Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1549

Search results for: cervical cancer

1549 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogenetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1548 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1547 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.

Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
1546 Clinical Feature Analysis and Prediction on Recurrence in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Ravinder Bahl, Jamini Sharma

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates analysis of the cervical cancer based on a probabilistic model. It involves technique for classification and prediction by recognizing typical and diagnostically most important test features relating to cervical cancer. The main contributions of the research include predicting the probability of recurrences in no recurrence (first time detection) cases. The combination of the conventional statistical and machine learning tools is applied for the analysis. Experimental study with real data demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach for the said cause.

Keywords: cervical cancer, recurrence, no recurrence, probabilistic, classification, prediction, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1545 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1544 Knowledge and Attitude of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Afaf Abdallah, Moawia Elsadig

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer among worldwide; representing 13% of female cancers. In Sudan, it ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women as other developing countries. Aim: Is to study awareness, attitude of nursing students towards cervical cancer prevention. The results: Most of the students were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test. However, half of the respondents showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination. More than two-thirds of respondents exhibited a positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information, education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, attitude, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1543 In silico Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Squamous Cell Carcinomas Stages of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the women related cancers which starts from the pre-cancerous cells and a fraction of women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cervical cancer. Cervical pre-cancers if treated in pre-invasive stage can prevent almost all true cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the genes and pathways that are involved in the progression of cervical cancer and are responsible in transition from pre-invasive stage to other advanced invasive stages. The study used GDS3292 microarray data to identify the stage specific genes in cervical cancer and further to generate the network of the significant genes. The microarray data GDS3292 consists of the expression profiling of 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs and 21 SCCs samples. The study identifies 70 upregulated and 37 downregulated genes in HSIL stage while 95 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in SCC stages. Biological process including cell communication, signal transduction are highly enriched in both HSIL and SCC stages of cervical cancer. Further, the ppi interaction of genes involved in HSIL and SCC stages helps in identifying the interacting partners. This work may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarker which can be utilized for early stage detection.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HSIL, microarray, SCC

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
1542 Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E4 Gene Variation as Risk Factor for Cervical Cancer

Authors: Yudi Zhao, Ziyun Zhou, Yueting Yao, Shuying Dai, Zhiling Yan, Longyu Yang, Chuanyin Li, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao

Abstract:

HPV16 E4 gene plays an important role in viral genome amplification and release. Therefore, a variation of the E4 gene nucleic acid sequence may affect the carcinogenicity of HPV16. In order to understand the relationship between the variation of HPV16 E4 gene and cervical cancer, this study was to amplify and sequence the DNA sequences of E4 genes in 118 HPV16-positive cervical cancer patients and 151 HPV16-positive asymptomatic individuals. After obtaining E4 gene sequences, the phylogenetic trees were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method for gene variation analysis. The results showed that: 1) The distribution of HPV16 variants between the case group and the control group differed greatly (P = 0.015),and the Asian-American(AA)variant was likely to relate to the occurrence of cervical cancer. 2) DNA sequence analysis showed that there were significant differences in the distribution of 8 variants between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). And 3) In European (EUR) variant, two variations, C3384T (L18L) and A3449G (P39P), were associated with the initiation and development of cervical cancer. The results suggested that the variation of HPV16 E4 gene may be a contributor affecting the occurrence as well as the development of cervical cancer, and different HPV16 variants may have different carcinogenic capability.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV16, E4 gene, variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
1541 The Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Expression of Muc1 and P65 in a Cervical Cancer Cell Line, HCS-2

Authors: K. R. Thabethe, G. A. Adefolaju, M. J. Hosie

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24 hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one way ANOVA followed by a Tukey Kramer Post Hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death, therefore the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cervical cancer, haart, MUC1, P65

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1540 Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Samples from Twin Cities in Pakistan

Authors: Sana Gul, Sheeba Murad, Aneela Javed

Abstract:

Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. Objective: Current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. Methodology: A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers respectively. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV 18 . HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Pakistan, human papillomavirus, HPV 16

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1539 The Effect of Endurance Training and Taxol Consumption on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E2 Levels in the Liver Tissue of Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firozi-Niyaki, Maryam Kamarlouei

Abstract:

Background: Herbs have a strong anti-cancer effect. Also, exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training and taxol on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissue of mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 female C57 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7 in each group): control (healthy), control (cancer), complement (cancer), training-supplementary (cancer) and training (cancer). The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/kg/day of pure taxol was injected intra peritoneally. The dependent variables of this study were measured 24 hours after the last training session by ELISA. Results: The results showed that the use of taxol and endurance training reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissues of C57 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Induction of the cancerous tissue in mice with cervical cancer increases the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 and endurance training along with taxol may reduce these levels.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1538 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy

Abstract:

Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1537 Sociodemographic Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer in Imphal, Manipur

Authors: Arundhati Devi Maibam, K. Ingocha Singh

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is preventable if detected early. Determination of risk factors is essential to plan screening programmes to prevent the disease. To study the demographic risk factors of cervical cancer among Manipuri women, information on age, marital status, educational level, monthly family income and socioeconomic status were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. In this study, 64 incident cases registered at the RT Dept, RIMS (Regional Institute of Medical Sciences), Imphal, Manipur, India during 2008-09 participated. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and the results were expressed in percentages. Among the 64 patients with cervical cancer, 56 (88.9%) were in the age group of 40+ years. The majority of the patients were from rural areas (68.75%) and 31.25% were from urban areas. The majority of the patients were Hindus (73%), 55(85.9%) were of low educational level, 43(67.2%) were married, and 36 (56.25%) belonged to Class IV socioeconomic status. In conclusion, if detected early, cervical cancer is preventable and curable. The potential risk factors need to be identified and women in the risk group need to be motivated for screening. Affordable screening programmes and health care resources will help in lessening the burden of the disease.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Manipuri women, RIIMS, socio-demographic risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1536 Attitudes, Knowledge and Perceptions towards Cervical Cancer Messages among Female University Students

Authors: Anne Nattembo

Abstract:

Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in developing countries, especially in Africa. Effective cervical cancer prevention communication requires identification of behaviors, attitudes and increasing awareness of a given population; thus this study focused on investigating awareness, attitudes, and behavior among female university students towards cervical cancer messages. The study objectives sought to investigate the communication behavior of young adults towards cervical cancer, to understand female students recognition of cervical cancer as a problem, to identify the frames related to cervical cancer and their impact towards audience communication and participation behaviors, to identify the factors that influence behavioral intentions and level of involvement towards cervical cancer services and to make recommendations on how to improve cervical cancer communication towards female university students. The researcher obtained data using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions targeting 90 respondents. The semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out through one-on-one discussions basis using a set of prepared questions among 53 respondents. All interviews were audio-tape recorded. Each interview was directly typed into Microsoft Word. 4 focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 37 respondents; 2 female only groups with 10 respondents in one and 9 respondents in another, 1 mixed with 12 participants 5 of whom were male, and 1 male only group with 6 participants. The key findings show that the participants preferred to receive and access cervical cancer information from doctors although they were mainly receiving information from the radio. In regards to the type of public the respondents represent, majority of the respondents were non-publics in the sense that they did not have knowledge about cervical cancer, had low levels of involvement and had high constraint recognition their cervical cancer knowledge levels. The researcher identified the most salient audience frames among female university students towards cervical cancer and these included; death, loss, and fear. These frames did not necessarily make cervical cancer an issue of concern among the female university students but rather an issue they distanced themselves from as they did not perceive it as a risk. The study also identified the constraints respondents face in responding to cervical cancer campaign calls-to-action which included; stigma, lack of knowledge and access to services as well as lack of recommendation from doctors. In regards to sex differences, females had more knowledge about cervical cancer than the males. In conclusion the study highlights the importance of interpersonal communication in risk or health communication with a focus on health providers proactively sharing cervical cancer prevention information with their patients. Health provider’s involvement in cervical cancer is very important in influencing behavior and compliance of cervical cancer calls-to-action. The study also provides recommendations for designing effective cervical cancer campaigns that will positively impact on the audience such as packaging cervical cancer messages that also target the males as a way of increasing their involvement and more campaigns to increase awareness of cervical cancer as well as designing positive framed messages to counter the negative audience frames towards cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer communication, health communication, university students, risk communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1535 Development of an Interactive and Robust Image Analysis and Diagnostic Tool in R for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Kumar Dron Shrivastav, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Arti Taneja, Harpreet Singh, Priya Ranjan, Rajiv Janardhanan

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide which can be cured if detected early. Manual pathology which is typically utilized at present has many limitations. The current gold standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is exhaustive and time-consuming because it relies heavily on the subjective knowledge of the oncopathologists which leads to mis-diagnosis and missed diagnosis resulting false negative and false positive. To reduce time and complexities associated with early diagnosis, we require an interactive diagnostic tool for early detection particularly in developing countries where cervical cancer incidence and related mortality is high. Incorporation of digital pathology in place of manual pathology for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis can increase the precision and strongly reduce the chances of error in a time-specific manner. Thus, we propose a robust and interactive cervical cancer image analysis and diagnostic tool, which can categorically process both histopatholgical and cytopathological images to identify abnormal cells in the least amount of time and settings with minimum resources. Furthermore, incorporation of a set of specific parameters that are typically referred to for identification of abnormal cells with the help of open source software -’R’ is one of the major highlights of the tool. The software has the ability to automatically identify and quantify the morphological features, color intensity, sensitivity and other parameters digitally to differentiate abnormal from normal cells, which may improve and accelerate screening and early diagnosis, ultimately leading to timely treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, early detection, digital Pathology, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1534 Investigation Two Polymorphism of hTERT Gene (Rs 2736098 and Rs 2736100) and miR- 146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Alaheh Gholami Roud-Majany, Zahra Razavi, Massoud Hoshmand

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is multi step disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of hTERT and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of hTERT genotypes and miR-146a genotypes in cervical cancer. Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of hTERT and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, hTERT ( rs 2736098) GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of hTERT rs 2736098 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: polymorphism of hTERT gene, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, cervical cancer, virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1533 Using Econometric Methods to Explore Obesity Stigma and Avoidance of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

Authors: Stephanie A. Schauder, Gosia Sylwestrzak

Abstract:

Overweight and obese women report avoiding preventive care due to fear of weight-related bias from medical professionals. Gynecological exams, due to their sensitive and personally invasive nature, are especially susceptible to avoidance. This research investigates the association between body mass index (BMI) and screening rates for breast and cervical cancer using claims data from 1.3 million members of a large health insurance company. Because obesity is associated with increased cancer risk, screenings for these cancers should increase as BMI increases. However, this paper finds that the distribution of cancer screening rates by BMI take an inverted U-shape with underweight and obese members having the lowest screening rates. For cervical cancer screening, those in the target population with a BMI of 23 have the highest screening rate at 68%, while Obese Class III members have a screening rate of 50%. Those in the underweight category have a screening rate of 58%. This relationship persists even after controlling for health and demographic covariates in regression analysis. Interestingly, there is no association between BMI and BRCA (BReast CAncer gene) genetic testing. This is consistent with the narrative that stigma causes avoidance because genetic testing does not involve any assessment of a person’s body. More work must be done to determine how to increase cancer screening rates in those who may feel stigmatized due to their weight.

Keywords: cancer screening, cervical cancer, breast cancer, weight stigma, avoidance of care

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1532 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Vidhula Ahire, Amit Kumar, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni

Abstract:

Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: cervical cancer, ellagic acid, sensitization, radiation therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1531 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV18, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
1530 Cervical Cell Classification Using Random Forests

Authors: Dalwinder Singh, Amandeep Verma, Manpreet Kaur, Birmohan Singh

Abstract:

The detection of pre-cancerous changes using a Pap smear test of cervical cell is the important step for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The Pap smear test consists of a sample of human cells taken from the cervix which are analysed to detect cancerous and pre-cancerous stage of the given subject. The manual analysis of these cells is labor intensive and time consuming process which relies on expert cytotechnologist. In this paper, a computer assisted system for the automated analysis of the cervical cells has been proposed. We propose a morphology based approach to the nucleus detection and segmentation of the cytoplasmic region of the given single or multiple overlapped cell. Further, various texture and region based features are calculated from these cells to classify these into normal and abnormal cell. Experimental results on public available dataset show that our system has achieved satisfactory success rate.

Keywords: cervical cancer, cervical tissue, mathematical morphology, texture features

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1529 Study of Relation between P53 and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, p53, miR-146a, rs2910164, polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
1528 Investigation p53 and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33, and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 polymorphism, intraepithelial, neoplasia, HPV

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1527 Barriers and Facilitators for Telehealth Use during Cervical Cancer Screening and Care: A Literature Review

Authors: Reuben Mugisha, Stella Bakibinga

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The cervical cancer burden is a global threat, but more so in low income settings where more than 85% of mortality cases occur due to lack of sufficient screening programs. There is consequently a lack of early detection of cancer and precancerous cells among women. Studies show that 3% to 35% of deaths could have been avoided through early screening depending on prognosis, disease progression, environmental and lifestyle factors. In this study, a systematic literature review is undertaken to understand potential barriers and facilitators as documented in previous studies that focus on the application of telehealth in cervical cancer screening programs for early detection of cancer and precancerous cells. The study informs future studies especially those from low income settings about lessons learned from previous studies and how to be best prepared while planning to implement telehealth for cervical cancer screening. It further identifies the knowledge gaps in the research area and makes recommendations. Using a specified selection criterion, 15 different articles are analyzed based on the study’s aim, theory or conceptual framework used, method applied, study findings and conclusion. Results are then tabulated and presented thematically to better inform readers about emerging facts on barriers and facilitators to telehealth implementation as documented in the reviewed articles, and how they consequently lead to evidence informed conclusions that are relevant to telehealth implementation for cervical cancer screening. Preliminary findings of this study underscore that use of low cost mobile colposcope is an appealing option in cervical cancer screening, particularly when coupled with onsite treatment of suspicious lesions. These tools relay cervical images to the online databases for storage and retrieval, they permit integration of connected devices at the point of care to rapidly collect clinical data for further analysis of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Results however reveal the need for population sensitization prior to use of mobile colposcopies among patients, standardization of mobile colposcopy programs across screening partners, sufficient logistics and good connectivity, experienced experts to review image cases at the point-of-care as important facilitators to the implementation of mobile colposcope as a telehealth cervical cancer screening mechanism.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, digital technology, hand-held colposcopy, knowledge-sharing

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1526 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

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Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

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1525 Cancer of the Cervix Caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus) in Algerian Population

Authors: Sara Mouffouk, Fatma Belaid, Asma Hechani, Chaima Mouffouk

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Cancer of the cervix caused by HPV (human papillomavirus ) is for many years a real public health problem, it is ranked 2nd deadly female cancer kills more than 270 000 women each year worldwide. In Algeria, the mortality of cervical cancer decreases with the impact, but the prognosis of these cancers remains bleak: The 5-year relative survival is 60 %. The mode of transmission is usually sexuel. Our study was undertaken to show the link between HPV and cervical cancer and the importance of Pap smear screening in this type of pathology. On the total sample, 76.11 % showed abnormal cervical smears of which 13% have mild cases and hormonal reaction Change, and 44% represent inflammatory smears and normal cases 35%, while long seven years from 2005 to 2012. Thus, 43% of abnormal smear results between ASCUS, AGUS, low and high grade carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and 57 % of other cases of unknown origin. The average age of women at risk of developing adenocarcinoma is 45-50 with a 67% to 33% of the same risk in women of age group 41-45 years although the percentage of cases of HPV infected patients was 2% in the past seven years. We found that with increasing age, the risk is argued. Due to several factors such as multiparty can reduced the resistance of the uterine epithelium and even as the multi that promotes contamination HPV causes repeated infections with HPV.

Keywords: cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) screening, prevention, vaccines

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1524 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

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Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Aspergillus terreus, cervical cancer, lovastatin

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1523 Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV Infected Women in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: E. Njuguna, S. Ilovi, P. Muiruri, K. Mutai, J. Kinuthia, P. Njoroge

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Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women in developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa. Screening for cervical cancer in all women regardless of HIV status is crucial for the early detection of cancer of the cervix when treatment is most effective in curing the disease. It is particularly more important to screen HIV infected women as they are more at risk of developing the disease and progressing faster once infected with HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). We aimed to determine the factors affecting the utilization of cervical cancer screenings among HIV infected women above 18 years of age at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Center (CCC). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional mixed quantitative and qualitative study involving randomly and purposefully selected HIV positive female respectively was conducted. Qualitative data collection involved 4 focus group discussions of eligible female participants while quantitative data were acquired by one to one interviewer administered structured questionnaires. The outcome variable was the utilization of cervical cancer screening. Data were entered into Access data base and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Qualitative data were analyzed after coding for significant clauses and transcribing to determine themes arising. Results: We enrolled a total of 387 patients, mean age (IQ range) 40 years (36-44). Cervical cancer screening utilization was 46% despite a health care provider recommendation of 85%. The screening results were reported as normal in 72 of 81 (88.9%) and abnormal 7 of 81(8.6%) of the cases. Those who did not know their result were 2 of 81(2.5%). Patients were less likely to utilize the service with increasing number of years attending the clinic (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p-value 0.02), but more likely to utilize the service if recommendation by a staff was made (OR 10, 95% CI 4.2-23.9, p<0.001), and if cervical screening had been done before joining KNH CCC (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.9, p < 0.001). Similarly, they were more likely to rate the services on cervical cancer screening as good (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.7-3.4, p <0.001) and very good (OR 8.1, 95% CI 2.5-6.1, p<0.001) if they had utilized the service. The main barrier themes emerging from qualitative data included fear of screening due to excessive pain or bleeding, lack of proper communication on screening procedures and increased waiting time. Conclusions: Utilization of cervical cancer screening services was low despite health care recommendation. Patient socio-demographic characteristics did not influence whether or not they utilized the services, indicating the important role of the health care provider in the referral and provision of the service.

Keywords: cervical, cancer, HIV, women, comprehensive care center

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1522 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Cervical Cytology Features and Its Association with Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Komathy Thiagarajan, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome has been associated with multiple disorders such as endocrine disorder, metabolic syndrome, infertility, and endometrial cancer. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are anticipated to develop three times more chances for endometrial cancer than women without PCOS. This study, therefore, was conducted to determine the association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer and to determine the cervical cytology features of PCOS. Patients attending the Subfertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board were recruited and examined physically by medical practitioners. They were categorized into two groups; i) the PCOS group if they met Rotterdam Criteria 2004 and ii) the control group if they did not meet Rotterdam Criteria 2004. Cervical sampling was done on all patients via the Liquid-Based Cytology (LBC) method in the pre-and post-subfertility treatment. A total of 167 patients participated in the study, of which 79 belonged to the PCOS group and 88 to the control group. The findings showed no cervical and endometrial cancer cases in both groups. The Liquid-Based Cytology results in the PCOS group displayed more cases with cellular changes, i.e., benign inflammation, atrophic smear and Candida sp. infection. To conclude, no association was found between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer. A more holistic study with a higher number of participants can further determine the association between endometrial cancer and PCOS. Furthermore, a longer duration between LBC pre- and post-subfertility treatment should be implied to observe changes in the cervical cells.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, liquid-based cytology, PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome

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1521 Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Selected Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Diagnosis of Cancer: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Rajvir Kaur, Jeewani Anupama Ginige

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With recent trends in Big Data and advancements in Information and Communication Technologies, the healthcare industry is at the stage of its transition from clinician oriented to technology oriented. Many people around the world die of cancer because the diagnosis of disease was not done at an early stage. Nowadays, the computational methods in the form of Machine Learning (ML) are used to develop automated decision support systems that can diagnose cancer with high confidence in a timely manner. This paper aims to carry out the comparative evaluation of a selected set of ML classifiers on two existing datasets: breast cancer and cervical cancer. The ML classifiers compared in this study are Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Logistic Regression, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The evaluation is carried out based on standard evaluation metrics Precision (P), Recall (R), F1-score and Accuracy. The experimental results based on the evaluation metrics show that ANN showed the highest-level accuracy (99.4%) when tested with breast cancer dataset. On the other hand, when these ML classifiers are tested with the cervical cancer dataset, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) technique gave better accuracy (93.1%) in comparison to other classifiers.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, breast cancer, classifiers, cervical cancer, f-score, machine learning, precision, recall

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1520 GynApp: A Mobile Application for the Organization and Control of Gynecological Studies

Authors: Betzabet García-Mendoza, Rocío Abascal-Mena

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Breast and cervical cancer are among the leading causes of death of women in Mexico. The mortality rate for these diseases is alarming, even though there have been many campaigns for making people self-aware of the importance of conducting gynecological studies for a timely prevention and detection, these have not been enough. This paper presents a mobile application for organizing and controlling gynecological studies in order to help and boost women to take care of their bodies and health. The process of analyzing and designing the mobile application is presented, along with all the steps carried out by following a user-centered design methodology.

Keywords: breast cancer, cervical cancer, gynecological mobile application, paper prototyping, storyboard, women health

Procedia PDF Downloads 142