Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 628

Search results for: Graded band gap window

628 The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Atousa Elahidoost, Alireza Mojab, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar cell especially at shorter wavelengths.

Keywords: Conversion efficiency, Graded band gap window, Quantum efficiency, Single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell

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627 On Graded Semiprime Submodules

Authors: Farkhonde Farzalipour, Peyman Ghiasvand

Abstract:

Let G be an arbitrary group with identity e and let R be a G-graded ring. In this paper we define graded semiprime submodules of a graded R-moduleM and we give a number of results concerning such submodules. Also, we extend some results of graded semiprime submoduls to graded weakly semiprime submodules.

Keywords: graded semiprime, graded weakly semiprime, graded secondary

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626 Wind Fragility of Window Glass in 10-Story Apartment with Two Different Window Models

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Damage due to high wind is not limited to load resistance components such as beam and column. The majority of damage is due to breach in the building envelope such as broken roof, window, and door. In this paper, wind fragility of window glass in residential apartment was determined to compare the difference between two window configuration models. Monte Carlo Simulation method had been used to derive damage data and analytical fragilities were constructed. Fragility of window system showed that window located in leeward wall had higher probability of failure, especially those close to the edge of structure. Between the two window models, Model 2 had higher probability of failure, this was due to the number of panel in this configuration.

Keywords: Wind fragility, glass window, high rise apartment, Monte Carlo Simulation method.

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625 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei

Abstract:

In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, Temperature distribution.

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624 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: Wind fragility, window system, high rise building.

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623 Effect of Shear Theories on Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, M. M. Najafizadeh, J. Alibabaei Shahraki, P. Khazaeinejad

Abstract:

Analytical solution of the first-order and third-order shear deformation theories are developed to study the free vibration behavior of simply supported functionally graded plates. The material properties of plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction as a power law distribution of volume fraction of the constituents. The governing equations of functionally graded plates are established by applying the Hamilton's principle and are solved by using the Navier solution method. The influence of side-tothickness ratio and constituent of volume fraction on the natural frequencies are studied. The results are validated with the known data in the literature.

Keywords: Free vibration, Functionally graded plate, Naviersolution method.

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622 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: Clear sky, Daylight Illuminance Ratio, Energy saving, Wall window.

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621 An Analysis of Variation of Ceiling Height and Window Level for Studio Architecture in Malaysia

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, M. Surat

Abstract:

This paper investigated the impact of ceiling height and window head heights variation on daylighting inside architectural teaching studio with a full width window. In architectural education, using the studio is more than normal classroom in most credit hours. Therefore, window position, size and dimension of studio have direct influence on level of daylighting. Daylighting design is a critical factor that improves student learning, concentration and behavior, in addition to these, it also reduces energy consumption. The methodology of analysis involves using Radiance in IES software under overcast and cloudy sky in Malaysia. It has been established that presentation of daylighting of architecture studio can be enhanced by changing the ceiling heights and window level, because, different ceiling heights and window head heights can contribute to different range of daylight levels.

Keywords: Ceiling height, window head height, daylighting, studio architecture, simulation.

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620 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan

Abstract:

The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: Fiber measurements, Fiber optic communications.

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619 Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

Authors: Gholam Reza Koochaki

Abstract:

This work presents the highly accurate numerical calculation of the natural frequencies for functionally graded beams with simply supported boundary conditions. The Timoshenko first order shear deformation beam theory and the higher order shear deformation beam theory of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams analysis. The material property gradient is assumed to be in the thickness direction. The Hamilton-s principle is utilized to obtain the dynamic equations of functionally graded beams. The influences of the volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on the fundamental frequencies are discussed. Comparison of the numerical results for the homogeneous beam with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory results show that the derived model is satisfactory.

Keywords: Functionally graded beam, Free vibration, Hamilton's principle.

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618 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili

Abstract:

Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers - gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching - by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zone stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zone stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). The possibility of obtaining functionally graded materials (FGMs) by graded orientation method is briefly discussed. Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: Controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device.

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617 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-Band, Link Budget, Link Availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N.

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616 A Homogenisation Procedure for the Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams at Large Vibration Amplitudes

Authors: A. Zerkane, K. El Bikri, R. Benamar

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to show that the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded beams (FGB) with immovable ends can be reduced to that of isotropic homogeneous beams with effective bending stiffness and axial stiffness parameters by using an homogenization procedure. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the Euler-Bernouilli beam theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. The non-dimensional curvatures associated to the nonlinear fundamental mode are also given for various vibration amplitudes in the case of clamped-clamped FGB.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, functionally graded materials, homogenization procedure.

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615 Large Vibration Amplitude of Circular Functionally Graded Plates Resting on Pasternak Foundations

Authors: El Kaak Rachid, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present study, the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded circular plates (FGCP) resting on Pasternak elastic foundation with immovable ends was studied. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results dealing with the problem of functionally graded plates. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear frequency to the linear frequency ratio of the FGCP has been studied. The effect of the linear and shearing foundations is to decrease the frequency ratio, where it increases with the effect of the nonlinear foundation stiffness. 

Keywords: Non-linear vibrations, Circular plates, Pasternak foundation, functionally graded materials.

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614 Analysis of Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Phononic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders

Authors: Zi-Gui Huang, Tsung-Tsong Wu

Abstract:

Large full frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are addressed in this paper. It is well-known that absolute frequency band gaps are difficultly obtained in a band structure consisted of low-acoustic-impedance cylinders in high-acoustic-impedance host materials such as PMMA/Ni band structures. Phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are analyzed and discussed to obtain large full frequency band gaps not only for bulk modes but also for surface modes. The tendency of absolute frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves is also addressed by changing the inner radius of hollow cylinders in this paper. The technique and this kind of band structure are useful for tuning the frequency band gaps and the design of acoustic waveguides.

Keywords: Phononic crystals, Band gap, SAW, BAW.

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613 Mechanical Buckling of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies mechanical buckling of functionally graded beams subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and foundation coefficient on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Functionally graded beam- Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

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612 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh

Abstract:

Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Material, Pressure, Steady State Creep, Thick-Cylinder.

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611 Stability of Functionally Graded Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

Stability of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends is studied in this paper. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Stability, Functionally graded beam, First order shear deformation theory, Piezoelectric layer.

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610 A High Order Theory for Functionally Graded Shell

Authors: V. V. Zozulya

Abstract:

New theory for functionally graded (FG) shell based on expansion of the equations of elasticity for functionally graded materials (GFMs) into Legendre polynomials series has been developed. Stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements, traction and body forces have been expanded into Legendre polynomials series in a thickness coordinate. In the same way functions that describe functionally graded relations has been also expanded. Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hook-s law have been transformed to corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. Cases of the first and second approximations have been considered in more details. For obtained boundary-value problems solution finite element (FE) has been used of Numerical calculations have been done with Comsol Multiphysics and Matlab.

Keywords: Shell, FEM, FGM, legendre polynomial.

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609 Large Vibration Amplitudes of Circular Functionally Graded Thin Plates Resting on Winkler Elastic Foundations

Authors: El Kaak, Rachid, El Bikri, Khalid, Benamar, Rhali

Abstract:

This paper describes a study of geometrically nonlinear free vibration of thin circular functionally graded (CFGP) plates resting on Winkler elastic foundations. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined here are assumed to be graded smoothly and continuously through the direction of the plate thickness according to a power law and are estimated using the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von-Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. An homogenization procedure (HP) is developed to reduce the problem considered here to that of isotropic homogeneous circular plates resting on Winkler foundation. Hamilton-s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear fundamental frequency has also been analysed.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, nonlinear vibrations, Winkler foundation.

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608 Thermal and Mechanical Buckling of Short and Long Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Using First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: O. Miraliyari, M.M. Najafizadeh, A.R. Rahmani, A. Momeni Hezaveh

Abstract:

This paper presents the buckling analysis of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells under thermal and mechanical loads. The shell properties are assumed to vary continuously from the inner surface to the outer surface of the shell. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations and first order shear deformation theory assumptions. The resulting equations are solved for simply supported boundary conditions. The critical temperature and pressure loads are calculated for both short and long cylindrical shells. Comparison studies show the effects of functionally graded index, loading type and shell geometry on critical buckling loads of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells.

Keywords: Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Short and long cylindrical shell, Thermal and mechanical loads.

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607 Window Display Design of Thai Craft Product Affecting Perceptions of Thai and Foreign Tourists

Authors: Kanokwan Somoon, Chumporn Moorapun

Abstract:

A product’s perceived value may increase purchase intention. Value perceptions may differ among cultures. Window displays can be used to increase products’ information and value. This study aims to investigate the relationship between window display design elements and value perceptions of local products between two different cultures. The research methodology is based on survey research. Several window displays in favorite of tourist spots were selected as a unit of study. Also, 100 tourists (56 Thai tourists and 44 foreign tourists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. T-Tests were used to analyze the comparison. Then, the results were compared to Thai and foreign tourists. Finally, the results find that Thai and foreign tourists have different perception towards three design elements that are size of the window, props and colour lighting. The differences of their perceptions signify the different cultural values they adhere to.

Keywords: Cross-culture, Window display, Thai craft product, Environmental perception.

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606 Comprehensive Studies on Mechanical Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: Kyung-Su Na, Ji-Hwan Kim

Abstract:

Stress analysis of functionally graded composite plates composed of ceramic, functionally graded material and metal layers is investigated using 3-D finite element method. In FGM layer, material properties are assumed to be varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The 3-D finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the variation of material properties in the thickness direction. Numerical results are compared for three types of materials. In the analysis, the tensile and the compressive stresses are summarized for various FGM thickness ratios, volume fraction distributions, geometric parameters and mechanical loads.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, Stress analysis, 3-D finite element method

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605 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m×1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and -52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: Aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame.

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604 A Canadian Leaf Shaped Triple Band Patch Antenna with DGS for X and C-Band Applications

Authors: R. Kiruthika, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A shaped single feed microstrip antenna is realized for C-Band and X-Band applications. The frequency range of C-band and X-band varies from 4 to 8 Gigahertz and 8 to 12 Gigahertz. The antenna operates under three frequency bands, one under C band and two under X-band applications. Defect on the ground called DGS (Defected Ground Structure) is made to enhance the distinctiveness of the antenna parameters. The design consists of DGS provided to improve the antenna performance. The substrate material used is of the Flame Retardant grade-4 (FR4) epoxy having high mechanical and electrical strength. The design and analysis was done using the FEM (Finite Element Method) based Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) Version 12. For the resonant frequencies of 5.21, 9.17 and 10.45, a value of reflection coefficient obtained is of -39.0, -16.0 and -30.7 dB respectively. Other constraints of antenna such as bandwidth, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) are also conferred.

Keywords: Flame retardant-4 epoxy, finite element method, return loss, directivity.

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603 Design of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank by New Cosh Window Based FIR Filters

Authors: Jyotsna Ogale, Alok Jain

Abstract:

In this paper newly reported Cosh window function is used in the design of prototype filter for M-channel Near Perfect Reconstruction (NPR) Cosine Modulated Filter Bank (CMFB). Local search optimization algorithm is used for minimization of distortion parameters by optimizing the filter coefficients of prototype filter. Design examples are presented and comparison has been made with Kaiser window based filterbank design of recently reported work. The result shows that the proposed design approach provides lower distortion parameters and improved far-end suppression than the Kaiser window based design of recent reported work.

Keywords: Window function, Cosine modulated filterbank, Local search optimization.

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602 Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates

Authors: Boukhzer Abdenbi, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present study, the problem of geometrically non-linear free vibrations of functionally graded rectangular plates (FGRP) is studied. The theoretical model, previously developed and based on Hamilton’s principle, is adapted here to determine the fundamental non-linear mode shape of these plates. Frequency parameters, displacements and stress are given for various power-law distributions of the volume fractions of the constituents and various aspect ratios. Good agreement with previous published results is obtained in the case of linear and non-linear analyses.

Keywords: Non-linear vibration, functionally graded materials, rectangular plates.

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601 Transient Thermal Stresses of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinder under the Green-Lindsay Model

Authors: Tariq T. Darabseh

Abstract:

The transient thermoelastic response of thick hollow cylinder made of functionally graded material under thermal loading is studied. The generalized coupled thermoelasticity based on the Green-Lindsay model is used. The thermal and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are assumed to be varied in the radial direction according to a power law variation as a function of the volume fractions of the constituents. The thermal and elastic governing equations are solved by using Galerkin finite element method. All the finite element calculations were done by using commercial finite element program FlexPDE. The transient temperature, radial displacement, and thermal stresses distribution through the radial direction of the cylinder are plotted.

Keywords: Finite element method, thermal stresses, Green-Lindsay theory, functionally graded material.

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600 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser- Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Beam, Free Vibration, Elastic Foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko Beam Theory.

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599 Multi Band Frequency Synthesizer Based on ISPD PLL with Adapted LC Tuned VCO

Authors: Bilel Gassara, Mahmoud Abdellaoui, Nouri Masmoud

Abstract:

The 4G front-end transceiver needs a high performance which can be obtained mainly with an optimal architecture and a multi-band Local Oscillator. In this study, we proposed and presented a new architecture of multi-band frequency synthesizer based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (ISPD PLL) without any filters and any controlled gain block and associated with adapted multi band LC tuned VCO using a several numeric controlled capacitive branches but not binary weighted. The proposed architecture, based on 0.35μm CMOS process technology, supporting Multi-band GSM/DCS/DECT/ UMTS/WiMax application and gives a good performances: a phase noise @1MHz -127dBc and a Factor Of Merit (FOM) @ 1MHz - 186dB and a wide band frequency range (from 0.83GHz to 3.5GHz), that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic integration and 4G multi-band application.

Keywords: GSM/DCS/DECT/UMTS/WiMax, ISPD PLL, keep and capture range, Multi-Band, Synthesizer, Wireless.

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