Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 769

Search results for: SRAM Cell

769 A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad Reza Sahebi, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani

Abstract:

To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.

Keywords: SRAM Cell, leakage current, cell area.

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768 Low Power CNFET SRAM Design

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Iman Rahbari, Mohamad Reza Kalhor

Abstract:

CNFET has emerged as an alternative material to silicon for high performance, high stability and low power SRAM design in recent years. SRAM functions as cache memory in computers and many portable devices. In this paper, a new SRAM cell design based on CNFET technology is proposed. The proposed SRAM cell design for CNFET is compared with SRAM cell designs implemented with the conventional CMOS and FinFET in terms of speed, power consumption, stability, and leakage current. The HSPICE simulation and analysis show that the dynamic power consumption of the proposed 8T CNFET SRAM cell’s is reduced about 48% and the SNM is widened up to 56% compared to the conventional CMOS SRAM structure at the expense of 2% leakage power and 3% write delay increase.

Keywords: SRAM cell, CNFET, low power, HSPICE.

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767 A Low Power SRAM Base on Novel Word-Line Decoding

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani, Hamid Barati, Ali Barati, Ali Sarchami

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low power SRAM based on five transistor SRAM cell. Proposed SRAM uses novel word-line decoding such that, during read/write operation, only selected cell connected to bit-line whereas, in conventional SRAM (CV-SRAM), all cells in selected row connected to their bit-lines, which in turn develops differential voltages across all bit-lines, and this makes energy consumption on unselected bit-lines. In proposed SRAM memory array divided into two halves and this causes data-line capacitance to reduce. Also proposed SRAM uses one bit-line and thus has lower bit-line leakage compared to CV-SRAM. Furthermore, the proposed SRAM incurs no area overhead, and has comparable read/write performance versus the CV-SRAM. Simulation results in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology shows in worst case proposed SRAM has 80% smaller dynamic energy consumption in each cycle compared to CV-SRAM. Besides, energy consumption in each cycle of proposed SRAM and CV-SRAM investigated analytically, the results of which are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: SRAM, write Operation, read Operation, capacitances, dynamic energy consumption.

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766 A 16Kb 10T-SRAM with 4x Read-Power Reduction

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Sanjay Sharma, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the read power consumption as well as to enhance the stability of the SRAM cell during the read operation. A new 10-transisor cell is proposed with a new read scheme to minimize the power consumption within the memory core. It has separate read and write ports, thus cell read stability is significantly improved. A 16Kb SRAM macro operating at 1V supply voltage is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS process. Its read power consumption is reduced to 24% of the conventional design. The new cell also has lower leakage current due to its special bit-line pre-charge scheme. As a result, it is suitable for low-power mobile applications where power supply is restricted by the battery.

Keywords: A 16Kb 10T-SRAM, 4x Read-Power Reduction

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765 A Novel Four-Transistor SRAM Cell with Low Dynamic Power Consumption

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani, Hamid Barati, Ali Barati

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell for very high density and low power embedded SRAM applications as well as for stand-alone SRAM applications. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 20% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also proposed cell uses two word-lines and one pair bit-line. Read operation perform from one side of cell, and write operation perform from another side of cell, and swing voltage reduced on word-lines thus dynamic power during read/write operation reduced. The fabrication process is fully compatible with high-performance CMOS logic technologies, because there is no need to integrate a poly-Si resistor or a TFT load. HSPICE simulation in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology confirms all results obtained from this paper.

Keywords: Positive feedback, leakage current, read operation, write operation, dynamic energy consumption.

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764 Design and Analysis of an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell for Low Power High Speed Applications

Authors: Ankit Mitra

Abstract:

Speed, power consumption and area, are some of the most important factors of concern in modern day memory design. As we move towards Deep Sub-Micron Technologies, the problems of leakage current, noise and cell stability due to physical parameter variation becomes more pronounced. In this paper we have designed an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell with Dual Threshold Voltage and characterized it in terms of read and write delay, read and write noise margins, Data Retention Voltage and Leakage Current. Read Decoupling improves the Read Noise Margin and static power dissipation is reduced by using Dual-Vt transistors. The results obtained are compared with existing 6T, 8T, 9T SRAM Cells, which shows the superiority of the proposed design. The Cell is designed and simulated in TSPICE using 90nm CMOS process.

Keywords: CMOS, Dual-Port, Data Retention Voltage, 8T SRAM, Leakage Current, Noise Margin, Loop-cutting, Single-ended.

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763 Schmitt Trigger Based SRAM Using Finfet Technology- Shorted Gate Mode

Authors: Vasundara Patel K. S., Harsha N. Bhushan, Kiran G. Gadag, Nischal Prasad B. N., Mohmmed Haroon

Abstract:

The most widely used semiconductor memory types are the Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) and Static Random Access memory (SRAM). Competition among memory manufacturers drives the need to decrease power consumption and reduce the probability of read failure. A technology that is relatively new and has not been explored is the FinFET technology. In this paper, a single cell Schmitt Trigger Based Static RAM using FinFET technology is proposed and analyzed. The accuracy of the result is validated by means of HSPICE simulations with 32nm FinFET technology and the results are then compared with 6T SRAM using the same technology.

Keywords: Schmitt trigger based SRAM, FinFET, and Static Noise Margin.

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762 Analysis of Performance of 3T1D Dynamic Random-Access Memory Cell

Authors: Nawang Chhunid, Gagnesh Kumar

Abstract:

On-chip memories consume a significant portion of the overall die space and power in modern microprocessors. On-chip caches depend on Static Random-Access Memory (SRAM) cells and scaling of technology occurring as per Moore’s law. Unfortunately, the scaling is affecting stability, performance, and leakage power which will become major problems for future SRAMs in aggressive nanoscale technologies due to increasing device mismatch and variations. 3T1D Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) cell is a non-destructive read DRAM cell with three transistors and a gated diode. In 3T1D DRAM cell gated diode (D1) acts as a storage device and also as an amplifier, which leads to fast read access. Due to its high tolerance to process variation, high density, and low cost of memory as compared to 6T SRAM cell, it is universally used by the advanced microprocessor for on chip data and program memory. In the present paper, it has been shown that 3T1D DRAM cell can perform better in terms of fast read access as compared to 6T, 4T, 3T SRAM cells, respectively.

Keywords: DRAM cell, read access time, tanner EDA tool write access time and retention time, average power dissipation.

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761 Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage

Authors: M. Fadlallah, G. Ghibaudo, C. G. Theodorou

Abstract:

The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.

Keywords: Low-frequency noise, Random Telegraph Noise, Dynamic Variation, SRRV.

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760 Delay and Energy Consumption Analysis of Conventional SRAM

Authors: Arash Azizi-Mazreah, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani, Hamid Barati, Ali Barati

Abstract:

The energy consumption and delay in read/write operation of conventional SRAM is investigated analytically as well as by simulation. Explicit analytical expressions for the energy consumption and delay in read and write operation as a function of device parameters and supply voltage are derived. The expressions are useful in predicting the effect of parameter changes on the energy consumption and speed as well as in optimizing the design of conventional SRAM. HSPICE simulation in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology confirms precision of analytical expressions derived from this paper.

Keywords: Read energy consumption, write energy consumption, read delay, write delay.

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759 Multivariable System Reduction Using Stability Equation Method and SRAM

Authors: D. Bala Bhaskar

Abstract:

An algorithm is proposed for the order reduction of large scale linear dynamic multi variable systems where the reduced order model denominator is obtained by using Stability equation method and numerator coefficients are obtained by using SRAM. The proposed algorithm produces a lower order model for an original stable high order multivariable system. The reduction procedure is easy to understand, efficient and computer oriented. To highlight the advantages of the approach, the algorithm is illustrated with the help of a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques in literature.

Keywords: Multi variable systems, order reduction, stability equation method, SRAM, time domain characteristics, ISE.

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758 An Embedded System Design for SRAM SEU Test

Authors: Kyoung Kun Lee, Soongyu Kwon, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

An embedded system for SEU(single event upset) test needs to be designed to prevent system failure by high-energy particles during measuring SEU. SEU is a phenomenon in which the data is changed temporary in semiconductor device caused by high-energy particles. In this paper, we present an embedded system for SRAM(static random access memory) SEU test. SRAMs are on the DUT(device under test) and it is separated from control board which manages the DUT and measures the occurrence of SEU. It needs to have considerations for preventing system failure while managing the DUT and making an accurate measurement of SEUs. We measure the occurrence of SEUs from five different SRAMs at three different cyclotron beam energies 30, 35, and 40MeV. The number of SEUs of SRAMs ranges from 3.75 to 261.00 in average.

Keywords: embedded system, single event upset, SRAM

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757 Reduction of Leakage Power in Digital Logic Circuits Using Stacking Technique in 45 Nanometer Regime

Authors: P.K. Sharma, B. Bhargava, S. Akashe

Abstract:

Power dissipation due to leakage current in the digital circuits is a biggest factor which is considered specially while designing nanoscale circuits. This paper is exploring the ideas of reducing leakage current in static CMOS circuits by stacking the transistors in increasing numbers. Clearly it means that the stacking of OFF transistors in large numbers result a significant reduction in power dissipation. Increase in source voltage of NMOS transistor minimizes the leakage current. Thus stacking technique makes circuit with minimum power dissipation losses due to leakage current. Also some of digital circuits such as full adder, D flip flop and 6T SRAM have been simulated in this paper, with the application of reduction technique on ‘cadence virtuoso tool’ using specter at 45nm technology with supply voltage 0.7V.

Keywords: Stack, 6T SRAM cell, low power, threshold voltage

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756 Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

Authors: Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Dmitri O. Lapotko

Abstract:

Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

Keywords: Delivery, cell separation, graft, laser, plasmonic nanobubble, cell therapy, gold nanoparticle.

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755 Assembly Process Algorithms of Flexible Cell

Authors: M. Kusá, M. Matúšová, A. Javorová, K. Velí

Abstract:

This paper deals about four items assembly process of linear drive. This assembly will be realized in flexible assembly cell on Institute of Manufacturing Systems and Applied Mechanics. There is defined manufacturing cell, individual actuators created our flexible cell. Next chapter is about control type, detailed describe a sequence control type, which will be used in mentioned flexible assembly cell. All cell control is divided in individual steps instructions. There instructions illustrate table number III.

Keywords: assembly, flexible cell, sequence control

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754 Human Elastin-derived Biomimetic Coating Surface to Support Cell Growth

Authors: Antonella Bandiera

Abstract:

A new sythetic gene coding for a Human Elastin-Like Polypeptide was constructed and expressed. The recombinant product was tested as coating agent to realize a surface suitable for cell growth. Coatings showed peculiar features and different human cell lines were seeded and cultured. All cell lines tested showed to adhere and proliferate on this substrate that has been shown also to exert a specific effect on cells, depending on cell type.

Keywords: elastin, recombinant protein, coating, cell adhesion.

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753 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter

Abstract:

The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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752 Phenotypes of B Cells Differ in EBV-positive Burkitt-s lymphoma Derived Cell Lines

Authors: Irina Spaka, Rita Birkenfelde, Svetlana Kozireva, Jevgenija Osmjana, Madara Upmane, ElenaKashuba, Irina Kholodnyuk Holodnuka

Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the endemic Burkitt-s lymphoma (BL). The EBVpositive BL-derived cell lines initially maintain the original tumor phenotype of EBV infection (latency I, LatI), but most of them drift toward a lymphoblast phenotype of EBV latency III (LatIII) during in vitro culturing. The aim of the present work was to characterize the B-cell subsets in EBV-positive BL cell lines and to verify whether a particular cell subset correlates with the type of EBV infection. The phenotype analysis of two EBV-negative and eleven EBV-positive (three of LatI and eight of LatIII) BL cell lines was performed by polychromatic flow cytomery, based on expression pattern of CD19, CD10, CD38, CD27, and CD5 markers. Two cell subsets, CD19+CD10+ and CD19+CD10-, were defined in LatIII BL cell lines. In both subsets, the CD27 and CD5 cell surface expression was detected in a proportion of the cells.

Keywords: B-cell subsets, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, EBV latency, phenotype profiles.

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751 Irreversibility and Electrochemical Modeling of GT-SOFC Hybrid System and Parametric Analysis on Performance of Fuel Cell

Authors: R. Mahjoub, K. Maghsoudi Mehraban

Abstract:

Since the heart of the hybrid system is the fuel cell and it has vital impact on efficiency and performance of cycle, in this study, the major modeling of electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell is analyzed. Also, solid oxide fuel cell is integrated with the gas turbine and thermodynamic analysis on different elements of hybrid system is applied. Next, in predefined operational points of hybrid cycle, the simulation results are obtained. Then, different source of irreversibility in fuel cell is modeled and influence of different major parameters on different irreversibility is computed and applied. Then, the effect of important parameters such as thickness and surface of electrolyte fuel cell are simulated in fuel cell and its dependency to these parameters is explained. At the end of the paper, different impact of parameters on fuel cell with a gas turbine and current density and voltage of fuel cell are simulated.

Keywords: Electrochemical analysis, Gas turbine, Hybrid system, Irreversibility analysis.

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750 Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate

Authors: Saravana Kannan Thangavelu

Abstract:

Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.

Keywords: Design optimization, FEA, PEM fuel cell, Thermal stress

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749 A Comparative Study of Fine Grained Security Techniques Based on Data Accessibility and Inference

Authors: Azhar Rauf, Sareer Badshah, Shah Khusro

Abstract:

This paper analyzes different techniques of the fine grained security of relational databases for the two variables-data accessibility and inference. Data accessibility measures the amount of data available to the users after applying a security technique on a table. Inference is the proportion of information leakage after suppressing a cell containing secret data. A row containing a secret cell which is suppressed can become a security threat if an intruder generates useful information from the related visible information of the same row. This paper measures data accessibility and inference associated with row, cell, and column level security techniques. Cell level security offers greatest data accessibility as it suppresses secret data only. But on the other hand, there is a high probability of inference in cell level security. Row and column level security techniques have least data accessibility and inference. This paper introduces cell plus innocent security technique that utilizes the cell level security method but suppresses some innocent data to dodge an intruder that a suppressed cell may not necessarily contain secret data. Four variations of the technique namely cell plus innocent 1/4, cell plus innocent 2/4, cell plus innocent 3/4, and cell plus innocent 4/4 respectively have been introduced to suppress innocent data equal to 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 percent of the true secret data inside the database. Results show that the new technique offers better control over data accessibility and inference as compared to the state-of-theart security techniques. This paper further discusses the combination of techniques together to be used. The paper shows that cell plus innocent 1/4, 2/4, and 3/4 techniques can be used as a replacement for the cell level security.

Keywords: Fine Grained Security, Data Accessibility, Inference, Row, Cell, Column Level Security.

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748 In-situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar

Abstract:

Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation. Therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximise energy absorption. In this paper, quasistatic compression and microstructural characterization of closed-cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions have been carried out. We present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.49-0.51 g/cc and 0.31- 0.34 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behaviour has been investigated using optical microscope and computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. It is shown that the deformation is not uniform in the structure and collapse begins at the weakest point.

Keywords: Metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression.

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747 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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746 Use of Cell Phone by Farmers and its Implication on Farmers- Production Capacity in Oyo State Nigeria

Authors: Bolarinwa, K. K., Oyeyinka, R. A.

Abstract:

Relevant agricultural information disseminator (extension agent) ratio of 1:3500 farm families which become a menace to agricultural production capacity in developing countries necessitate this study. Out of 4 zones in the state, 24 extension agents in each zone, 4 extension agents using cell phones and 120 farmers using cell phone and 120 other farmers not using cell phone were purposively selected to give 240 farmers that participated in the research. Data were collected using interview guide and analysized using frequency, percentage and t-test.. Frequency of contact with agricultural information centers revealed that cell phone user farmers had greater means score of X 41.43 contact as against the low mean X19.32 contact recorded by farmers receiving agricultural information from extension agents not using cell phone and their production was statistically significant at P < 0.05. Usage of cell phone increase extension agent contact and increase farmers- production capacity.

Keywords: Cell phone, contact, extension agents and production.

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745 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: Battery, Recovery Effect, Low-Power, Alternating Battery Cell Discharging, Adaptive Discharge Time Control.

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744 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: Solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization.

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743 The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Atousa Elahidoost, Alireza Mojab, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar cell especially at shorter wavelengths.

Keywords: Conversion efficiency, Graded band gap window, Quantum efficiency, Single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell

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742 Mathematical Modeling of Cell Volume Alterations under Different Osmotic Conditions

Authors: Juliana A. Knocikova, Yann Bouret, Médéric Argentina, Laurent Counillon

Abstract:

Cell volume, together with membrane potential and intracellular hydrogen ion concentration, is an essential biophysical parameter for normal cellular activity. Cell volumes can be altered by osmotically active compounds and extracellular tonicity. In this study, a simple mathematical model of osmotically induced cell swelling and shrinking is presented. Emphasis is given to water diffusion across the membrane. The mathematical description of the cellular behavior consists in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. We compare experimental data of cell volume alterations driven by differences in osmotic pressure with mathematical simulations under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions. Implications for a future model are also discussed.

Keywords: Eukaryotic cell, mathematical modeling, osmosis, volume alterations.

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741 Evaluation of Model and Performance of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle in Different Drive Cycles

Authors: Fathollah Ommi, Golnaz Pourabedin, Koros Nekofa

Abstract:

In recent years fuel cell vehicles are rapidly appearing all over the globe. In less than 10 years, fuel cell vehicles have gone from mere research novelties to operating prototypes and demonstration models. At the same time, government and industry in development countries have teamed up to invest billions of dollars in partnerships intended to commercialize fuel cell vehicles within the early years of the 21st century. The purpose of this study is evaluation of model and performance of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle in different drive cycles. A fuel cell system model developed in this work is a semi-experimental model that allows users to use the theory and experimental relationships in a fuel cell system. The model can be used as part of a complex fuel cell vehicle model in advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR). This work reveals that the fuel consumption and energy efficiency vary in different drive cycles. Arising acceleration and speed in a drive cycle leads to Fuel consumption increase. In addition, energy losses in drive cycle relates to fuel cell system power request. Parasitic power in different parts of fuel cell system will increase when power request increases. Finally, most of energy losses in drive cycle occur in fuel cell system because of producing a lot of energy by fuel cell stack.

Keywords: Drive cycle, Energy efficiency, energy consumption, Fuel cell system.

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740 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel

Abstract:

In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: Fuel cell dynamics, real time simulation, fuel cell, modelling, testing.

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