low energy requirements. In this investigation, we used the microorganism Geobacillus wiegelii, strain GWE1, an aerobic thermophile belonging to genus Geobacillus, isolated from a drying oven. This microorganism has the ability to reduce selenite evidenced by the change of color from colorless to red in the culture. Elemental analysis and composition of the particles were verified using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The nanoparticles have a defined spherical shape and a selenium elemental state. Previous experiments showed that the presence of the whole microorganism for the reduction of selenite was not necessary. The results strongly suggested that an intracellular NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase mediates selenium nanoparticles synthesis under aerobic conditions. The enzyme was purified and identified by mass spectroscopy MALDI-TOF TOF technique. The enzyme is a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. Histograms of nanoparticles sizes were obtained. Size distribution ranged from 40-160 nm, where 70% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. Spectroscopic analysis showed that the nanoparticles are composed of elemental selenium. To analyse the effect of pH in size and morphology of nanoparticles, the synthesis of them was carried out at different pHs (4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0). For thermostability studies samples were incubated at different temperatures (60, 80 and 100 ºC) for 1 h and 3 h. The size of all nanoparticles was less than 100 nm at pH 4.0; over 50% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm at pH 5.0; at pH 6.0 and 8.0 over 90% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. At neutral pH (7.0) nanoparticles reach a size around 120 nm and only 20% of them were less than 100 nm. When looking at temperature effect, nanoparticles did not show a significant difference in size when they were incubated between 0 and 3 h at 60 ºC. Meanwhile at 80 °C the nanoparticles suspension lost its homogeneity. A change in size was observed from 0 h of incubation at 80ºC, observing a size range between 40-160 nm, with 20% of them over 100 nm. Meanwhile after 3 h of incubation at size range changed to 60-180 nm with 50% of them over 100 nm. At 100 °C the nanoparticles aggregate forming nanorod structures. In conclusion, these results indicate that is possible to modulate size and shape of biologically synthesized nanoparticles by modulating pH and temperature.

Keywords: genus Geobacillus, NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase, selenium nanoparticles, biosynthesis

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43 Biosynthesis of Selenium Oxide Nanoparticles by Streptomyces bikiniensis and Its Cytotoxicity as Antitumor Agents against Hepatocellular and Breast Cells Carcinoma

Authors: Maged Syed Ahamd, Manal Mohamed Yasser, Essam Sholkamy


In this paper, we reported that selenium (Se) nanoparticles were firstly biosynthesized with a simple and eco-friendly biological method. Their shape, size, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), UV–vis spectra, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) pattern have been analyzed. TEM analyses of the samples obtained at different stages indicated that the formation of these Se nanostructures was governed by an incubation time (12- 24- 48 hours). The Se nanoparticles were initially generated and then would transform into crystal seeds for the subsequent growth of nanowires; however obtaining stable Se nanowire with a diameter of about 15-100 nm. EDS shows that Se nanoparticles are entirely pure. The IR spectra showed the peaks at 550 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1994 cm-1 and 3430 cm-1 correspond to the presence of Se-O bending and stretching vibrations. The concentrations of Se-NPs (0, 1, 2, 5 µg/ml) did not give significantly effect on both two cell lines while the highest concentrations (10- 100 µg/ml gave significantly effects on them. The lethal dose (ID50%) of Se-NPs on Hep2 G and MCF-7 cells was obtained at 75.96 and 61.86 µg/ml, respectively. Results showed that Se nanoparticles as anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells were more effective than Hep2 G cells. Our results suggest that Se-NPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for breast and liver cancers.

Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, Streptomyces bikiniensis, nanowires, chemotherapeutic agent

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42 Carbon-Nanodots Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Electroanalysis of Selenium in Water

Authors: Azeez O. Idris, Benjamin O. Orimolade, Potlako J. Mafa, Alex T. Kuvarega, Usisipho Feleni, Bhekie B. Mamba


We report a simple and cheaper method for the electrochemical detection of Se(IV) using carbon nanodots (CNDTs) prepared from oat. The carbon nanodots were synthesised by green and facile approach and characterised using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The CNDT was used to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the quantification of Se(IV) in water. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanodots led to an increase in the electroactive surface area of the electrode, which enhances the redox current peak of [Fe(CN)₆]₃₋/₄‒ in comparison to the bare GCE. Using the square wave voltammetry, the detection limit and quantification limit of 0.05 and 0.167 ppb were obtained under the optimised parameters using deposition potential of -200 mV, 0.1 M HNO₃ electrolyte, electrodeposition time of 60 s, and pH 1. The results further revealed that the GCE-CNDT was not susceptible to many interfering cations except Cu(II) and Pb(II), and Fe(II). The sensor fabrication involves a one-step electrode modification and was used to detect Se(IV) in a real water sample, and the result obtained is in agreement with the inductively coupled plasma technique. Overall, the electrode offers a cheap, fast, and sensitive way of detecting selenium in environmental matrices.

Keywords: carbon nanodots, square wave voltammetry, nanomaterials, selenium, sensor

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41 Designing Modified Nanocarriers Containing Selenium Nanoparticles Extracted from the Lactobacillus acidophilus and Their Anticancer Properties

Authors: Mahnoosh Aliahmadi, Akbar Esmaeili


This study synthesized new modified imaging nanocapsules (NCs) of [email protected]/folic acid/chitosan/polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol ([email protected]/FA/CS/PANI/PVA) containing Morus nigra extract by selenium nanoparticles prepared from Lactobacillus acidophilus. Se nanoparticles were then deposited on ([email protected]/FA/CS/PANI/PVA) using the impregnation method. The modified contrast agents were mixed with M. nigra extract, and their antibacterial activities were investigated by applying them to L929 cell lines. The influence of variable factors including surfactant, solvent, aqueous phase, pH, buffer, minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity on cancer cells, antibiotic, antibiogram, release and loading, stirring effect, the concentration of nanoparticle, olive oil, and thermotical methods was investigated. The structure and morphology of the synthesized contrast agents were characterized by zeta potential sizer analysis (ZPS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental section was conducted and monitored by response surface methods (RSM) and MTT conversion assay. Antibiogram testing of NCs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was successful, and the MIC=2 factor was obtained with a less harmful effect.

Keywords: imaging contrast agent, nanoparticles, response surface method, Lactobacillus acidophilus, selenium

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40 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: Maha Mohamed Hady Ali, M. A. El-Sayed


Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: camel, copper, egypt, feed stuff, iron, selenium, zinc

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39 Effect of Selenium Source on Meat Quality of Bonsmara Bull Calves

Authors: J. van Soest, B. Bruneel, J. Smit, N. Williams, P. Swiegers


Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral involved in reducing oxidative stress, enhancing immune status, improving reproduction, and regulating growth. During finishing period, selenium supplementation can be applied to improve meat quality. Dietary selenium can be provided in inorganic or organic forms. Specifically, L-selenomethionine (organic selenium) allows for selenium storage in animal protein which supports the animal during periods of high oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of synthetically produced, single amino acid, L-selenomethionine (Excential Selenium 4000, Orffa Additives BV) on production parameters, health status, and meat quality of Bonsmara bull calves. 24 calves, 7 months of age, completed a 60-day initial growing period at a commercial feedlot, after which they were transported to research station Rumen-8 (Bethlehem, South-Africa). After a ten-day adaptation period, the bulls were allocated to a control (n=12) or treatment (n=12) group. Each group was divided over 3 pens based on weight. Both groups received Total Mixed Ration supplemented with 5.25 mg Se/head per day. The control group was supplemented with sodium selenite as Se source, whilst the treatment group was supplemented with L-selenomethionine (Excential Selenium 4000, Orffa Additives BV). Animals were limited to 10 kg feed intake per head per day to ensure similar Se intake. Treatment period lasted 1.5 months. A beta-adrenergic agonist was included in the feed for the last 30 days. During the treatment period, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were recorded. Blood parameters were measured at day 1, day 25, and before slaughter (day 47). After slaughter, carcass weight, dressing percentage, grading, and meat quality (pH, tenderness, colour, odour, purge, proximate analyses, acid detergent fibre, and neutral detergent fibre) were determined. No differences between groups were found in performance. A higher number of animals with cortisol levels below detection limit (27.6 nmol/l) was recorded for the treatment group. Other blood parameters showed no differences. No differences were found regarding carcass weight and dressing percentage. Important parameters of meat quality were significantly improved in the treatment group: instrumental tenderness at 14 days ageing was 2.8 and 3.4 for treatment and control respectively (P=0.010), and a 0.5% decrease in purge (of fresh samples) was shown, 1.5% and 2.0% for treatment group and control respectively (p=0.029). Besides, pH was shown to be numerically reduced in the treatment group. In summary, supplementation with L-selenomethionine as selenium source improved meat quality compared to sodium selenite. Lower instrumental tenderness (Warner Bratzler Shear Force, WBSF) was recorded for the treatment group. This indicates less tough meat and highest consumer satisfaction. Regarding purge, control was just below 2.0%, an important threshold for consumer acceptation. Treatment group scored 0.5% lower for purge than control, indicating higher consumer satisfaction. The lower pH in the treatment group could be an indication of higher glycogen reserves in muscle which could contribute to a reduced risk of Dark Firm Dry carcasses. More animals showed cortisol levels below detection limit in the treatment group, indicating lower levels of stress when animals receive L-selenomethionine.

Keywords: calves, meat quality, nutrition, selenium

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38 The Association between Gene Polymorphisms of GPX, SEPP1, and SEP15, Plasma Selenium Levels, Urinary Total Arsenic Concentrations, and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Wei-Jen Chen, Yung-Kai Huang, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Kuo-Cheng Yeh


Prostate cancer occurs in men over the age of 50, and rank sixth of the top ten cancers in Taiwan, and the incidence increased gradually over the past decade in Taiwan. Arsenic is confirmed as a carcinogen by International Agency for Research on (IARC). Arsenic induces oxidative stress may be a risk factor for prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not clear. Selenium is an important antioxidant element. Whether the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of prostate cancer are modified by different genotype of selenoprotein is still unknown. Glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and 15 kDa selenoprotein (SEP 15) are selenoprotein and regulates selenium transport and the oxidation and reduction reaction. However, the association between gene polymorphisms of selenoprotein and prostate cancer is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinary total arsenic concentration and prostate cancer. This study is a hospital-based case-control study. Three hundred twenty-two cases of prostate cancer and age (±5 years) 1:1 matched 322 control group were recruited from National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Medical University Hospital, and Wan Fang Hospital. Well-trained personnel carried out standardized personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Information collected included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle and disease history. Blood and urine samples were also collected at the same time. The Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, approved the study. All patients provided informed consent forms before sample and data collection. Buffy coat was to extract DNA, and the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to measure the genotypes of SEPP1 rs3797310, SEP15 rs5859, GPX1 rs1050450, GPX2 rs4902346, GPX3 rs4958872, and GPX4 rs2075710. Plasma concentrations of selenium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Urinary arsenic species concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography links hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometer (HPLC-HG-AAS). Subject with high education level compared to those with low educational level had a lower prostate cancer odds ratio (OR) Mainland Chinese and aboriginal people had a lower OR of prostate cancer compared to Fukien Taiwanese. After adjustment for age, educational level, subjects with GPX1 rs1050450 CT and TT genotype compared to the CC genotype have lower, OR of prostate cancer, the OR and 95% confidence interval (Cl) was 0.53 (0.31-0.90). SEPP1 rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a marginally significantly lower OR of PC. The low levels of plasma selenium and the high urinary total arsenic concentrations had the high OR of prostate cancer in a significant dose-response manner, and SEPP1 rs3797310 genotype modified this joint association.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary total arsenic concentrations, glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, selenoprotein 15, gene polymorphism

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37 Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

Authors: Abdul G. Miah, Hirotada Tsujii, Ummay Salma, Iwao Takeda


The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) specially, in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet compared to the broilers fed control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat. The highest (p<0.05) number of leukocytes was observed in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than that of the broilers fed control diet. Spleen, bursa and thymus weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than the control diet. Compared to the control diet, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) increased foot web index. Moreover, there was no mortality in all groups of broilers during the experimental period. Therefore, the study may conclude that there are dual benefits of Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplementation in broiler diet improved immunity and meat quality for health conscious consumers.

Keywords: hypocholesterolemia, immunity of broiler, rhodobacter capsulatus, selenium-enriched radish sprouts, vitamin E

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36 Evaluation of Some Trace Elements in Biological Samples of Egyptian Viral Hepatitis Patients under Nutrition Therapy

Authors: Tarek Elnimr, Reda Morsy, Assem El Fert, Aziza Ismail


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Disease caused by the hepatitis virus, the virus can cause hepatitis infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. A growing body of evidence indicates that many trace elements play important roles in a number of carcinogenic processes that proceed with various mechanisms. To examine the status of trace elements during the development of hepatic carcinoma, we determined the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in some biological samples of patients at different stages of viral hepatic disease. We observed significant changes in the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in the biological samples of patients hepatocellular carcinoma, relative to those of healthy controls. The mean hair, nail, RBC, serum and whole blood copper levels in patients with hepatitis virus were significantly higher than that of the control group. In contrast the mean iron, zinc, and selenium levels in patients having hepatitis virus were significantly lower than those of the control group. On the basis of this study, we identified the impact of natural supplements to improve the treatment of viral liver damage, using the level of some trace elements such as, iron, copper, zinc and selenium, which might serve as biomarkers for increases survival and reduces disease progression. Most of the elements revealed diverse and random distribution in the samples of the donor groups. The correlation study pointed out significant disparities in the mutual relationships among the trace elements in the patients and controls. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the element data manifested diverse apportionment of the selected elements in the scalp hair, nail and blood components of the patients compared with the healthy counterparts.

Keywords: hepatitis, hair, nail, blood components, trace element, nutrition therapy, multivariate analysis, correlation, ICP-MS

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35 Magnetic Carriers of Organic Selenium (IV) Compounds: Physicochemical Properties and Possible Applications in Anticancer Therapy

Authors: E. Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, P. Suchocki, P. C. Morais


Despite the significant progress in cancer treatment, there is a need to search for new therapeutic methods in order to minimize side effects. Chemotherapy, the main current method of treating cancer, is non-selective and has a number of limitations. Toxicity to healthy cells is undoubtedly the biggest problem limiting the use of many anticancer drugs. The problem of how to kill cancer without harming a patient can be solved by using organic selenium (IV) compounds. Organic selenium (IV) compounds are a new class of materials showing a strong anticancer activity. They are first organic compounds containing selenium at the +4 oxidation level and therefore they eliminate the multidrug-resistance for all tumor cell lines tested so far. These materials are capable of selectively killing cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones. They are obtained by the incorporation of selenous acid (H2SeO3) into molecules of fatty acids of sunflower oil and therefore, they are inexpensive to manufacture. Attaching these compounds to magnetic carriers enables their precise delivery directly to the tumor area and the simultaneous application of the magnetic hyperthermia, thus creating a huge opportunity to effectively get rid of the tumor without any side effects. Polylactic-co-glicolic acid (PLGA) nanocapsules loaded with maghemite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and organic selenium (IV) compounds are successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method. In vitro antitumor activity of the nanocapsules were evidenced using murine melanoma (B16-F10), oral squamos carcinoma (OSCC) and murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) breast lines. Further exposure of these cells to an alternating magnetic field increased the antitumor effect of nanocapsules. Moreover, the nanocapsules presented antitumor effect while not affecting normal cells. Magnetic properties of the nanocapsules were investigated by means of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The nanocapsules presented a typical superparamagnetic behavior around room temperature manifested itself by the split between zero field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC/FC) magnetization curves and the absence of hysteresis on the field-dependent magnetization curve above the blocking temperature. Moreover, the blocking temperature decreased with increasing applied magnetic field. The superparamagnetic character of the nanocapsules was also confirmed by the occurrence of a maximum in temperature dependences of both real ′(T) and imaginary ′′ (T) components of the ac magnetic susceptibility, which shifted towards higher temperatures with increasing frequency. Additionally, upon decreasing the temperature the ESR signal shifted to lower fields and gradually broadened following closely the predictions for the ESR of superparamagnetoc nanoparticles. The observed superparamagnetic properties of nanocapsules enable their simple manipulation by means of magnetic field gradient, after introduction into the blood stream, which is a necessary condition for their use as magnetic drug carriers. The observed anticancer and superparamgnetic properties show that the magnetic nanocapsules loaded with organic selenium (IV) compounds should be considered as an effective material system for magnetic drug delivery and magnetohyperthermia inductor in antitumor therapy.

Keywords: cancer treatment, magnetic drug delivery system, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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34 Evaluation of Nuts as a Source of Selenium in Diet

Authors: Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Jakub M. Bołtryk, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puścion-Jakubik, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Maria H. Borawska


Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human health. As an integral part of glutathione peroxidase, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Unfortunately, Se dietary intake is often insufficient, especially in regions where the soil is low in Se. Therefore, in search for good sources of Se, the content of this element in food products should be monitored. Food product can be considered as a source of Se when its standard portion covers above 15% of recommended daily allowance. In the case of nuts, 42g is recognized as the standard portion. The aim of this study was to determine the Se content in nuts and to answer the question of whether the studied nuts can be considered as a source of Se in the diet. The material for the study consisted of 10 types of nuts (12 samples of each one): almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. The nuts were mineralized using microwave technique (Berghof, Germany). The content of Se was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method with electrothermal atomization in a graphite tube with Zeeman background correction (Hitachi, Japan). The accuracy of the method was verified on certified reference material: Simulated Diet D. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.05 level. The highest content of Se was found in Brazil nuts (4566.21 ± 3393.9 µg/kg) and the lowest in almonds (36.07 ± 18.8 µg/kg). A standard portion (42g) of almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts covers the recommended daily allowance for Se respectively in: 2, 192, 28, 2, 16, 7, 4, 3, 12, 6%. Brazil nuts, cashews and macadamia nuts can be considered as a good source of Se in diet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, diet, nuts, selenium

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