Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 387

Search results for: Nanowire array

387 Design an Electrical Nose with ZnO Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Amin Nekoubin, Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

Vertical ZnO nanowire array films were synthesized based on aqueous method for sensing applications. ZnO nanowires were investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanowires array films are studied. It is found that the ZnO nanowires array film sensor exhibits excellent sensing properties towards O2 and CO2 at 100 °C with the response time shorter than 5 s. High surface area / volume ratio of vertical ZnO nanowire and high mobility accounts for the fast response and recovery. The sensor response was measured in the range from 100 to 500 ppm O2 and CO2 in this study.

Keywords: Gas sensor, semiconductor, ZnO, Nanowire array

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386 Effect of Oxygen Annealing on the Surface Defects and Photoconductivity of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Array

Authors: Ajay Kushwaha, Hemen Kalita, M. Aslam

Abstract:

Post growth annealing of solution grown ZnO nanowire array is performed under controlled oxygen ambience. The role of annealing over surface defects and their consequence on dark/photo-conductivity and photosensitivity of nanowire array is investigated. Surface defect properties are explored using various measurement tools such as contact angle, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and XPS measurements. The contact angle of the NW films reduces due to oxygen annealing and nanowire film surface changes from hydrophobic (96°) to hydrophilic (16°). Raman and XPS spectroscopy reveal that oxygen annealing improves the crystal quality of the nanowire films. The defect band emission intensity (relative to band edge emission, ID/IUV) reduces from 1.3 to 0.2 after annealing at 600 °C at 10 SCCM flow of oxygen. An order enhancement in dark conductivity is observed in O2 annealed samples, while photoconductivity is found to be slightly reduced due to lower concentration of surface related oxygen defects.

Keywords: Zinc Oxide, Surface defects, Photoluminescence, Photoconductivity, Photosensor and Nanowire thin film.

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385 Integration of Resistive Switching Memory Cell with Vertical Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Xiang Li, Zhixian Chen, Zheng Fang, Aashit Kamath, Xinpeng Wang, Navab Singh, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

We integrate TiN/Ni/HfO2/Si RRAM cell with a vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire transistor to achieve compact 4F2 footprint in a 1T1R configuration. The tip of the Si nanowire (source of the transistor) serves as bottom electrode of the memory cell. Fabricated devices with nanowire diameter ~ 50nm demonstrate ultra-low current/power switching; unipolar switching with 10μA/30μW SET and 20μA/30μW RESET and bipolar switching with 20nA/85nW SET and 0.2nA/0.7nW RESET. Further, the switching current is found to scale with nanowire diameter making the architecture promising for future scaling.

Keywords: RRAM, 1T1R, gate-all-around FET, nanowire FET, vertical MOSFETs

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384 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermal Properties of Au3Ni Nanowire

Authors: J. Davoodi, F. Katouzi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to calculate the thermal properties of Au3Ni Nanowire. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique was used to obtain the effect of radius size on the energy, the melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion at the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble. The Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many body interatomic potentials energy have been used for Gold (Au) and Nickel (Ni) elements and a mixing rule has been devised to obtain the parameters of these potentials for nanowire stats. Our MD simulation results show the melting temperature and latent heat of fusion increase upon increasing diameter of nanowire. Moreover, the cohesive energy decreased with increasing diameter of nanowire.

Keywords: Au3Ni Nanowire, Thermal properties, Molecular dynamics simulation

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383 Fabrication and Characterization of Poly-Si Vertical Nanowire Thin Film Transistor

Authors: N. Shen, T. T. Le, H. Y. Yu, Z. X. Chen, K. T. Win, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical nanowire thin film transistor with gate-all-around architecture, fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. A novel method of fabricating polysilicon vertical nanowires of diameter as small as 30 nm using wet-etch is presented. Both n-type and p-type vertical poly-silicon nanowire transistors exhibit superior electrical characteristics as compared to planar devices. On a poly-crystalline nanowire of 30 nm diameter, high Ion/Ioff ratio of 106, low drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 50 mV/V, and low sub-threshold slope SS~100mV/dec are demonstrated for a device with channel length of 100 nm.

Keywords: Nanowire (NW), Gate-all-around (GAA), polysilicon (poly-Si), thin-film transistor (TFT).

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382 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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381 Simulation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector with Circuit Modeling

Authors: Seyed Ali Sedigh Zyabari, A. Zarifkar

Abstract:

Single photon detectors have been fabricated NbN nano wire. These detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra high vacuum sputtered NbN thin films on a sapphire substrate. In this work a typical schematic of the nanowire Single Photon Detector structure and then driving and measurement electronic circuit are shown. The response of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors during a photo detection event, is modeled by a special electrical circuits (two circuit). Finally, current through the wire is calculated by solving equations of models.

Keywords: NbN, nanowire meander, superconducting single photon detector, kinetic inductance.

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380 Vertical Silicon Nanowire MOSFET With A Fully-Silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 Gate

Authors: Z. X. Chen, N. Singh, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents a vertical silicon nanowire n- MOSFET integrated with a CMOS-compatible fully-silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 gate. Devices with nanowire diameter of 50nm show good electrical performance (SS < 70mV/dec, DIBL < 30mV/V, Ion/Ioff > 107). Most significantly, threshold voltage tunability of about 0.2V is shown. Although threshold voltage remains low for the 50nm diameter device, it is expected to become more positive as nanowire diameter reduces.

Keywords: NiSi , fully-silicided (FUSI) gate, vertical siliconnanowire (SiNW), CMOS compatible.

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379 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah

Abstract:

This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband.

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378 Photovoltaic Array Cleaning System Design and Evaluation

Authors: Ghoname Abdullah, Hidekazu Nishimura

Abstract:

Dust accumulation on the photovoltaic module's surface results in appreciable loss and negatively affects the generated power. Hence, in this paper, the design of a photovoltaic array cleaning system is presented. The cleaning system utilizes one drive motor, two guide rails, and four sweepers during the cleaning process. The cleaning system was experimentally implemented for one month to investigate its efficiency on PV array energy output. The energy capture over a month for PV array cleaned using the proposed cleaning system is compared with that of the energy capture using soiled PV array. The results show a 15% increase in energy generation from PV array with cleaning. From the results, investigating the optimal scheduling of the PV array cleaning could be an interesting research topic.

Keywords: Cleaning system, dust accumulation, PV array, PV module, soiling.

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377 Nearfield UWB Pulse Array Beamformer based on Multirate Filter Bank

Authors: Min Wang , Shuyuan Yang

Abstract:

The paper presents a method of designing ultrawide band (UWB) pulse array beamformer in the case of nearfield. Firstly the principle of space-time processing of UWB pulse array is discussed. The radical beampattern transform based on spherical coordinates is employed to solve the nearfield beamforming of UWB pulse array. The frequency invariant technology is considered for the frequency dependent beampattern of UWB pulse array. We use a multirate bank scheme of to implement the FI beamformer of UWB pulse array. By using multirate filters in each element channel, it can make the response of the UWB array to avoid distortion in the whole band. The simulation resultes are given to prove the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

Keywords: UWB pulse array, frequency invariant, multiratebank, nearfield beamformer, radical transform

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376 Vertical GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor with Impact of Temperature on Device Parameters

Authors: N. Shen, Z. X. Chen, K.D. Buddharaju, H. M. Chua, X. Li, N. Singh, G.Q Lo, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical wire NMOS device fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The impact of temperature on various device parameters is investigated in view of usual increase in surrounding temperature with device density.

Keywords: Gate-all-around, temperature dependence, silicon nanowire

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375 Characterization and Modeling of Piezoelectric Integrated Micro Speakers for Audio Acoustic Actuation

Authors: J. Mendoza-López, S. Sánchez-Solano, J. L. Huertas-Díaz

Abstract:

An array of piezoelectric micro actuators can be used for radiation of an ultrasonic carrier signal modulated in amplitude with an acoustic signal, which yields audio frequency applications as the air acts as a self-demodulating medium. This application is known as the parametric array. We propose a parametric array with array elements based on existing piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) design techniques. In order to reach enough acoustic output power at a desired operating frequency, a proper ratio between number of array elements and array size needs to be used, with an array total area of the order of one cm square. The transducers presented are characterized via impedance, admittance, noise figure, transducer gain and frequency responses.

Keywords: Pizeoelectric, Microspeaker, MEMS, pMUT, Parametric Array

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374 Silicon Nanowire for Thermoelectric Applications: Effects of Contact Resistance

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, S. J. Lee

Abstract:

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) based thermoelectric device (TED) has potential applications in areas such as chip level cooling/ energy harvesting. It is a great challenge however, to assemble an efficient device with these SiNW. The presence of parasitic in the form of interfacial electrical resistance will have a significant impact on the performance of the TED. In this work, we explore the effect of the electrical contact resistance on the performance of a TED. Numerical simulations are performed on SiNW to investigate such effects on its cooling performance. Intrinsically, SiNW individually without the unwanted parasitic effect has excellent cooling power density. However, the cooling effect is undermined with the contribution of the electrical contact resistance.

Keywords: Thermoelectric, silicon, nanowire, electrical contact resistance, parasitics.

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373 A Comparison Study of Electrical Characteristics in Conventional Multiple-gate Silicon Nanowire Transistors

Authors: Fatemeh Karimi, Morteza Fathipour, Hamdam Ghanatian, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper electrical characteristics of various kinds of multiple-gate silicon nanowire transistors (SNWT) with the channel length equal to 7 nm are compared. A fully ballistic quantum mechanical transport approach based on NEGF was employed to analyses electrical characteristics of rectangular and cylindrical silicon nanowire transistors as well as a Double gate MOS FET. A double gate, triple gate, and gate all around nano wires were studied to investigate the impact of increasing the number of gates on the control of the short channel effect which is important in nanoscale devices. Also in the case of triple gate rectangular SNWT inserting extra gates on the bottom of device can improve the application of device. The results indicate that by using gate all around structures short channel effects such as DIBL, subthreshold swing and delay reduces.

Keywords: SNWT (silicon nanowire transistor), non equilibriumGreen's function (NEGF), double gate (DG), triple gate (TG), multiple gate, cylindrical nano wire (CW), rectangular nano wire(RW), Poisson_ Schrödinger solver, drain induced barrier lowering(DIBL).

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372 Ni Metallization on SiGe Nanowire

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, X. P. Wang

Abstract:

The mechanism of nickel (Ni) metallization in silicon-germanium (Si0.5Ge0.5) alloy nanowire (NW) was studied. Transmission electron microscope imaging with in-situ annealing was conducted at temperatures of 200oC to 600°C. During rapid formation of Ni germanosilicide, loss of material from from the SiGe NW occurred which led to the formation of a thin Ni germanosilicide filament and eventual void. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis along the SiGe NW before and after annealing determined that Ge atoms tend to out-diffuse from the Ni germanosilicide towards the Ni source in the course of annealing. A model for the Ni germanosilicide formation in SiGe NW is proposed to explain this observation.

Keywords: SiGe, nanowires, germanosilicide.

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371 Array Signal Processing: DOA Estimation for Missing Sensors

Authors: Lalita Gupta, R. P. Singh

Abstract:

Array signal processing involves signal enumeration and source localization. Array signal processing is centered on the ability to fuse temporal and spatial information captured via sampling signals emitted from a number of sources at the sensors of an array in order to carry out a specific estimation task: source characteristics (mainly localization of the sources) and/or array characteristics (mainly array geometry) estimation. Array signal processing is a part of signal processing that uses sensors organized in patterns or arrays, to detect signals and to determine information about them. Beamforming is a general signal processing technique used to control the directionality of the reception or transmission of a signal. Using Beamforming we can direct the majority of signal energy we receive from a group of array. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) is a highly popular eigenstructure-based estimation method of direction of arrival (DOA) with high resolution. This Paper enumerates the effect of missing sensors in DOA estimation. The accuracy of the MUSIC-based DOA estimation is degraded significantly both by the effects of the missing sensors among the receiving array elements and the unequal channel gain and phase errors of the receiver.

Keywords: Array Signal Processing, Beamforming, ULA, Direction of Arrival, MUSIC

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370 Circular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna for KU-band

Authors: T.F.Lai, Wan Nor Liza Mahadi, Norhayati Soin

Abstract:

This paper present a circular patch microstrip array antenna operate in KU-band (10.9GHz – 17.25GHz). The proposed circular patch array antenna will be in light weight, flexible, slim and compact unit compare with current antenna used in KU-band. The paper also presents the detail steps of designing the circular patch microstrip array antenna. An Advance Design System (ADS) software is used to compute the gain, power, radiation pattern, and S11 of the antenna. The proposed Circular patch microstrip array antenna basically is a phased array consisting of 'n' elements (circular patch antennas) arranged in a rectangular grid. The size of each element is determined by the operating frequency. The incident wave from satellite arrives at the plane of the antenna with equal phase across the surface of the array. Each 'n' element receives a small amount of power in phase with the others. There are feed network connects each element to the microstrip lines with an equal length, thus the signals reaching the circular patches are all combined in phase and the voltages add up. The significant difference of the circular patch array antenna is not come in the phase across the surface but in the magnitude distribution.

Keywords: Circular patch microstrip array antenna, gain, radiation pattern, S-Parameter.

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369 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: N. Ojaroudi Parchin, H. Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Y. Al-Yasir, A. M. Abdulkhaleq, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, P. S. Excell

Abstract:

A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1x8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: MM-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks.

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368 A 4-Element Corporate Series Feed Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array for 5G Applications

Authors: G. Viswanadh Raviteja

Abstract:

In this paper, a microstrip antenna array is designed for 5G applications. A corporate series feed is considered to operate with a center frequency between 27 to 28 GHz to be able to cover the 5G frequency bands 24.25-27.5 GHz, 26.5-29.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz. The substrate is taken to be Rogers RT/Duroid 6002. The corporate series 5G antenna array is designed stage by stage by taking into consideration a conventional antenna designed at 28 GHz, thereby constructing the 2X1 antenna array before arriving at the final design structure of 4-element corporate series feed antenna array. The discussions concerning S11 parameter, gain and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) for the design structures are considered and all the important findings are tabulated. The proposed antenna array’s S11 parameter was found to be -29.00 dB at a frequency of 27.39 GHz with a good directional gain of 12.12 dB.

Keywords: Corporate series feed, millimeter wave antenna array, 5G applications, millimeter-wave (mm-wave) applications

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367 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal

Abstract:

This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical  Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas  which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe  Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which  represents a new approach for optimization problems in  electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used  to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a  radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done  without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The  variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also  reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements  can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in  the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

 

Keywords: Thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

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366 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular.

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365 Hybrid Antenna Array with the Bowtie Elements for Super-Resolution and 3D Scanning Radars

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

The antenna arrays for the entire 3D spherical coverage have been developed for their potential use in variety of applications such as radars and body-worn devices of the body area networks. In this study, we have rigorously revamped the hybrid antenna array using the optimum geometry of bowtie elements for achieving a significant improvement in the angular discrimination capability as well as in separating two adjacent targets. In this scenario, we have analogously investigated the effectiveness of increasing the virtual array length in fostering and enhancing the directivity and angular resolution in the 10 GHz frequency. The simulation results have extensively verified that the proposed antenna array represents a drastic enhancement in terms of size, directivity, side lobe level (SLL) and, especially resolution compared with the other available geometries. We have also verified that the maximum directivities of the proposed hybrid antenna array represent the robustness to the all  variations, which is accompanied by the uniform 3D scanning characteristic.

Keywords: Bowtie antenna, hybrid antenna array, array signal processing, body area networks.

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364 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: Phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization.

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363 Flexible Sensor Array with Programmable Measurement System

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Wei-Chuan Chen, Chien-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

This study is concerned with pH solution detection using 2 × 4 flexible sensor array based on a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate that is coated a conductive layer and a ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensitive membrane with the technologies of screen-printing and RF sputtering. For data analysis, we also prepared a dynamic measurement system for acquiring the response voltage and analyzing the characteristics of the working electrodes (WEs), such as sensitivity and linearity. In this condition, an array measurement system was designed to acquire the original signal from sensor array, and it is based on the method of digital signal processing (DSP). The DSP modifies the unstable acquisition data to a direct current (DC) output using the technique of digital filter. Hence, this sensor array can obtain a satisfactory yield, 62.5%, through the design measurement and analysis system in our laboratory.

Keywords: Flexible sensor array, PET, RuO2, dynamic measurement, data analysis.

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362 Towards Self-ware via Swarm-Array Computing

Authors: Blesson Varghese, Gerard McKee

Abstract:

The work reported in this paper proposes Swarm-Array computing, a novel technique inspired by swarm robotics, and built on the foundations of autonomic and parallel computing. The approach aims to apply autonomic computing constructs to parallel computing systems and in effect achieve the self-ware objectives that describe self-managing systems. The constitution of swarm-array computing comprising four constituents, namely the computing system, the problem/task, the swarm and the landscape is considered. Approaches that bind these constituents together are proposed. Space applications employing FPGAs are identified as a potential area for applying swarm-array computing for building reliable systems. The feasibility of a proposed approach is validated on the SeSAm multi-agent simulator and landscapes are generated using the MATLAB toolkit.

Keywords: Swarm-Array computing, Autonomic computing, landscapes.

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361 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28 GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e. 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, radiation efficiency of 97% can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

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360 Improvement of Short Channel Effects in Cylindrical Strained Silicon Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Fatemeh Karimi, Morteza Fathipour, Hamdam Ghanatian, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate the electrical characteristics of a new structure of gate all around strained silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with dual dielectrics by changing the radius (RSiGe) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) wire and gate dielectric. Indeed the effect of high-κ dielectric on Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL) has been studied. Due to the higher electron mobility in tensile strained silicon, the n-type FETs with strained silicon channel have better drain current compare with the pure Si one. In this structure gate dielectric divided in two parts, we have used high-κ dielectric near the source and low-κ dielectric near the drain to reduce the short channel effects. By this structure short channel effects such as FIBL will be reduced indeed by increasing the RSiGe, ID-VD characteristics will be improved. The leakage current and transfer characteristics, the threshold-voltage (Vt), the drain induced barrier height lowering (DIBL), are estimated with respect to, gate bias (VG), RSiGe and different gate dielectrics. For short channel effects, such as DIBL, gate all around strained silicon nanowire FET have similar characteristics with the pure Si one while dual dielectrics can improve short channel effects in this structure.

Keywords: SNWT (silicon nanowire transistor), Tensile Strain, high-κ dielectric, Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL), cylindricalnano wire (CW), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL).

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359 Study on the Characteristics of the Measurement System for pH Array Sensors

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Wei-Lun Hsia

Abstract:

A measurement system for pH array sensors is introduced to increase accuracy, and decrease non-ideal effects successfully. An array readout circuit reads eight potentiometric signals at the same time, and obtains an average value. The deviation value or the extreme value is counteracted and the output voltage is a relatively stable value. The errors of measuring pH buffer solutions are decreased obviously with this measurement system, and the non-ideal effects, drift and hysteresis, are lowered to 1.638mV/hr and 1.118mV, respectively. The efficiency and stability are better than single sensor. The whole sensing characteristics are improved.

Keywords: Array sensors, measurement system, non-ideal effects, pH sensor, readout circuit.

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358 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: H. K. Hwang, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, Solomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr

Abstract:

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection,resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO uniformly-spaced linear array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, pseudo random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing.

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