Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Design optimization

49 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: Customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine.

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48 Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets

Authors: M. Jegannath, V. Akshaya, B. Arunkumar, G. Lakshmi Soundharya, V. Thenmozhi, S. Varun, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

For scarf inlet design, the primary variable of interest is the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of scarf inlets, inlet design, modern aircraft inlets, subsonic scarf inlet.

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47 Design Optimization of a Compact Quadrupole Electromagnet for CLS 2.0

Authors: Md. Armin Islam, Les Dallin, Mark Boland, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper reports a study on the optimal magnetic design of a compact quadrupole electromagnet for the Canadian Light Source (CLS 2.0). The nature of the design is to determine a quadrupole with low relative higher order harmonics and better field quality. The design problem was formulated as an optimization model, in which the objective function is the higher order harmonics (multipole errors) and the variable to be optimized is the material distribution on the pole. The higher order harmonics arose in the quadrupole due to truncating the ideal hyperbola at a certain point to make the pole. In this project, the arisen harmonics have been optimized both transversely and longitudinally by adjusting material on the poles in a controlled way. For optimization, finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted. A better higher order harmonics amplitudes and field quality have been achieved through the optimization. On the basis of the optimized magnetic design, electrical and cooling calculation has been performed for the magnet.

Keywords: Drift, electrical, and cooling calculation, integrated field, higher order harmonics (multipole errors), magnetic field gradient, quadrupole.

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46 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of High-Speed Hatchback Cars for Lucrative Commercial Applications

Authors: A. Aravind, M. Vetrivel, P. Abhimanyu, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, K. Sundararaj, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

The choice of high-speed, low budget hatchback car with diversified options is increasing for meeting the new generation buyers trend. This paper is aimed to augment the current speed of the hatchback cars through the aerodynamic drag reduction technique. The inverted airfoils are facilitated at the bottom of the car for generating the downward force for negating the lift while increasing the current speed range for achieving a better road performance. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a 2D steady pressure-based    k-ɛ realizable model with enhanced wall treatment. In our numerical studies, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and its code of solution are used. The code is calibrated and validated using the exact solution of the 2D boundary layer displacement thickness at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed through the parametric analytical studies that the inverted airfoil integrated with the bottom surface at various predesigned locations of Hatchback cars can improve its overall aerodynamic efficiency through drag reduction, which obviously decreases the fuel consumption significantly and ensure an optimum road performance lucratively with maximum permissible speed within the framework of the manufactures constraints.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of commercial cars, downward force, hatchback car, inverted airfoil.

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45 Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages like speed variation and four-quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to the grid has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, should contribute minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation from +20% to -20% of rated speed.  To achieve the optimum performance, a good electromagnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization – Differential Evolution has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length, and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered - voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to the grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum efficiency, weight reduction, and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution help in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.

Keywords: Design optimization, performance, doubly fed induction generators, DFIG, differential evolution.

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44 Improving the Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plant by Modified Axial Turbine

Authors: Hakim T. Kadhim, Faris A. Jabbar, Aldo Rona, Audrius Bagdanaviciu

Abstract:

Computer-based optimization techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of energy conversions processes, including reducing the aerodynamic loss in a thermal power plant turbomachine. In this paper, towards mitigating secondary flow losses, a design optimization workflow is implemented for the casing geometry of a 1.5 stage axial flow turbine that improves the turbine isentropic efficiency. The improved turbine is used in an open thermodynamic gas cycle with regeneration and cogeneration. Performance estimates are obtained by the commercial software Cycle – Tempo. Design and off design conditions are considered as well as variations in inlet air temperature. Reductions in both the natural gas specific fuel consumption and in CO2 emissions are predicted by using the gas turbine cycle fitted with the new casing design. These gains are attractive towards enhancing the competitiveness and reducing the environmental impact of thermal power plant.

Keywords: Axial flow turbine, computational fluid dynamics, gas turbine power plant, optimization.

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43 Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor

Authors: M. Hossain, A. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.

Keywords: PWR, concrete containment, finite element approach, neutron attenuation, Von Mises Stress.

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42 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.

Keywords: Optimization design, multi-layer nonwoven, sound absorption coefficient, scaled reverberation chamber, impedance tubes.

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41 Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

Authors: Yu Li, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.

Keywords: Active structural stiffness design theory, high-aspect-ratio wing, flight load cases, layout of spars.

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40 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: Landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding.

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39 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux.

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38 Improved Multi–Objective Firefly Algorithms to Find Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences for Optimal Golomb Ruler Channel Allocation

Authors: Shonak Bansal, Prince Jain, Arun Kumar Singh, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

Recently nature–inspired algorithms have widespread use throughout the tough and time consuming multi–objective scientific and engineering design optimization problems. In this paper, we present extended forms of firefly algorithm to find optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences. The OGRs have their one of the major application as unequally spaced channel–allocation algorithm in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in order to minimize the adverse four–wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effect. The simulation results conclude that the proposed optimization algorithm has superior performance compared to the existing conventional computing and nature–inspired optimization algorithms to find OGRs in terms of ruler length, total optical channel bandwidth and computation time.

Keywords: Channel allocation, conventional computing, four–wave mixing, nature–inspired algorithm, optimal Golomb ruler, Lévy flight distribution, optimization, improved multi–objective Firefly algorithms, Pareto optimal.

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37 Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

Authors: Abdulbaset Saad, Adel Younis, Zuomin Dong

Abstract:

For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

Keywords: Differential evolution, engineering design, expensive computations, meta-modeling, radial basis function, optimization.

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36 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9 DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Navab Singh, Alex Gu

Abstract:

Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: Capacitive pressure sensor, 9 DOF, 10 DOF, sensor, capacitive, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, INS.

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35 Specialized Reduced Models of Dynamic Flows in 2-Stroke Engines

Authors: S. Cagin, X. Fischer, E. Delacourt, N. Bourabaa, C. Morin, D. Coutellier, B. Carré, S. Loumé

Abstract:

The complexity of scavenging by ports and its impact on engine efficiency create the need to understand and to model it as realistically as possible. However, there are few empirical scavenging models and these are highly specialized. In a design optimization process, they appear very restricted and their field of use is limited. This paper presents a comparison of two methods to establish and reduce a model of the scavenging process in 2-stroke diesel engines. To solve the lack of scavenging models, a CFD model has been developed and is used as the referent case. However, its large size requires a reduction. Two techniques have been tested depending on their fields of application: The NTF method and neural networks. They both appear highly appropriate drastically reducing the model’s size (over 90% reduction) with a low relative error rate (under 10%). Furthermore, each method produces a reduced model which can be used in distinct specialized fields of application: the distribution of a quantity (mass fraction for example) in the cylinder at each time step (pseudo-dynamic model) or the qualification of scavenging at the end of the process (pseudo-static model).

Keywords: Diesel engine, Design optimization, Model reduction, Neural network, NTF algorithm, Scavenging.

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34 Studies on Lucrative Design of Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper comprehensive studies have been carried out for the design optimization of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Numerical studies have been carried for the geometry optimization of a waste heat recovery system for domestic air conditioners. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 2d pressure based, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k-ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. At identical inflow and boundary conditions various geometries were tried and effort has been taken for proposing the best design criteria. Several combinations of pipe line shapes viz., straight and spiral with different number of coils for the radiator have been attempted and accordingly the design criteria has been proposed for the waste heat recovery system design. We have concluded that, within the given envelope, the geometry optimization is a meaningful objective for getting better performance of waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: Air-conditioning system, Energy conversion system, Hot water production from waste heat, Waste heat recovery system.

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33 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out at different secondary injection locations to identifying the highest unsymmetrical distribution of the main gas flow due to shock waves, which produces a desirable side force more lucratively for vectoring. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet is more efficient in certain locations at the divergent region of a CD nozzle than a case with supersonic single jet with same mass flow rate. We observed that the best axial location of the self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet nozzle with a given jet interaction angle, built-in to a CD nozzle having area ratio 1.797, is 0.991 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the throat location. We also observed that the flexible steering is possible after invoking ON/OFF facility to the secondary nozzles for meeting the onboard mission requirements. Through our case studies we concluded that the supersonic self-impinging secondary double jet at predesigned jet interaction angle and location can provide more flexible steering options facilitating with 8.81% higher thrust vectoring efficiency than the conventional supersonic single secondary jet without compromising the payload capability of any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: Fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, self-impinging secondary supersonic jet, TVC in aerospace vehicles.

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32 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre

Abstract:

The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: Multidisciplinary, Multilevel, Morphing, Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO).

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31 Investigation of the GFR2400 Reactivity Control System

Authors: Ján Haščík, Štefan Čerba, Jakub Lüley, Branislav Vrban

Abstract:

The presented paper is related to the design methods and neutronic characterization of the reactivity control system in the large power unit of Generation IV Gas cooled Fast Reactor – GFR2400. The reactor core is based on carbide pin fuel type with the application of refractory metallic liners used to enhance the fission product retention of the SiCcladding. The heterogeneous design optimization of control rod is presented and the results of rods worth and their interferences in a core are evaluated. In addition, the idea of reflector removal as an additive reactivity management option is investigated and briefly described.

Keywords: Control rods design, GFR2400, hot spot, movable reflector, reactivity.

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30 Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner

Authors: Loke Kean Koay, Mani Maran Ratnam

Abstract:

A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level, while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.

Keywords: Computer-aided design, design optimization, torsional scanner.

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29 Elitist Self-Adaptive Step-Size Search in Optimum Sizing of Steel Structures

Authors: Oğuzhan Hasançebi, Saeid Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

This paper covers application of an elitist selfadaptive
step-size search (ESASS) to optimum design of steel
skeletal structures. In the ESASS two approaches are considered for
improving the convergence accuracy as well as the computational
efficiency of the original technique namely the so called selfadaptive
step-size search (SASS). Firstly, an additional randomness
is incorporated into the sampling step of the technique to preserve
exploration capability of the algorithm during the optimization.
Moreover, an adaptive sampling scheme is introduced to improve the
quality of final solutions. Secondly, computational efficiency of the
technique is accelerated via avoiding unnecessary analyses during the
optimization process using an upper bound strategy. The numerical
results demonstrate the usefulness of the ESASS in the sizing
optimization problems of steel truss and frame structures.

Keywords: Structural design optimization, optimal sizing, metaheuristics, self-adaptive step-size search, steel trusses, steel frames.}

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28 Conceptual Design of the TransAtlantic as a Research Platform for the Development of “Green” Aircraft Technologies

Authors: Victor Maldonado

Abstract:

Recent concerns of the growing impact of aviation on climate change has prompted the emergence of a field referred to as Sustainable or “Green” Aviation dedicated to mitigating the harmful impact of aviation related CO2 emissions and noise pollution on the environment. In the current paper, a unique “green” business jet aircraft called the TransAtlantic was designed (using analytical formulation common in conceptual design) in order to show the feasibility for transatlantic passenger air travel with an aircraft weighing less than 10,000 pounds takeoff weight. Such an advance in fuel efficiency will require development and integration of advanced and emerging aerospace technologies. The TransAtlantic design is intended to serve as a research platform for the development of technologies such as active flow control. Recent advances in the field of active flow control and how this technology can be integrated on a sub-scale flight demonstrator are discussed in this paper. Flow control is a technique to modify the behavior of coherent structures in wall-bounded flows (over aerodynamic surfaces such as wings and turbine nozzles) resulting in improved aerodynamic cruise and flight control efficiency. One of the key challenges to application in manned aircraft is development of a robust high-momentum actuator that can penetrate the boundary layer flowing over aerodynamic surfaces. These deficiencies may be overcome in the current development and testing of a novel electromagnetic synthetic jet actuator which replaces piezoelectric materials as the driving diaphragm. One of the overarching goals of the TranAtlantic research platform include fostering national and international collaboration to demonstrate (in numerical and experimental models) reduced CO2/ noise pollution via development and integration of technologies and methodologies in design optimization, fluid dynamics, structures/ composites, propulsion, and controls.

Keywords: Aircraft Design, Sustainable “Green” Aviation, Active Flow Control, Aerodynamics.

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27 Design Optimization of Ferrocement-Laminated Plate Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. Rokonuzzaman, Z. Gürdal

Abstract:

This paper describes the design optimization of ferrocement-laminated plate made up of reinforcing steel wire mesh(es) and cement mortar. For the improvement of the designing process, the plate is modeled as a multi-layer medium, dividing the ferrocement plate into layers of mortar and ferrocement. The mortar layers are assumed to be isotropic in nature and the ferrocement layers are assumed to be orthotropic. The ferrocement layers are little stiffer, but much more costlier, than the mortar layers due the presence of steel wire mesh. The optimization is performed for minimum weight design of the laminate using a genetic algorithm. The optimum designs are discussed for different plate configurations and loadings, and it is compared with the worst designs obtained at the final generation. The paper provides a procedure for the designers in decision-making process.

Keywords: Buckling, Ferrocement-Laminated Plate, Genetic Algorithm, Plate Theory.

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26 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock Induced Supersonic Secondary Jet

Authors: Jerin John, Subanesh Shyam R., Aravind Kumar T. R., Naveen N., Vignesh R., Krishna Ganesh B, Sanal Kumar V. R.

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of 40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the supersonic aerospace vehicles.

Keywords: Fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic secondary jet location, TVC in spacecraft.

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25 Optimization of Multifunctional Battery Structures for Mars

Authors: James A Foster, Guglielmo S Aglietti

Abstract:

Multifunctional structures are a potentially disruptive technology that allows for significant mass savings on spacecraft. The specific concept addressed herein is that of a multifunctional power structure. In this paper, a parametric optimisation of the design of such a structure that uses commercially available battery cells is presented. Using numerical modelling, it was found that there exists several trade-offs aboutthe conflict between the capacity of the panel and its mechanical properties. It was found that there is no universal optimal location for the cells. Placing them close to the mechanical interfaces increases loading in the mechanically weak cells whereas placing them at the centre of the panel increases the stress inthe panel and reduces the stiffness of the structure.

Keywords: Design Optimization, Multifunctional Structures, Power Storage.

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24 Reformulations of Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm for Discrete Structural Design Optimization

Authors: O. Hasançebi, S. Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

In the present study the efficiency of Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithm is investigated in discrete structural design optimization. It is shown that a standard version of the BB-BC algorithm is sometimes unable to produce reasonable solutions to problems from discrete structural design optimization. Two reformulations of the algorithm, which are referred to as modified BB-BC (MBB-BC) and exponential BB-BC (EBB-BC), are introduced to enhance the capability of the standard algorithm in locating good solutions for steel truss and frame type structures, respectively. The performances of the proposed algorithms are experimented and compared to its standard version as well as some other algorithms over several practical design examples. In these examples, steel structures are sized for minimum weight subject to stress, stability and displacement limitations according to the provisions of AISC-ASD.

Keywords: Structural optimization, discrete optimization, metaheuristics, big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) algorithm, design optimization of steel trusses and frames.

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23 Systematic Functional Analysis Methods for Design Retrieval and Documentation

Authors: L. Zehtaban, D. Roller

Abstract:

Apart from geometry, functionality is one of the most significant hallmarks of a product. The functionality of a product can be considered as the fundamental justification for a product existence. Therefore a functional analysis including a complete and reliable descriptor has a high potential to improve product development process in various fields especially in knowledge-based design. One of the important applications of the functional analysis and indexing is in retrieval and design reuse concept. More than 75% of design activity for a new product development contains reusing earlier and existing design know-how. Thus, analysis and categorization of product functions concluded by functional indexing, influences directly in design optimization. This paper elucidates and evaluates major classes for functional analysis by discussing their major methods. Moreover it is finalized by presenting a noble hybrid approach for functional analysis.

Keywords: Functional analysis, design reuse, functionalindexing and representation.

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22 Design Optimization of a Double Stator Cup- Rotor Machine

Authors: E. Diryak, P. Lefley, L. Petkovska, G. Cvetkovski

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimum design for a double stator, cup rotor machine; a novel type of BLDC PM Machine. The optimization approach is divided into two stages: the first stage is calculating the machine configuration using Matlab, and the second stage is the optimization of the machine using Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Under the design specifications, the machine model will be selected from three pole numbers, namely, 8, 10 and 12 with an appropriate slot number. A double stator brushless DC permanent magnet machine is designed to achieve low cogging torque; high electromagnetic torque and low ripple torque.

Keywords: Permanent magnet machine, low- cogging torque, low- ripple torque, high- electromagnetic torque, design optimization.

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21 Dynamic Mesh Based Airfoil Design Optimization

Authors: Zhu Xiong-feng, Hou Zhong-xi, Guo Zheng, Liu Zhao-Wei

Abstract:

A method of dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is proposed according to the drawbacks of surrogate model based airfoil optimization. Programs are designed to achieve the dynamic mesh. Boundary condition is add by integrating commercial software Pointwise, meanwhile the CFD calculation is carried out by commercial software Fluent. The data exchange and communication between the software and programs referred above have been accomplished, and the whole optimization process is performed in iSIGHT platform. A simplified airfoil optimization study case is brought out to show that aerodynamic performances of airfoil have been significantly improved, even save massive repeat operations and increase the robustness and credibility of the optimization result. The case above proclaims that dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is an effective and high efficient method.

Keywords: unmanned air vehicles, dynamic mesh, airfoil optimization, CFD, genetic algorithm

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20 A Novel Design Approach for Mechatronic Systems Based On Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

Authors: Didier Casner, Jean Renaud, Remy Houssin, Dominique Knittel

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel approach for the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of complex mechatronic systems. This approach, which is a part of a global project aiming to include the MDO aspect inside an innovative design process. As a first step, the paper considers the MDO as a redesign approach which is limited to the parametric optimization. After defining and introducing the different keywords, the proposed method which is based on the V-Model which is commonly used in mechatronics.

Keywords: mechatronics, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO), multiobjective optimization, engineering design.

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