Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2517

Search results for: Quantum efficiency

2517 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

Abstract:

In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: Quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality.

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2516 The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Atousa Elahidoost, Alireza Mojab, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar cell especially at shorter wavelengths.

Keywords: Conversion efficiency, Graded band gap window, Quantum efficiency, Single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell

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2515 Eight-State BB84: A C# Simulation

Authors: Liliana Zisu

Abstract:

The first and best known quantum protocol BB84, whose security is unconditional allows the transmission of a key with a length equal to that of the message. This key used with an encryption algorithm leads to an unbreakable cryptographic scheme. Despite advantages the protocol still can be improved in at least two aspects: its efficiency which is of about 50%, only half of the photons transmitted are used to create the encryption key and the second aspect refers to the communication that takes place on the classic channel, as it must be reduced or even eliminated. The paper presents a method that improves the two aspects of the BB84 protocol by using quantum memory and eight states of polarization. The implementation of both the proposed method and the BB84 protocol was done through a C# application.

Keywords: BB84, protocol, quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution.

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2514 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, A. Syed-Khaja, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production processes increases steadily. For a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process, unfortunately no tools exist or have been developed yet. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency namely EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state-of-the-art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production.

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2513 Entanglement-based Quantum Computing by Diagrams of States

Authors: Sara Felloni, Giuliano Strini

Abstract:

We explore entanglement in composite quantum systems and how its peculiar properties are exploited in quantum information and communication protocols by means of Diagrams of States, a novel method to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during computations performed by quantum circuits. We present quantum diagrams of states for Bell states generation, measurements and projections, for dense coding and quantum teleportation, for probabilistic quantum machines designed to perform approximate quantum cloning and universal NOT and, finally, for quantum privacy amplification based on entanglement purification. Diagrams of states prove to be a useful approach to analyze quantum computations, by offering an intuitive graphic representation of the processing of quantum information. They also help in conceiving novel quantum computations, from describing the desired information processing to deriving the final implementation by quantum gate arrays.

Keywords: Diagrams of states, entanglement, quantum circuits, quantum information.

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2512 Electron Filling Factor and Sunlight Concentration Effects on the Efficiency of Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Nima Es'haghi Gorji, Hossein Movla, Foozieh Sohrabi, Alireza Mottaghizadeh, Mohammad Houshmand, Hassan Babaei, Arash Nikniazi

Abstract:

For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.

Keywords: Intermediate band, Sunlight concentration, Efficiency limits, Electron filling factor

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2511 A Programmer’s Survey of the Quantum Computing Paradigm

Authors: Philippe Jorrand

Abstract:

Research in quantum computation is looking for the consequences of having information encoding, processing and communication exploit the laws of quantum physics, i.e. the laws which govern the ultimate knowledge that we have, today, of the foreign world of elementary particles, as described by quantum mechanics. This paper starts with a short survey of the principles which underlie quantum computing, and of some of the major breakthroughs brought by the first ten to fifteen years of research in this domain; quantum algorithms and quantum teleportation are very biefly presented. The next sections are devoted to one among the many directions of current research in the quantum computation paradigm, namely quantum programming languages and their semantics. A few other hot topics and open problems in quantum information processing and communication are mentionned in few words in the concluding remarks, the most difficult of them being the physical implementation of a quantum computer. The interested reader will find a list of useful references at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Quantum information processing, quantum algorithms, quantum programming languages.

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2510 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong

Abstract:

There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag.

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2509 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil

Abstract:

In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine.

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2508 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

Authors: Yi Zhang, Kai Lu, Ying-hui Gao, Mo Wang

Abstract:

Histogram plays an important statistical role in digital image processing. However, the existing quantum image models are deficient to do this kind of image statistical processing because different gray scales are not distinguishable. In this paper, a novel quantum image representation model is proposed firstly in which the pixels with different gray scales can be distinguished and operated simultaneously. Based on the new model, a fast quantum algorithm of constructing histogram for quantum image is designed. Performance comparison reveals that the new quantum algorithm could achieve an approximately quadratic speedup than the classical counterpart. The proposed quantum model and algorithm have significant meanings for the future researches of quantum image processing.

Keywords: Quantum Image Representation, Quantum Algorithm, Image Histogram.

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2507 Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

Keywords: Bell state, GHZ state, Quantum key distribution, Quantum payment system.

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2506 A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong

Abstract:

In many cases, there are some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrate models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag.

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2505 A Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm forMultiobjective Image Segmentation

Authors: Hichem Talbi, Mohamed Batouche, Amer Draa

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to deal with image segmentation. The fact that a single segmentation result do not generally allow a higher level process to take into account all the elements included in the image has motivated the consideration of image segmentation as a multiobjective optimization problem. The proposed algorithm adopts a split/merge strategy that uses the result of the k-means algorithm as input for a quantum evolutionary algorithm to establish a set of non-dominated solutions. The evaluation is made simultaneously according to two distinct features: intra-region homogeneity and inter-region heterogeneity. The experimentation of the new approach on natural images has proved its efficiency and usefulness.

Keywords: Image segmentation, multiobjective optimization, quantum computing, evolutionary algorithms.

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2504 Development of Solar Poly House Tunnel Dryer (STD) for Medicinal Plants

Authors: N. C. Shahi, Anupama Singh, A. E. Kate

Abstract:

There was a scenario present day that drying of fresh fruits and vegetables by indirect solar drying by using mechanical device; hence, an effort was made to develop a small scale solar tunnel dryer (STD). Drying of spinach is carried out to analyze the performance of the dryer and to study its drying characteristics. To evaluate the performance of dryer the independent variables were selected as air flow rate, loading density and shade net while collector efficiency, drying efficiency, overall efficiency and specific energy consumption were selected as responses during performing the experiments. The spinach was dried from initial moisture content 88.21-94.04% (w.b.) to final moisture content 3.50-5.13% (w.b.). The drying time considerably reduced as compared to open sun drying of spinach as sun drying took 15 h for drying. The average collector efficiency, drying efficiency and overall efficiency were in the range 28.73-61.15%, 11.63% to 22.13%, and 7.61-14.66%, respectively.

Keywords: Solar dryer, collector efficiency, drying efficiency, spinach.

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2503 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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2502 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: Truncated double-cone, friction, rolling and sliding, efficiency, gravitational motor and generator.

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2501 Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases

Authors: Juan SepĂșlveda

Abstract:

Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, MCA, Scientometrics, trends.

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2500 Modeling and Simulations of Complex Low- Dimensional systems: Testing the Efficiency of Parallelization

Authors: Ryszard Matysiak, Grzegorz Kamieniarz

Abstract:

The deterministic quantum transfer-matrix (QTM) technique and its mathematical background are presented. This important tool in computational physics can be applied to a class of the real physical low-dimensional magnetic systems described by the Heisenberg hamiltonian which includes the macroscopic molecularbased spin chains, small size magnetic clusters embedded in some supramolecules and other interesting compounds. Using QTM, the spin degrees of freedom are accurately taken into account, yielding the thermodynamical functions at finite temperatures. In order to test the application for the susceptibility calculations to run in the parallel environment, the speed-up and efficiency of parallelization are analyzed on our platform SGI Origin 3800 with p = 128 processor units. Using Message Parallel Interface (MPI) system libraries we find the efficiency of the code of 94% for p = 128 that makes our application highly scalable.

Keywords: Deterministic simulations, low-dimensional magnets, modeling of complex systems, parallelization.

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2499 Parametric Analysis on Information Technology Adoption and Organizational Efficiency in Northern Nigeria

Authors: A. Y. Dutse, S. I. Ningi

Abstract:

The adoption and diffusion of Information Technology (IT) is one of the fastest growing trends in organizations operating within Nigeria’s economy. Public and private organizations make huge capital investments in an attempt acquire and adopt the state-of-the-art IT for improving operational efficiency. In this study the level of IT adoption is considered the primary driver of efficiency witnessed by organizations. The research gathered data on the intensity of IT usage, and resultant efficiency increase in the organizations’ operations. The data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis and reveals that high level of IT usage has enhance efficiency of private and public organizations in Northern part of Nigeria with organizations having strategic intent on IT adoption indicating higher efficiency gains.

Keywords: IT Adoption, Nigeria, Organizational efficiency.

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2498 Quantum Enhanced Correlation Matrix Memories via States Orthogonalisation

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Marcelo Naiouf

Abstract:

This paper introduces a Quantum Correlation Matrix Memory (QCMM) and Enhanced QCMM (EQCMM), which are useful to work with quantum memories. A version of classical Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process in Dirac notation (called Quantum Orthogonalisation Process: QOP) is presented to convert a non-orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of non-orthonormal quantum vectors (called qudits) to an orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of orthonormal quantum qudits. This work shows that it is possible to improve the performance of QCMM thanks QOP algorithm. Besides, the EQCMM algorithm has a lot of additional fields of applications, e.g.: Steganography, as a replacement Hopfield Networks, Bilevel image processing, etc. Finally, it is important to mention that the EQCMM is an extremely easy to implement in any firmware.

Keywords: Quantum Algebra, correlation matrix memory, Dirac notation, orthogonalisation.

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2497 Profit Efficiency and Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

Authors: Rosita Suhaimi, Firdaus Abdullah, Chong Fen Nee, Nurhani Aba Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper attempts to identify the significance of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and competitiveness to the profit efficiency of commercial banks in Malaysia. The profit efficiency of commercial banks in Malaysia, the dependent variable, was estimated using the Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) on a sample of unbalanced panel data, covering 23 commercial banks, between 1995 to 2007. Based on the empirical results, ICT was not found to exert a significant impact on profit efficiency, whereas competitiveness, non ICT stock expenditure and ownership were significant contributors. On the other hand, the size of banks was found to have significantly reduced profit efficiency, opening up for various interpretations of the interrelated role of ICT and competition.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Profit Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Analysis

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2496 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals

Authors: J. S. Bhullar, Manish Gupta

Abstract:

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

Keywords: Quantum Codes, BCH Codes, Dual BCH Codes, Designed Distance.

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2495 Preparation and Investigation of Photocatalytic Properties of ZnO Nanocrystals: Effect of Operational Parameters and Kinetic Study

Authors: N. Daneshvar, S. Aber, M. S. Seyed Dorraji, A. R. Khataee, M. H. Rasoulifard

Abstract:

ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameter size 14 nm have been prepared by precipitation method, and examined as photocatalyst for the UV-induced degradation of insecticide diazinon as deputy of organic pollutant in aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters, such as illumination time, the amount of photocatalyst, initial pH values and initial concentration of insecticide on the photocatalytic degradation diazinon were investigated to find desired conditions. In this case, the desired parameters were also tested for the treatment of real water containing the insecticide. Photodegradation efficiency of diazinon was compared between commercial and prepared ZnO nanocrystals. The results indicated that UV/ZnO process applying prepared nanocrystalline ZnO offered electrical energy efficiency and quantum yield better than commercial ZnO. The present study, on the base of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, illustrated a pseudo first-order kinetic model with rate constant of surface reaction equal to 0.209 mg l-1 min-1 and adsorption equilibrium constant of 0.124 l mg-1.

Keywords: Zinc oxide nanopowder, Electricity consumption, Quantum yield, Nanoparticles, Photodegradation, Kinetic model, Insecticide.

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2494 Numerical Calculation of the Ionization Energy of Donors in a Cubic Quantum well and Wire

Authors: Sara Sedaghat, Mahmood Barati, Iraj Kazeminezhad

Abstract:

The ionization energy in semiconductor systems in nano scale was investigated by using effective mass approximation. By introducing the Hamiltonian of the system, the variational technique was employed to calculate the ground state and the ionization energy of a donor at the center and in the case that the impurities are randomly distributed inside a cubic quantum well. The numerical results for GaAs/GaAlAs show that the ionization energy strongly depends on the well width for both cases and it decreases as the well width increases. The ionization energy of a quantum wire was also calculated and compared with the results for the well.

Keywords: quantum well, quantum wire, quantum dot, impuritystate

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2493 The Evaluation of Low-Carbon Economy Jiangsu, China

Authors: Qiu Dong-Fang, Li Bao-bao, Min Xing

Abstract:

Low-carbon economy means the energy conservation and emission reduction. How to measure and evaluate the regional low-carbon economy is an important problem which should be solved immediately. This paper proposed the eco-efficiency ratio based on the ecological efficiency to evaluate the current situation of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu province and to analyze the efficiency of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu and other provinces, compared both advantages and disadvantages. And then this paper put forward some advices for the government to formulate the correct development policy of low-carbon economy, to improve the technology innovation capacity and the efficiency of resource allocation.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency ratio, Jiangsu, China, low-carbon economy.

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2492 Measuring Relative Efficiency of Korean Construction Company using DEA/Window

Authors: Jung-Lo Park, Sung-Sik Kim, Sun-Young Choi, Ju-Hyung Kim, Jae-Jun Kim

Abstract:

Sub-prime mortgage crisis which began in the US is regarded as the most economic crisis since the Great Depression in the early 20th century. Especially, hidden problems on efficient operation of a business were disclosed at a time and many financial institutions went bankrupt and filed for court receivership. The collapses of physical market lead to bankruptcy of manufacturing and construction businesses. This study is to analyze dynamic efficiency of construction businesses during the five years at the turn of the global financial crisis. By discovering the trend and stability of efficiency of a construction business, this study-s objective is to improve management efficiency of a construction business in the ever-changing construction market. Variables were selected by analyzing corporate information on top 20 construction businesses in Korea and analyzed for static efficiency in 2008 and dynamic efficiency between 2006 and 2010. Unlike other studies, this study succeeded in deducing efficiency trend and stability of a construction business for five years by using the DEA/Window model. Using the analysis result, efficient and inefficient companies could be figured out. In addition, relative efficiency among DMU was measured by comparing the relationship between input and output variables of construction businesses. This study can be used as a literature to improve management efficiency for companies with low efficiency based on efficiency analysis of construction businesses.

Keywords: Construction Company, DEA, DEA/Window, Efficiency Analysis

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2491 The Relative Efficiency Based on the MSE in Generalized Ridge Estimate

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A relative efficiency is defined as Ridge Estimate in the general linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the Mean square error. In this paper, we put forward a parameter of Ridge Estimate and discussions are made on the relative efficiency between the ridge estimation and the General Ridge Estimate. Eventually, this paper proves that the estimation is better than the general ridge estimate, which is based on the MSE.

Keywords: Ridge estimate, generalized ridge estimate, MSE, relative efficiency.

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2490 Effect of Scanning Speed on Material Efficiency of Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Rasheedat M. Mahamood, Mukul Shukla, Sisa. Pityana

Abstract:

The study of effect of laser scanning speed on material efficiency in Ti6Al4V application is very important because unspent powder is not reusable because of high temperature oxygen pick-up and contamination. This study carried out an extensive study on the effect of scanning speed on material efficiency by varying the speed between 0.01 to 0.1m/sec. The samples are wire brushed and cleaned with acetone after each deposition to remove un-melted particles from the surface of the deposit. The substrate is weighed before and after deposition. A formula was developed to calculate the material efficiency and the scanning speed was compared with the powder efficiency obtained. The results are presented and discussed. The study revealed that the optimum scanning speed exists for this study at 0.01m/sec, above and below which the powder efficiency will drop

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Laser Metal Deposition Process, Material efficiency, Processing Parameter, Titanium alloy.

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2489 The Study of Relative Efficiency in Growth Curve Model

Authors: Nan Chen, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, some relative efficiency have been discussed, including the LSE estimate with respect to BLUE in curve model. Four new kinds of relative efficiency have defined, and their upper bounds have been discussed.

Keywords: Relative efficiency, LSE estimate, BLUE estimate, Upper bound, Curve model.

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2488 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao

Abstract:

A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.

Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome Spinors

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