Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Rose Shayeghi

46 Organizational Decision Based on Business Intelligence

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Rose Shayeghi, Ghasem Ghorbani Rostam

Abstract:

Nowadays, obtaining traditional statistics and reports is not adequate for the needs of organizational managers. The managers need to analyze and to transform the raw data into knowledge in the world filled with information. Therefore in this regard various processes have been developed. In the meantime the artificial intelligence-based processes are used and the new topics such as business intelligence and knowledge discovery have emerged. In the current paper it is sought to study the business intelligence and its applications in the organizations.

Keywords: Business intelligence, business intelligence infrastructures, business processes.

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45 Low Power CNFET SRAM Design

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Iman Rahbari, Mohamad Reza Kalhor

Abstract:

CNFET has emerged as an alternative material to silicon for high performance, high stability and low power SRAM design in recent years. SRAM functions as cache memory in computers and many portable devices. In this paper, a new SRAM cell design based on CNFET technology is proposed. The proposed SRAM cell design for CNFET is compared with SRAM cell designs implemented with the conventional CMOS and FinFET in terms of speed, power consumption, stability, and leakage current. The HSPICE simulation and analysis show that the dynamic power consumption of the proposed 8T CNFET SRAM cell’s is reduced about 48% and the SNM is widened up to 56% compared to the conventional CMOS SRAM structure at the expense of 2% leakage power and 3% write delay increase.

Keywords: SRAM cell, CNFET, low power, HSPICE.

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44 The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on Grammar Tests

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseinioun

Abstract:

The Multiple Intelligences theory characterizes human intelligence as a multifaceted entity that exists in all human beings with varying degrees. The most important contribution of this theory to the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) is its role in identifying individual differences and designing more learnercentered programs. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between different elements of multiple intelligence and grammar scores. To this end, 63 female Iranian EFL learner selected from among intermediate students participated in the study. The instruments employed were a Nelson English language test, Michigan Grammar Test, and Teele Inventory for Multiple Intelligences (TIMI). The results of Pearson Product-Moment Correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between grammatical accuracy and linguistic as well as interpersonal intelligence. The results of Stepwise Multiple Regression indicated that linguistic intelligence contributed to the prediction of grammatical accuracy.

Keywords: Multiple intelligence, grammar, ELT, EFL, TIMI.

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43 Application of PSO Technique for Seismic Control of Tall Building

Authors: A. Shayeghi, H. Shayeghi, H. Eimani Kalasar

Abstract:

In recent years, tuned mass damper (TMD) control systems for civil engineering structures have attracted considerable attention. This paper emphasizes on the application of particle swarm application (PSO) to design and optimize the parameters of the TMD control scheme for achieving the best results in the reduction of the building response under earthquake excitations. The Integral of the Time multiplied Absolute value of the Error (ITAE) based on relative displacement of all floors in the building is taken as a performance index of the optimization criterion. The problem of robustly TMD controller design is formatted as an optimization problem based on the ITAE performance index to be solved using the PSO technique which has a story ability to find the most optimistic results. An 11- story realistic building, located in the city of Rasht, Iran is considered as a test system to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. The results analysis through the time-domain simulation and some performance indices reveals that the designed PSO based TMD controller has an excellent capability in reduction of the seismically excited example building.

Keywords: TMD, Particle Swarm Optimization, Tall Buildings, Structural Dynamics.

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42 Seismic Control of Tall Building Using a New Optimum Controller Based on GA

Authors: A. Shayeghi, H. Eimani Kalasar, H. Shayeghi

Abstract:

This paper emphasizes on the application of genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the parameters of the TMD for achieving the best results in the reduction of the building response under earthquake excitations. The Integral of the Time multiplied Absolute value of the Error (ITAE) based on relative displacement of all floors in the building is taken as a performance index of the optimization criterion. The problem of robustly TMD controller design is formatted as an optimization problem based on the ITAE performance index to be solved using GA that has a story ability to find the most optimistic results. An 11–story realistic building, located in the city of Rasht, Iran is considered as a test system to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed GA based TMD (GATMD) controller without specifying which mode should be controlled. The results of the proposed GATMD controller are compared with the uncontrolled structure through timedomain simulation and some performance indices. The results analysis reveals that the designed GA based TMD controller has an excellent capability in reduction of the seismically excited example building and the ITAE performance, that is so for remains as unknown, can be introduced a new criteria - method for structural dynamic design.

Keywords: Tuned Mass Damper, Genetic Algorithm, TallBuildings, Structural Dynamics.

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41 Statistical Optimization of Process Variables for Direct Fermentation of 226 White Rose Tapioca Stem to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum

Authors: A. Magesh, B. Preetha, T. Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Direct fermentation of 226 white rose tapioca stem to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum was studied in a batch reactor. Fermentation of ethanol can be achieved by sequential pretreatment using dilute acid and dilute alkali solutions using 100 mesh tapioca stem particles. The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, pH and temperature on ethanol concentration were optimized using a full factorial central composite design experiment. The optimum process conditions were then obtained using response surface methodology. The quadratic model indicated that substrate concentration of 33g/l, pH 5.52 and a temperature of 30.13oC were found to be optimum for maximum ethanol concentration of 8.64g/l. The predicted optimum process conditions obtained using response surface methodology was verified through confirmatory experiments. Leudeking-piret model was used to study the product formation kinetics for the production of ethanol and the model parameters were evaluated using experimental data.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Lignocellulosic biomass, Product formation kinetics, Statistical experimental design

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40 Distinction between Manifestations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Dust Artifacts Using Three-Dimensional HSV Color Space

Authors: Naoto Suzuki

Abstract:

Many ophthalmologists find it difficult to distinguish between small retinal hemorrhages and dust artifacts when using fundus photography for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Six patients with diabetic retinopathy underwent fundus photography, which revealed dust artifacts in the photographs of some patients. We constructed an experimental device similar to the optical system of the fundus camera and colored the fundi of the artificial eyes with khaki, sunset, rose and sunflower colors. Using the experimental device, we photographed dust artifacts using each artificial eyes. We used Scilab 5.4.0 and SIVP 0.5.3 softwares to convert the red, green, and blue (RGB) color space to the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color space. We calculated the differences between the areas of manifestations and perimanifestations and the areas of dust artifacts and periartifacts using average HSVs. The V values in HSV for the manifestations were as follows: hemorrhages, 0.06 ± 0.03; hard exudates, −0.12 ± 0.06; and photocoagulation marks, 0.07 ± 0.02. For dust artifacts, visualized in the human and artificial eyes, the V values were as follows: human eye, 0.19 ± 0.03; khaki, 0.41 ± 0.02; sunset, 0.43 ± 0.04; rose, 0.47 ± 0.11; and sunflower, 0.59 ± 0.07. For the human and artificial eyes, we calculated two sensitivity values of dust artifacts compared to manifestation areas. V values of the HSV color space enabled the differentiation of small hemorrhages, hard exudates, and photocoagulation marks from dust artifacts.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, HSV color space, small hemorrhages, hard exudates, photocoagulation marks.

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39 Optimal Design of UPFC Based Damping Controller Using Iteration PSO

Authors: Amin Safari, Hossein Shayeghi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for tuning unified power flow controller (UPFC) based damping controller in order to enhance the damping of power system low frequency oscillations. The design problem of damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the eigenvalue-based objective function which is solved using iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO). The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation studies under a wide range of loading conditions. The simulation study shows that the designed controller by IPSO performs better than CPSO in finding the solution. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the δE based controller is superior to the mB based controller.

Keywords: UPFC, Optimization Problem, Iteration ParticleSwarm Optimization, Damping Controller, Low FrequencyOscillations.

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38 Multimachine Power System Stabilizers Design Using PSO Algorithm

Authors: H. Shayeghi, A. Safari, H. A. Shayanfar

Abstract:

In this paper, multiobjective design of multi-machine Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is presented. The stabilizers are tuned to simultaneously shift the lightly damped and undamped electro-mechanical modes of all machines to a prescribed zone in the s-plane. A multiobjective problem is formulated to optimize a composite set of objective functions comprising the damping factor, and the damping ratio of the lightly damped electromechanical modes. The PSSs parameters tuning problem is converted to an optimization problem which is solved by PSO with the eigenvalue-based multiobjective function. The proposed PSO based PSSs is tested on a multimachine power system under different operating conditions and disturbances through eigenvalue analysis and some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance.

Keywords: PSS Design, Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Stability, Multiobjective Optimization.

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37 GEP Considering Purchase Prices, Profits of IPPs and Reliability Criteria Using Hybrid GA and PSO

Authors: H. Shayeghi, H. Hosseini, A. Shabani, M. Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this paper, optimal generation expansion planning (GEP) is investigated considering purchase prices, profits of independent power producers (IPPs) and reliability criteria using a new method based on hybrid coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In this approach, optimal purchase price of each IPP is obtained by HCGA and reliability criteria are calculated by PSO technique. It should be noted that reliability criteria and the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission have been considered as constraints of the GEP problem. Finally, the proposed method has been tested on the case study system. The results evaluation show that the proposed method can simply obtain optimal purchase prices of IPPs and is a fast method for calculation of reliability criteria in expansion planning. Also, considering the optimal purchase prices and profits of IPPs in generation expansion planning are caused that the expansion costs are decreased and the problem is solved more exactly.

Keywords: GEP Problem, IPPs, Reliability Criteria, GA, PSO.

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36 Multi-Objective Fuzzy Model in Optimal Sitingand Sizing of DG for Loss Reduction

Authors: H. Shayeghi, B. Mohamadi

Abstract:

This paper presents a possibilistic (fuzzy) model in optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) for loss reduction and improve voltage profile in power distribution system. Multi-objective problem is developed in two phases. In the first one, the set of non-dominated planning solutions is obtained (with respect to the objective functions of fuzzy economic cost, and exposure) using genetic algorithm. In the second phase, one solution of the set of non-dominated solutions is selected as optimal solution, using a suitable max-min approach. This method can be determined operation-mode (PV or PQ) of DG. Because of considering load uncertainty in this paper, it can be obtained realistic results. The whole process of this method has been implemented in the MATLAB7 environment with technical and economic consideration for loss reduction and voltage profile improvement. Through numerical example the validity of the proposed method is verified.

Keywords: Fuzzy Power Flow, DG siting and sizing, LoadUncertainty, Multi-objective Possibilistic Model.

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35 Optimization of Transmission Lines Loading in TNEP Using Decimal Codification Based GA

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, lines adequacy rate has not been considered at the end of planning horizon, i.e., expanded network misses adequacy after some times and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using genetic algorithm. Expanded network will possess a maximum adequacy to provide load demand and also the transmission lines overloaded later. Finally, adequacy index could be defined and used to compare some designs that have different investment costs and adequacy rates. In this paper, the proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network. The results show that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically.

Keywords: Adequacy Optimization, Transmission Expansion Planning, DCGA.

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34 IPSO Based UPFC Robust Output Feedback Controllers for Damping of Low Frequency Oscillations

Authors: A. Safari, H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar

Abstract:

On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single-machine power system, a novel method for designing unified power flow controller (UPFC) based output feedback controller is presented. The design problem of output feedback controller for UPFC is formulated as an optimization problem according to with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The simulation results prove the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in terms of a high performance power system. The simulation study shows that the designed controller by Iteration PSO performs better than Classical PSO in finding the solution.

Keywords: UPFC, IPSO, output feedback Controller.

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33 Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Used for TNEP Considering Network Adequacy Restriction

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi, A. Kazemi

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, transmission expansion planning considering network adequacy restriction has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, STNEP problem is being studied considering network adequacy restriction using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm. The goal of this paper is obtaining a configuration for network expansion with lowest expansion cost and a specific adequacy. The proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network and compared with the decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The results show that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically. Also, it is shown that precision and convergence speed of the proposed DPSO based method for the solution of the STNEP problem is more than DCGA approach.

Keywords: DPSO algorithm, Adequacy restriction, STNEP.

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32 DCGA Based-Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi, H. Haddadian

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is an important component of power system planning that its task is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increasing, imposed technical and economic conditions. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, the lines adequacy rate has not been studied after the planning horizon, i.e. when the expanded network misses its adequacy and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, in order to take transmission lines condition after expansion in to account from the line loading view point, the adequacy of transmission network is considered for solution of STNEP problem. To obtain optimal network arrangement, a decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) is being used for minimizing the network construction and operational cost. The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on the Garver's six-bus network. The results evaluation reveals that the annual worth of network adequacy has a considerable effect on the network arrangement. In addition, the obtained network, based on the DCGA, has lower investment cost and higher adequacy rate. Thus, the network satisfies the requirements of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers.

Keywords: STNEP Problem, Network Adequacy, DCGA.

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31 Intelligent Neural Network Based STLF

Authors: H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, G. Azimi

Abstract:

Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) plays an important role for the economic and secure operation of power systems. In this paper, Continuous Genetic Algorithm (CGA) is employed to evolve the optimum large neural networks structure and connecting weights for one-day ahead electric load forecasting problem. This study describes the process of developing three layer feed-forward large neural networks for load forecasting and then presents a heuristic search algorithm for performing an important task of this process, i.e. optimal networks structure design. The proposed method is applied to STLF of the local utility. Data are clustered due to the differences in their characteristics. Special days are extracted from the normal training sets and handled separately. In this way, a solution is provided for all load types, including working days and weekends and special days. We find good performance for the large neural networks. The proposed methodology gives lower percent errors all the time. Thus, it can be applied to automatically design an optimal load forecaster based on historical data.

Keywords: Feed-forward Large Neural Network, Short-TermLoad Forecasting, Continuous Genetic Algorithm.

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30 LFC Design of a Deregulated Power System with TCPS Using PSO

Authors: H. Shayeghi, H.A. Shayanfar, A. Jalili

Abstract:

In the LFC problem, the interconnections among some areas are the input of disturbances, and therefore, it is important to suppress the disturbances by the coordination of governor systems. In contrast, tie-line power flow control by TCPS located between two areas makes it possible to stabilize the system frequency oscillations positively through interconnection, which is also expected to provide a new ancillary service for the further power systems. Thus, a control strategy using controlling the phase angle of TCPS is proposed for provide active control facility of system frequency in this paper. Also, the optimum adjustment of PID controller's parameters in a robust way under bilateral contracted scenario following the large step load demands and disturbances with and without TCPS are investigated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and TCPS and has simple stricture that is easy to implement and tune. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy a three-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions and system nonlinearities. Analysis reveals that the TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-line power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS for a wide range of plant parameter changes, area load demands and disturbances even in the presence of system nonlinearities.

Keywords: LFC, TCPS, Dregulated Power System, PowerSystem Control, PSO.

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29 Negative Pressures of Ca. -20 MPA for Water Enclosed into a Metal Berthelot Tube under a Vacuum Condition

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, M. Tanji, H. Deguchi, K. Hatari

Abstract:

Negative pressures of liquids have been expected to contribute many kinds of technology. Nevertheless, experiments for subjecting liquids which have not too small volumes to negative pressures are difficult even now. The reason of the difficulties is because the liquids tend to generate cavities easily. In order to remove cavitation nuclei, an apparatus for enclosing water into a metal Berthelot tube under vacuum conditions was developed. By using the apparatus, negative pressures for water rose to ca. -20 MPa. This is the highest value for water in metal Berthelot tubes. Results were explained by a traditional crevice model. Keywords

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation

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28 Managing Legal, Consumers and Commerce Risks in Phishing

Authors: Dinna N. M. N., Leau Y. B., Habeeb S. A. H., Yanti A. S.

Abstract:

Phishing scheme is a new emerged security issue of E-Commerce Crime in globalization. In this paper, the legal scaffold of Malaysia, United States and United Kingdom are analyzed and followed by discussion on critical issues that rose due to phishing activities. The result revealed that inadequacy of current legal framework is the main challenge to govern this epidemic. However, lack of awareness among consumers, crisis on merchant-s responsibility and lack of intrusion reports and incentive arrangement contributes to phishing proliferating. Prevention is always better than curb. By the end of this paper, some best practices for consumers and corporations are suggested.

Keywords: Phishing, Online Fraud, Business risks, Consumers privacy, Legal Issue, Cyber law.

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27 Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Unattended Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: E. Golden Julie, E. Sahaya Rose Vigita, S. Tamil Selvi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is vulnerable to a wide range of attacks. Recover secrecy after compromise, to develop technique that can detect intrusions and able to resilient networks that isolates the point(s) of intrusion while maintaining network connectivity for other legitimate users. To define new security metrics to evaluate collaborative intrusion resilience protocol, by leveraging the sensor mobility that allows compromised sensors to recover secure state after compromise. This is obtained with very low overhead and in a fully distributed fashion using extensive simulations support our findings.

Keywords: WSN security, intrusion resilience, compromised sensors, mobility.

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26 Comparison between Antibacterial Effects of Ethanolic and Isopropyl: Hexan (7:3) Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rose

Authors: Tahereh Naji, Mahsa Jassemi

Abstract:

In this investigation, the antibacterial effects of ethanolic and 7:3 isopropyl –hexane mixture extracts of Zingiber officinale were evaluated against three Gram positive bacteria, B. cereus, S.epidermidis, S. aureus and three Gram negative bacteria, E. coli, K.pneumonia and P.areuginosa. Utilizing paper disk diffusion and well methods in-vitro, MIC and MBC were determined by macrodilution. The results showed that ethanolic rhizome extract of ginger had significantly active than Isopropyl –hexan extract. Further work needs to be done in these extracts including fractionation to isolate active constituents and subsequent pharmacological evaluation.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Medicinal plant extract, Zingiberofficinale.

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25 A Hybrid Fuzzy AGC in a Competitive Electricity Environment

Authors: H. Shayeghi, A. Jalili

Abstract:

This paper presents a new Hybrid Fuzzy (HF) PID type controller based on Genetic Algorithms (GA-s) for solution of the Automatic generation Control (AGC) problem in a deregulated electricity environment. In order for a fuzzy rule based control system to perform well, the fuzzy sets must be carefully designed. A major problem plaguing the effective use of this method is the difficulty of accurately constructing the membership functions, because it is a computationally expensive combinatorial optimization problem. On the other hand, GAs is a technique that emulates biological evolutionary theories to solve complex optimization problems by using directed random searches to derive a set of optimal solutions. For this reason, the membership functions are tuned automatically using a modified GA-s based on the hill climbing method. The motivation for using the modified GA-s is to reduce fuzzy system effort and take large parametric uncertainties into account. The global optimum value is guaranteed using the proposed method and the speed of the algorithm-s convergence is extremely improved, too. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of GA-s and fuzzy system control techniques and leads to a flexible controller with simple stricture that is easy to implement. The proposed GA based HF (GAHF) controller is tested on a threearea deregulated power system under different operating conditions and contract variations. The results of the proposed GAHF controller are compared with those of Multi Stage Fuzzy (MSF) controller, robust mixed H2/H∞ and classical PID controllers through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes.

Keywords: AGC, Hybrid Fuzzy Controller, Deregulated Power System, Power System Control, GAs.

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24 Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area

Authors: S. Dey, P. Sibanda, S. Gupta, A. Chakraborty

Abstract:

The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime.

Keywords: Nocturnal ozone, planetary boundary layer, horizontal transport, meteorology, urban area.

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23 State Programs Analysis and Social Crisis Management in the Republic of Kazakhstan: A Descriptive Study

Authors: Madina Kenzhegaranova, Aibol Mukhsiynov, Houman Sanandaji

Abstract:

The article is about government programs and projects and their description which are aimed at improving the socioeconomic situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. A brief historical overview, as well as information about current socio-economic, political and transitional contexts of the country are provided. Two theories were described in the article to inform this descriptive study. According to the United Nation's Development Reports for 2005 and 2011, the country's human development index (HDI) rose by several points despite the socio-economic and political imbalances taking place in the republic since it gained its independence in 1991. It is stated in the article that government support programs are one of the crucial factors that increase the population welfare which in its turn may lead to reduction of social crisis processes in the country.

Keywords: human capital, social crisis, state programs, unemployment

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22 MIM: A Species Independent Approach for Classifying Coding and Non-Coding DNA Sequences in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes

Authors: Achraf El Allali, John R. Rose

Abstract:

A number of competing methodologies have been developed to identify genes and classify DNA sequences into coding and non-coding sequences. This classification process is fundamental in gene finding and gene annotation tools and is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. An information theory measure based on mutual information has shown good accuracy in classifying DNA sequences into coding and noncoding. In this paper we describe a species independent iterative approach that distinguishes coding from non-coding sequences using the mutual information measure (MIM). A set of sixty prokaryotes is used to extract universal training data. To facilitate comparisons with the published results of other researchers, a test set of 51 bacterial and archaeal genomes was used to evaluate MIM. These results demonstrate that MIM produces superior results while remaining species independent.

Keywords: Coding Non-coding Classification, Entropy, GeneRecognition, Mutual Information.

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21 The Response Relation between Climate Change and NDVI over the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

Authors: Shen Weishou, Ji Di, Zhang Hui, Yan Shouguang, Li Haidong, Lin Naifeng

Abstract:

Based on a long-term vegetation index dataset of NDVI and meteorological data from 68 meteorological stations in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and their relations with major climate factors were analyzed. The results show the following: 1) The linear trends of temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau indicate that the temperature in the plateau generally increased, but it rose faster in the last 20 years. 2) The most significant NDVI increase occurred in the eastern and southern plateau. However, the western and northern plateau demonstrate a decreasing trend. 3) There is a significant positive linear correlation between NDVI and temperature and a negative correlation between NDVI and mean wind speed. However, no significant statistical relationship was found between NDVI and relative humidity, precipitation or sunshine duration.4) The changes in NDVI for the plateau are driven by temperature-precipitation, but for the desert and forest areas, the relation changes to precipitation-temperature-wind velocity and wind velocity-temperature-precipitation.

Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet plateau, NDVI, climate warming.

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20 Levels and Trends of Under-Five Mortality in South Africa from 1998 to 2012

Authors: T. Motsima, K. Zuma, E Rapoo

Abstract:

Childhood mortality is a key sign of the coverage of child survival interventions, social and economic progressions. Although the level of under-five mortality has been declining, it is still unacceptably high. The primary aim of this paper is to establish and analyse the levels and trends of under-five mortality for the periods 1998, 2003 and 2012 in South Africa. Methods: The data used for analysis came from the 1998 SADHS, the 2003 SADHS and the 2012 SABSSM which collected information on the survival status of children. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survival function method was used to determine the probabilities of failure (death) from birth up to 59 months. Results and Conclusion: The overall U5MR declined by 28.2% from 53.1 in 1998 to 38.1 in 2012. The U5MR of male children declined from 59.2 in 1998 to 46.2 in 2003 and dropped further to 41.4 in 2012. The U5MR of children of mothers aged 40 years and older increased from 64.0 in 1998 to 89.0 in 2003 and rose further to 129.9 in 2012. The U5MR of children of mothers with education level of 12 years or more increased from 32.2 in 1998 to 35.2 in 2003 and declined substantially to 17.5 in 2012.

Keywords: Demographic and health survey, Kaplan-Meier, levels and trends, under-five mortality.

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19 STLF Based on Optimized Neural Network Using PSO

Authors: H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, G. Azimi

Abstract:

The quality of short term load forecasting can improve the efficiency of planning and operation of electric utilities. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are employed for nonlinear short term load forecasting owing to their powerful nonlinear mapping capabilities. At present, there is no systematic methodology for optimal design and training of an artificial neural network. One has often to resort to the trial and error approach. This paper describes the process of developing three layer feed-forward large neural networks for short-term load forecasting and then presents a heuristic search algorithm for performing an important task of this process, i.e. optimal networks structure design. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to develop the optimum large neural network structure and connecting weights for one-day ahead electric load forecasting problem. PSO is a novel random optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which has more powerful ability of global optimization. Employing PSO algorithms on the design and training of ANNs allows the ANN architecture and parameters to be easily optimized. The proposed method is applied to STLF of the local utility. Data are clustered due to the differences in their characteristics. Special days are extracted from the normal training sets and handled separately. In this way, a solution is provided for all load types, including working days and weekends and special days. The experimental results show that the proposed method optimized by PSO can quicken the learning speed of the network and improve the forecasting precision compared with the conventional Back Propagation (BP) method. Moreover, it is not only simple to calculate, but also practical and effective. Also, it provides a greater degree of accuracy in many cases and gives lower percent errors all the time for STLF problem compared to BP method. Thus, it can be applied to automatically design an optimal load forecaster based on historical data.

Keywords: Large Neural Network, Short-Term Load Forecasting, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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18 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Rose Mbugua, Ramadhan Wanjala, Julius Ndambuki

Abstract:

Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture.

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17 An Information Theoretic Approach to Rescoring Peptides Produced by De Novo Peptide Sequencing

Authors: John R. Rose, James P. Cleveland, Alvin Fox

Abstract:

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the engine driving high-throughput protein identification. Protein mixtures possibly representing thousands of proteins from multiple species are treated with proteolytic enzymes, cutting the proteins into smaller peptides that are then analyzed generating MS/MS spectra. The task of determining the identity of the peptide from its spectrum is currently the weak point in the process. Current approaches to de novo sequencing are able to compute candidate peptides efficiently. The problem lies in the limitations of current scoring functions. In this paper we introduce the concept of proteome signature. By examining proteins and compiling proteome signatures (amino acid usage) it is possible to characterize likely combinations of amino acids and better distinguish between candidate peptides. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that a scoring function that considers amino acid usage patterns is better able to distinguish between candidate peptides. This in turn leads to higher accuracy in peptide prediction.

Keywords: Tandem mass spectrometry, proteomics, scoring, peptide, de novo, mutual information

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