Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3317

Search results for: smart city

3317 A Case Study on Smart Energy City of the UK: Based on Business Model Innovation

Authors: Minzheong Song

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to see a case of smart energy evolution of the UK along with government projects and smart city project like 'Smart London Plan (SLP)' in 2013 with the logic of business model innovation (BMI). For this, it discusses the theoretical logic and formulates a research framework of evolving smart energy from silo to integrated system. The starting point is the silo system with no connection and in second stage, the private investment in smart meters, smart grids implementation, energy and water nexus, adaptive smart grid systems, and building marketplaces with platform leadership. As results, the UK’s smart energy sector has evolved from smart meter device installation through smart grid to new business models such as water-energy nexus and microgrid service within the smart energy city system.

Keywords: smart city, smart energy, business model, business model innovation (BMI)

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3316 Strategies of Smart City in Response to Climate Change: Focused on the Case Studies of Sweden, Japan, and Korea

Authors: K. M. Kim, S. J. Lee, D. S. Oh, Sadohara Satoru

Abstract:

The climate change poses a serious challenge to urban sustainability. To alleviate the environmental risk, urban planning has been concentrated on climate adaptation and mitigation, and the sustainable urban model, smart city, has been suggested. However, with regard to sustainable smart city development, a majority of researchers have focused mainly on the aspect of adaptation, which causes the lack of the approaches for mitigation. Therefore, the objective was to identify the planning elements of smart city with integrative reviews about mitigation and adaptation. Moreover, the concepts of smart cities in Sweden, Japan, and Korea were analyzed to find out the country-specific characteristics and strategies for achieving smart city.

Keywords: sustainable urban planning, climate change, mitigating and adaptation, smart city

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3315 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: citizen participation, smart cities, urban governance, Singapore, Tokyo

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3314 Critical Success Factors for Sustainable Smart City Project in India

Authors: Debasis Sarkar

Abstract:

Development of a Smart City would depend upon the development of its infrastructure in a smart way. Primarily based on the ideology of the fourth industrial revolution a Smart City project should have Smart governance, smart health care, smart building, smart transportation, smart mobility, smart energy, smart technology and smart citizen. Considering the Indian scenario of current state of cities in India, it has become very essential to decide the specific parameters which would govern the development of a Smart City project. It has been observed that there are significant parameters beyond Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which govern the development of a Smart City project. This paper is an attempt to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSF) which are significantly responsible for the development of a Smart City project in Western India. Responses to questionnaire survey were analyzed on basis of Likert scale. They were further critically evaluated with help of Factor Comparison Method (FCM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The project authorities need to incorporate Building Information Modeling (BIM) to make the smart city project more collaborative. To make the project more sustainable, use of flyash in the concrete used, reduced usage of cement and steel, use of alternate fuels like biodiesel is recommended.

Keywords: analytical hierarchical process, building information modeling, critical success factors, factor comparison method

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3313 Cities Idioms Together with ICT and Countries Interested in the Smart City: A Review of Current Status

Authors: Qasim HamaKhurshid HamaMurad, Normal Mat Jusoh, Uznir Ujang

Abstract:

The concept of the city with an infrastructure of (information and communication) Technology embraces several definitions depending on the meanings of the word "smart" are (intelligent city, smart city, knowledge city, ubiquitous city, sustainable city, digital city). Many definitions of the city exist, but this chapter explores which one has been universally acknowledged. From literature analysis, it emerges that Smart City is the most used terminologies in literature through the digital database to indicate the smartness of a city. This paper share exploration the research from main seven website digital databases and journal about Smart City from "January 2015 to the February of 2020" to (a) Time research, to examine the causes of the Smart City phenomenon and other concept literature in the last five years (b) Review of words, to see how and where the smart city specification and relation different definition And(c) Geographical research to consider where Smart Cities' greatest concentrations are in the world and are Malaysia has interacting with the smart city, and (d) how many papers published from all Malaysia from 2015 to 2020 about smart citie. Three steps are followed to accomplish the goal. (1)The analysis covered publications Build a systematic literature review search strategy to gather a representative sub-set of papers on Smart City and other definitions utilizing (GoogleScholar, Elsevier, Scopus, ScienceDirect, IEEEXplore, WebofScience, Springer) January2015-February2020. (2)A bibliometric map was formed based on the bibliometric evaluation using the mapping technique VOSviewer to visualize differences. (3)VOSviewer application program was used to build initial clusters. The Map of Bibliometric Visualizes the analytical findings which targeted the word harmony.

Keywords: bibliometric research, smart city, ICT, VOSviewer, urban modernization

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3312 Accelerating the Uptake of Smart City Applications through Cloud Computing

Authors: Panagiotis Tsarchopoulos, Nicos Komninos, Christina Kakderi

Abstract:

Smart cities are high on the political agenda around the globe. However, planning smart cities and deploying applications dealing with the complex problems of the urban environment is a very challenging task that is difficult to be undertaken solely by the cities. We argue that the uptake of smart city strategies is facilitated, first, through the development of smart city application repositories allowing re-use of already developed and tested software, and, second, through cloud computing which disengages city authorities from any resource constraints, technical or financial, and has a higher impact and greater effect at the city level The combination of these two solutions allows city governments and municipalities to select and deploy a large number of applications dedicated to different city functions, which collectively could create a multiplier effect with a greater impact on the urban environment.

Keywords: smart cities, applications, cloud computing, migration to the cloud, application repositories

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3311 A Needs-Based Top-Down Approach for a Tailor-Made Smart City Roadmap

Authors: Mustafa Eruyar, Ersoy Pehlivan, Fatih Kafalı, Fatih Gundogan

Abstract:

All megacities are not only under the pressure of common urbanization and growth problems but also dealing with different challenges according to their specific circumstances. However, the majority of cities focuses mainly on popular smart city projects, which are usually driven by strong private sector, regardless of their characteristics, each city needs to develop customized projects within a tailor-made smart city roadmap to be able to solve its own challenges. Smart city manifest, helps citizens to feel the action better than good reading smart city vision statements, which consists of five elements; namely purpose, values, mission, vision, and strategy. This study designs a methodology for smart city roadmap based on a top-down approach, breaking down of smart city manifest to feasible projects for a systematic smart city transformation. This methodology was implemented in Istanbul smart city transformation program which includes smart city literature review, current state analysis, roadmap, and architecture projects, respectively. Istanbul smart city roadmap project followed an extensive literature review of certain leading smart cities around the world and benchmarking of the city’s current state using well known smart city indices. In the project, needs of citizens and service providers of the city were identified via stakeholder, persona and social media analysis. The project aimed to develop smart city projects targeting fulfilling related needs by implementing a gap analysis between current state and foreseen plans. As a result, in 11 smart city domains and enablers; 24 strategic objectives, 50 programs, and 101 projects were developed with the support of 183 smart city stakeholder entities and based on 125 citizen persona profiles and last one-year social media analysis. In conclusion, the followed methodology helps cities to identify and prioritize their needs and plan for long-term sustainable development, despite limited resources.

Keywords: needs-based, manifest, roadmap, smart city, top-down approach

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3310 Progress and Challenges of Smart Cities in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sushil K. Sharma, Jeff Zhang, Saeed Tabar

Abstract:

Worldwide, several governments are utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) to create smart city infrastructures to improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Over 700 cities from around the world have already started implementing their smart city projects. Smart City utilizes the network of connected things, or the Internet of Things (IoT), that interconnects devices and various components across city infrastructure, making them work together seamlessly to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, optimize resources, and reduce costs. Without developing smart cities, the accelerating growth of cities, and their disproportionate consumption of physical and social resources are unsustainable. In 2016, the Indian Government released a list of 100 cities with the intention of kick-starting the process of developing them into 'smart cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. This study reports the progress and challenges of Smart City projects in India. The data were collected through the city/state government websites, media reports, and focus group discussions/interviews. The preliminary results indicate that smart city projects are not only behind in their implementation and scope but also lacks the sincerity for its implementation.

Keywords: smart city, smart government, Internet of Things, digital government

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3309 A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems

Authors: Musaab Hasan, Farkhund Iqbal, Patrick C. K. Hung, Benjamin C. M. Fung, Laura Rafferty

Abstract:

In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.

Keywords: security design, smart city, smart meter, smart grid, smart metering system

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3308 Extending Smart City Infrastructure to Cover Natural Disasters

Authors: Nina Dasari, Satvik Dasari

Abstract:

Smart city solutions are being developed across the globe to transform urban areas. However, the infrastructure enablement for alerting natural disasters such as floods and wildfires is deficient. This paper discusses an innovative device that could be used as part of the smart city initiative to detect and provide alerts in case of floods at road crossings and wildfires. An Internet of Things (IoT) smart city node was designed, tested, and deployed with collaboration from the City of Austin. The end to end solution includes a 3G enabled IoT device, flood and fire sensors, cloud, a mobile app, and IoT analytics. The real-time data was collected and analyzed using IoT analytics to refine the solution for the past year. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution is reliable and provides accurate results. This low-cost solution is viable, and it can replace the current solution which costs tens of thousands of dollars.

Keywords: analytics, internet of things, natural disasters, smart city

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3307 Enframing the Smart City: Utilizing Heidegger's 'The Question Concerning Technology' as a Framework to Interpret Smart Urbanism

Authors: Will Brown

Abstract:

Martin Heidegger is considered to be one of the leading philosophical lights of the 20th century with his lecture/essay 'The Question Concerning Technology' proving to be an invaluable text in the study of technology and the understanding of how technology influences the world it is set upon. However, this text has not as of yet been applied to the rapid rise and proliferation of ‘smart’ cities. This article is premised upon the application of the aforementioned text and the smart city in order to provide a fresh, if not critical analysis and interpretation of this phenomena. The first section below provides a brief literature review of smart urbanism in order to lay the groundwork necessary to apply Heidegger’s work to the smart city, from which a framework is developed to interpret the infusion of digital sensing technologies and the urban milieu. This framework is comprised of four concepts put forward in Heidegger’s text: circumscribing, bringing-forth, challenging, and standing-reserve. A concluding chapter is based upon the notion of enframement, arguing that once the rubric of data collection is placed within the urban system, future systems will require the capability to harvest data, resulting in an ever-renewing smart city.

Keywords: air quality sensing, big data, Martin Heidegger, smart city

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3306 Legacy of Smart Cities on Urban Future: Discussing the Future of Smart City by Sharing Its Experiences

Authors: Arsalan Makinian

Abstract:

Our future cities will constantly evolve the necessary technologies for tomorrow’s needs. Technologies which enable a better kind of prosperity and security. This paper reports on the precedent of a smart city from its beginning to prevalence among urbanism academic literature and reports of tech companies. The article aims to direct urban foresight studies and to build a pathway for the future of smart city concept by gathering theoretical and empirical experiences related to smart cities with both top-down and bottom-up approaches. It hopes to deliver results of different studies, pilot projects, and development strategies of some of the smart cities in order to allow a shareable knowledge to take shape and develop in terms of qualitative aspects of a smart city. Now the definition of the smart city goes beyond removing physical boundaries, changing the concept of mobility and providing electronic service for citizens, it now constitutes fields such as energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, protecting the environment and finally, it takes advantage of technology and data science to improve the quality of life. In the smart city, the role of citizens is considered as both final purpose and contributor. Emerging issues which are almost implications of advanced technologies -as the most important trends of the future- and their reflection on the society need to be foresighted. Educating and fostering knowledge of smartness is one of the targets of the smart city concept. In this regard, some of these smart cites have established research and development units to share their projects and smart city initiatives. Due to this fact, gaining experience and sharing the results of this subject is necessary for technology management and moving toward a smart urban future.

Keywords: age of urban tech, bottom-up approach, role of citizens, smart city

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3305 A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Smart City Projects Including the Scenario of Public-Private Partnerships

Authors: Patrick T. I. Lam, Wenjing Yang

Abstract:

A smart city project embraces benefits and costs which can be classified under direct and indirect categories. Externalities come into the picture, but they are often difficult to quantify. Despite this barrier, policy makers need to carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the huge investments needed to make a city smart. The recent trend is towards the engagement of the private sector to utilize their resources and expertise, especially in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) areas, where innovations blossom. This study focuses on the identification of costs (on a life cycle basis) and benefits associated with smart city project developments based on a comprehensive literature review and case studies, where public-private partnerships would warrant consideration, the related costs and benefits are highlighted. The findings will be useful for policy makers of cities.

Keywords: smart city projects, costs and benefits, identification, public-private partnerships

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3304 Development Strategies for Building Smart Cities: The Case of Kalampaka, Greece

Authors: Christos Stamopoulos

Abstract:

Nowadays, the technological evolution has brought changes and new requirements not only on human’s life but also on the environment in which they live. Cities have begun to be organized in new ways which comply with contemporary living standards. The aim of this paper was to present the characteristics and to introduce good construction strategies of smart cities around the world. Also, a case study of the city of Kalampaka and its residents was surveyed. More specifically, residents’ knowledge about smart cities and their opinion for future progress was examined. Statistical analysis showed that residents’ knowledge about smart cities was fairly good (48% knew the phrase 'smart city'). However, respondents believe that the appearance of the city of Kalampaka needs improvement in many areas (the 75% are disappointed with the current appearance of the city). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the value of the environmental sustainability is greatly influenced by the energy saving, as well as, innovation has an impact on the level of quality of life, while older people seem satisfied with administration’s efforts for development.

Keywords: development, economy, environment, governance, quality of life, smart city

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3303 A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information

Authors: Sang-Tae Ji, Jeong-Woo Park, Jun-Ho Park, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.

Keywords: CCTV, GIS, ICT, Smart City, smart intersection

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3302 Korean Smart Cities: Strategic Foci, Characteristics and Effects

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Yountaik Leem

Abstract:

This paper reviews Korean cases of smart cities through the analysis framework of strategic foci, characteristics and effects. Firstly, national strategies including c(cyber), e(electronic), u(ubiquitous) and s(smart) Korea strategies were considered from strategic angles. Secondly, the characteristics of smart cities in Korea were looked through the smart cities examples such as Seoul, Busan, Songdo and Sejong cities etc. from the views on the by STIM (Service, Technology, Infrastructure and Management) analysis. Finally, the effects of smart cities on socio-economies were investigated from industrial perspective using the input-output model and structural path analysis. Korean smart city strategies revealed that there were different kinds of strategic foci. c-Korea strategy focused on information and communications network building and user IT literacy. e-Korea strategy encouraged e-government and e-business through utilizing high-speed information and communications network. u-Korea strategy made ubiquitous service as well as integrated information and communication operations center. s-Korea strategy is propelling 4th industrial platform. Smart cities in Korea showed their own features and trends such as eco-intelligence, high efficiency and low cost oriented IoT, citizen sensored city, big data city. Smart city progress made new production chains fostering ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) and knowledge intermediate inputs to industries.

Keywords: Korean smart cities, Korean smart city strategies, STIM, smart service, infrastructure, technologies, management, effect of smart city

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3301 Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Mohd Asruladlyi Ibrahim, Zurinah Tahir

Abstract:

This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.

Keywords: smart city, ubiquitous city, u-society, e-participation, prosperity

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3300 Key Factors for a Smart City

Authors: Marta Christina Suciu, Cristina Andreea Florea

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relevance of building smart cities in the context of regional development and to analyze the important factors that make a city smart. These cities could be analyzed through the perspective of environment quality, the socio-cultural condition, technological applications and innovations, the vitality of the economic environment and public policies. Starting with these five sustainability domains, we will demonstrate the hypothesis that smart cities are the engine of the regional development. The aim of this paper is to assess the implications of smart cities, in the context of sustainable development, analyzing the benefits of developing creative and innovative cities. Regarding the methodology, it is used the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data, also descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. In conclusion, we will define a direction on the regional development and competitiveness increasing.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, regional development, smart city, sustainability, triple helix

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3299 Role of Machine Learning in Internet of Things Enabled Smart Cities

Authors: Amit Prakash Singh, Shyamli Singh, Chavi Srivastav

Abstract:

This paper presents the idea of Internet of Thing (IoT) for the infrastructure of smart cities. Internet of Thing has been visualized as a communication prototype that incorporates myriad of digital services. The various component of the smart cities shall be implemented using microprocessor, microcontroller, sensors for network communication and protocols. IoT enabled systems have been devised to support the smart city vision, of which aim is to exploit the currently available precocious communication technologies to support the value-added services for function of the city. Due to volume, variety, and velocity of data, it requires analysis using Big Data concept. This paper presented the various techniques used to analyze big data using machine learning.

Keywords: IoT, smart city, embedded systems, sustainable environment

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3298 Planning for a Smart Sustainable Cities: A Case Study

Authors: Ajaykumar Kambekar, Nikita Kalantri

Abstract:

Due to faster urbanization; developing nations will have to look forward towards establishing new planned cities those are environmentally friendly. Due to growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is evident that the rise of smart cities is witnessed as a promising trend for future growth; however, technology alone cannot make a city as a smart city. Cities must use smart systems to enhance the quality of life of its citizens and to achieve sustainable growth. Recent trends in technology may offer some indication towards harnessing our cities potential as the new engines of sustainable growth. To overcome the problems of mega-urbanization, new concept of smart cities has been introduced. The current research aims to reduce the knowledge gap in urban planning by exploring the concept of smart cities considering sustainability as a major focus. The aim of this paper is to plan for an entire smart city. The paper analyses sustainable development and identifies the key factors for the creation of future smart cities. The study also emphasizes the use of advanced planning and scheduling software such as Microsoft Project (MSP).

Keywords: urbanization, planned cities, information and communication technology, sustainable growth

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3297 Development and Performance Analysis of Multifunctional City Smart Card System

Authors: Vedat Coskun, Fahri Soylemezgiller, Busra Ozdenizci, Kerem Ok

Abstract:

In recent years, several smart card solutions for transportation services of cities with different technical infrastructures and business models has emerged considerably, which triggers new business and technical opportunities. In order to create a unique system, we present a novel, promising system called Multifunctional City Smart Card System to be used in all cities that provides transportation and loyalty services based on the MasterCard M/Chip Advance standards. The proposed system provides a unique solution for transportation services of large cities over the world, aiming to answer all transportation needs of citizens. In this paper, development of the Multifunctional City Smart Card System and system requirements are briefly described. Moreover, performance analysis results of M/Chip Advance Compatible Validators which is the system's most important component are presented.

Keywords: smart card, m/chip advance standard, city transportation, performance analysis

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3296 The Risks of 'Techtopia': Reviewing the Negative Lessons of Smart City Development

Authors: Amanda Grace Ahl, Matthew Brummer

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‘Smart cities’ are not always as ‘smart’ as the term suggests, which is not often covered in the associated academic and public policy literatures. In what has become known as the smart city approach to urban planning, governments around the world are seeking to harness the power of information and communications technology with increasingly advanced data analytics to address major social, economic, and environmental issues reshaping the ways people live. The definitional and theoretical boundaries of the smart city framework are broad and at times ambiguous, as is empirical treatment of the topic. However, and for all the disparity, in investigating any number of institutional and policy prescriptions to the challenges faced by current and emerging metropoles, scholarly thought has hinged overwhelmingly on value-positive conceptions of informatics-centered design. From enhanced quality of services, to increased efficiency of resources, to improved communication between societal stakeholders, the smart city design is championed as a technological wellspring capable of providing answers to the systemic issues stymying a utopian image of the city. However, it is argued that this ‘techtopia’, has resulted in myopia within the discipline as to value-negative implications of such planning, such as weaknesses in practicality, scalability, social equity and affordability of solutions. In order to more carefully examine this observation - that ‘stupid’ represents an omitted variable bias in the study of ‘smart’ - this paper reviews critical cases of unsuccessful smart city developments. It is argued that also understanding the negative factors affiliated with the development processes is imperative for the advancement of theoretical foundations, policies, and strategies to further the smart city as an equitable, holistic urban innovation. What emerges from the process-tracing carried out in this study are distinctly negative lessons of smart city projects, the significance of which are vital for understanding how best to conceive smart urban planning in the 21st century.

Keywords: case study, city management, innovation system, negative lessons, smart city development

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3295 Urban Innovations: Towards a Comprehensive and Sustainable City Development

Authors: Sarang Yeola

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A smart city can be defined as a city that uses Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance its sustainability, workability and livability. It can be viewed as a ‘System of Systems’. We propose decentralization of power and centralization of system. We are presenting a bird's eye view of the system as a whole. The holistic view includes the entirety of human activity in an area including city governments, schools, hospitals, infrastructure, resources, business and people. The main objective for development of Nashik as a smart city is to identify the flaws of the existing systems, eliminate them and come up with innovative and feasible solutions for the betterment of masses. The Make in India is a visionary proposal for FDI in India. It should be managed that the campaign and the industrial estates work in synchronization for boosting the setup of new industrial units in and around Nashik. A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information. We have identified major domains for making Nashik a smart city by surveying the existing infrastructure, challenges and problems faced and the proposed solutions through innovative ideas.

Keywords: transport, (bus rapid transit system) BRTS, metrorail, autos

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3294 Strategies for a Sustainable Neighbourhood in a Smart City: A Case of Pattoor, Thiruvananthapuram

Authors: Vijaya Nhaloor, Suja Kumari Leela, Jose Devadasan

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Planning of neighbourhood development strategies in Tier 2 Indian city is highly significant when it has also been selected as a Smart city by the Ministry of Urban Development in India. Smart city mission of India proposes the development of infrastructure in a city in an inclusive way. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala state, India, has been selected as the city to conduct the research. The master plan for the city of Thiruvananthapuram envisions it as a Compact city and proposes densification as a tool for development. Densification may adversely affect the quality of life after a tipping point. This may lead to urban decay which in turn directly or indirectly affects the surrounding neighbourhoods also, thus spreading blight areas in the city. The author thinks that density in urban planning is not a well detailed subject in India, with respect to its varied links on infrastructure, quality of life, transportation, scope of vertical planning, affordability etc. Neighbourhoods are vital tissues of an urban area, and their development directly affects the development of the region. The methodology would involve skimming of proactive neighbourhood planning principles compatible with the Smart city mission in India. United Nations proposes sustainability as a way of planning development of a neighbourhood. After defining various terminologies involved, a framework shall be developed to analyse an existing neighbourhood and prepare planning guidelines in a sustainable manner. The framework shall comply with international and national policy guidelines. The research shall explore and identify a neighbourhood with the potential to meet the housing demand from the investment regions nearby and analyse its potential and weakness as per this framework. Later, a set of indicators shall be enlisted to guide the development of the neighbourhood, leading to recommendations that shall serve as a replicable model for the other neighbourhoods in the Smart city.

Keywords: key indicators, neighbourhood planning, sustainability, smart city

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3293 Educational Credit in Enhancing Collaboration between Universities and Companies in Smart City

Authors: Eneken Titov, Ly Hobe

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The collaboration between the universities and companies has been a challenging topic for many years, and although we have many good experiences, those seem to be single examples between one university and company. In Ülemiste Smart City in Estonia, the new initiative was started in 2020 fall, when five Estonian universities cooperated, led by the Ülemiste City developing company Mainor, intending to provide charge-free university courses for the Ülemiste City companies and their employees to encourage university-company wider collaboration. Every Ülemiste City company gets a certain number of free educational credit hours per year to participate in university courses. A functional and simple web platform was developed to mediate university courses for the companies. From January 2021, the education credit platform is open for all Ülemiste City companies and their employees to join, and universities offer more than 9000 hours of courses (appr 150 ECTS). Just two months later, more than 20% of Ülemiste City companies (82 out of 400) have joined the project, and their employees have registered for more than in total 3000 hours courses. The first results already show that the project supports the university marketing and the continuous education mindset in general, whether 1/4 of the courses are paid courses (e.g., when the company is out of free credit).

Keywords: education, educational credit, smart city, university-industry collaboration

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3292 Critical Appraisal, Smart City Initiative: China vs. India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Siddharth Singhal, Dhrubajyoti Bordoloi, Peesari Vamshidhar Reddy

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There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes a Smart City. It means different things to different people. The definition varies from place to place depending on the level of development and the willingness of people to change and reform. It tries to improve the quality of resource management and service provisions for the people living in the cities. Smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage the assets of a city. But most of these projects are misinterpreted as being technology projects only. Due to urbanization, a lot of informal as well government funded settlements have come up during the last few decades, thus increasing the consumption of the limited resources available. The people of each city have their own definition of Smart City. In the imagination of any city dweller in India is the picture of a Smart City which contains a wish list of infrastructure and services that describe his or her level of aspiration. The research involved a comparative study of the Smart City models in India and in China. Behavioral changes experienced by the people living in the pilot/first ever smart cities have been identified and compared. This paper discussed what is the target of the quality of life for the people in India and in China and how well could that be realized with the facilities being included in these Smart City projects. Logical and comparative analyses of important data have been done, collected from government sources, government papers and research papers by various experts on the topic. Existing cities with historically grown infrastructure and administration systems will require a more moderate step-by-step approach to modernization. The models were compared using many different motivators and the data is collected from past journals, interacting with the people involved, videos and past submissions. In conclusion, we have identified how these projects could be combined with the ongoing small scale initiatives by the local people/ small group of individuals and what might be the outcome if these existing practices were implemented on a bigger scale.

Keywords: behavior change, mission monitoring, pilot smart cities, social capital

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3291 The Concepts of Urban Sustainable Development and Smart Cities: In the Understanding of Academia and the European Union

Authors: Wolfgang Haupt

Abstract:

When considering the future city one repeatedly comes across two sometimes sparsely differentiated terms: Sustainable and smart. ‘A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth’, this is how the European Commission named its current growth strategy. Thus, Europe should become smarter and more sustainable. Both, the smart and the sustainable city represent a positive vision of urban development as well as a subject area for contemporary and future urban policies. However, more clarity on what is actually behind these terminologies is required. The paper analyses how the terms are defined academically and how this academic understanding is represented in the funding mechanisms of European urban policies. The theoretical framework is mainly based on sources such as journal articles and policy reports. It became clear that despite some similarities, such as the broad field of work or the tendency to operationalize the terms by defining sub-categories, both ideas are distinctly different in terms of the development history, the main driving forces behind and the theoretical scope. Moreover, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability has found its way into the centre of European regional funding policies. On the contrary, the smart city vision still lacks terminological and content-related clarity and as a consequence, the corresponding European funding landscape is more small-scaled and less customized.

Keywords: European spatial policy, European union, smart city, urban sustainable development

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3290 The Effect of Data Integration to the Smart City

Authors: Richard Byrne, Emma Mulliner

Abstract:

Smart cities are a vision for the future that is increasingly becoming a reality. While a key concept of the smart city is the ability to capture, communicate, and process data that has long been produced through day-to-day activities of the city, much of the assessment models in place neglect this fact to focus on ‘smartness’ concepts. Although it is true technology often provides the opportunity to capture and communicate data in more effective ways, there are also human processes involved that are just as important. The growing importance with regards to the use and ownership of data in society can be seen by all with companies such as Facebook and Google increasingly coming under the microscope, however, why is the same scrutiny not applied to cities? The research area is therefore of great importance to the future of our cities here and now, while the findings will be of just as great importance to our children in the future. This research aims to understand the influence data is having on organisations operating throughout the smart cities sector and employs a mixed-method research approach in order to best answer the following question: Would a data-based evaluation model for smart cities be more appropriate than a smart-based model in assessing the development of the smart city? A fully comprehensive literature review concluded that there was a requirement for a data-driven assessment model for smart cities. This was followed by a documentary analysis to understand the root source of data integration to the smart city. A content analysis of city data platforms enquired as to the alternative approaches employed by cities throughout the UK and draws on best practice from New York to compare and contrast. Grounded in theory, the research findings to this point formulated a qualitative analysis framework comprised of: the changing environment influenced by data, the value of data in the smart city, the data ecosystem of the smart city and organisational response to the data orientated environment. The framework was applied to analyse primary data collected through the form of interviews with both public and private organisations operating throughout the smart cities sector. The work to date represents the first stage of data collection that will be built upon by a quantitative research investigation into the feasibility of data network effects in the smart city. An analysis into the benefits of data interoperability supporting services to the smart city in the areas of health and transport will conclude the research to achieve the aim of inductively forming a framework that can be applied to future smart city policy. To conclude, the research recognises the influence of technological perspectives in the development of smart cities to date and highlights this as a challenge to introduce theory applied with a planning dimension. The primary researcher has utilised their experience working in the public sector throughout the investigation to reflect upon what is perceived as a gap in practice of where we are today, to where we need to be tomorrow.

Keywords: data, planning, policy development, smart cities

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3289 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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3288 Statistical Analysis to Compare between Smart City and Traditional Housing

Authors: Taha Anjamrooz, Sareh Rajabi, Ayman Alzaatreh

Abstract:

Smart cities are playing important roles in real life. Integration and automation between different features of modern cities and information technologies improve smart city efficiency, energy management, human and equipment resource management, life quality and better utilization of resources for the customers. One of difficulties in this path, is use, interface and link between software, hardware, and other IT technologies to develop and optimize processes in various business fields such as construction, supply chain management and transportation in parallel to cost-effective and resource reduction impacts. Also, Smart cities are certainly intended to demonstrate a vital role in offering a sustainable and efficient model for smart houses while mitigating environmental and ecological matters. Energy management is one of the most important matters within smart houses in the smart cities and communities, because of the sensitivity of energy systems, reduction in energy wastage and maximization in utilizing the required energy. Specially, the consumption of energy in the smart houses is important and considerable in the economic balance and energy management in smart city as it causes significant increment in energy-saving and energy-wastage reduction. This research paper develops features and concept of smart city in term of overall efficiency through various effective variables. The selected variables and observations are analyzed through data analysis processes to demonstrate the efficiency of smart city and compare the effectiveness of each variable. There are ten chosen variables in this study to improve overall efficiency of smart city through increasing effectiveness of smart houses using an automated solar photovoltaic system, RFID System, smart meter and other major elements by interfacing between software and hardware devices as well as IT technologies. Secondly to enhance aspect of energy management by energy-saving within smart house through efficient variables. The main objective of smart city and smart houses is to reproduce energy and increase its efficiency through selected variables with a comfortable and harmless atmosphere for the customers within a smart city in combination of control over the energy consumption in smart house using developed IT technologies. Initially the comparison between traditional housing and smart city samples is conducted to indicate more efficient system. Moreover, the main variables involved in measuring overall efficiency of system are analyzed through various processes to identify and prioritize the variables in accordance to their influence over the model. The result analysis of this model can be used as comparison and benchmarking with traditional life style to demonstrate the privileges of smart cities. Furthermore, due to expensive and expected shortage of natural resources in near future, insufficient and developed research study in the region, and available potential due to climate and governmental vision, the result and analysis of this study can be used as key indicator to select most effective variables or devices during construction phase and design

Keywords: smart city, traditional housing, RFID, photovoltaic system, energy efficiency, energy saving

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