Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 136

Search results for: high-κ dielectric

136 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby

Abstract:

Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2- xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: Dielectric ceramics, Dielectric constant, Loss tangent, AC conductivity, Impedance spectroscopy.

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135 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

Authors: K. Geethalakshmi, T. Prabhakaran, J. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

Keywords: capacitance, dielectric constant, m-ZrO2, nano zirconia

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134 Impact Porous Dielectric Silica Gel for Operating Voltage and Power Discharge Reactor

Authors: E. Gnapowski, S. Gnapowski

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of porous dielectric silica gel the discharge ignition voltage and input power in a plasma reactor. For the experiment was used a plasma reactor with two mesh electrodes made of stainless steel with a mesh size of 0.1x0.1mm. The study analyzed and compared with parameters such as power, ignition and operation voltage of the reactor for two dielectrics a porous and glass. During experiment were observed several new phenomena conducted for porous dielectric. The first phenomenon was the reduction the ignition voltage discharge to volume around few hundred volts. Second it was increase input power six times more compared with power those obtained for the glass dielectric. Thirdly difference it is ΔV between ignition voltage Vi and operating voltage reactor Vm for porous dielectric it was 11%, while ΔV for the glass dielectric it was 60%. Also change the discharge characteristics from DBD for glass dielectric to the streamer resistance discharge for the porous dielectric.

Keywords: Input power, mesh electrodes, onset voltage, porous dielectric.

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133 Numerical Simulation of Electric and Hydrodynamic Fields Distribution in a Dielectric Liquids Electrofilter Cell

Authors: Narcis C. Ostahie, Tudor Sajin

Abstract:

In this paper a numerical simulation of electric and hydrodynamic fields distribution in an electrofilter for dielectric liquids cell is made. The simulation is made with the purpose to determine the trajectory of particles that moves under the action of external force in an electric and hydrodynamic field created inside of an electrofilter for dielectric liquids. Particle trajectory is analyzed for a dielectric liquid-solid particles suspension.

Keywords: Dielectric liquids, electrohydrodynamics, energy, high voltage, particles

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132 Synthesis, Structural, and Dielectric Characterization of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Suresh Sagadevan, A. Veeralakshmi

Abstract:

Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV analysis, and dielectric studies. The crystalline nature and particle size of the CdO nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The morphology of prepared CdO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The particle size was studied using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The optical properties were obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of CdO nanoparticles were studied in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss is found to decrease with an increase in the frequency at different temperatures. The ac conductivity of CdO nanoparticle has been studied.

Keywords: Cadmium Oxide (CdO), XRD, SEM, Dielectric constant and Dielectric loss.

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131 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar

Abstract:

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε0), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε) and relaxation time (τ).

Keywords: Excess parameters, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain reflectometry.

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130 Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Hazizan Md Akil

Abstract:

In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNT-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on a ratio 30:70 were studied. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared using two methods: (a) MWCNTmuscovite hybrids were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing muscovite with MWCNT. The effects of different preparation of the composites and filler loading were evaluated. It was revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher than MIXED epoxy composites. It was also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increasing the MWCNT filler loading.

Keywords: MWCNT-Muscovite, Epoxy, Dielectric Properties, Hybrid Composite.

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129 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde

Abstract:

The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Keywords: Excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain refelectometry technique.

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128 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity.

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127 Modeling of Dielectric Heating in Radio- Frequency Applicator Optimized for Uniform Temperature by Means of Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Camelia Petrescu, Lavinia Ferariu

Abstract:

The paper presents an optimization study based on genetic algorithms (GA-s) for a radio-frequency applicator used in heating dielectric band products. The weakly coupled electro-thermal problem is analyzed using 2D-FEM. The design variables in the optimization process are: the voltage of a supplementary “guard" electrode and six geometric parameters of the applicator. Two objective functions are used: temperature uniformity and total active power absorbed by the dielectric. Both mono-objective and multiobjective formulations are implemented in GA optimization.

Keywords: Dielectric heating, genetic algorithms, optimization, RF applicators.

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126 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication.

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125 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Dielectric constants, optical band gap (Eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid.

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124 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: Metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant.

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123 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre

Abstract:

In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: Directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton.

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122 Effect of Gravity Modulation on Weakly Non-Linear Stability of Stationary Convection in a Dielectric Liquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, B. R. Revathi

Abstract:

The effect of time-periodic oscillations of the Rayleigh- Benard system on the heat transport in dielectric liquids is investigated by weakly nonlinear analysis. We focus on stationary convection using the slow time scale and arrive at the real Ginzburg- Landau equation. Classical fourth order Runge-kutta method is used to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation which gives the amplitude of convection and this helps in quantifying the heat transfer in dielectric liquids in terms of the Nusselt number. The effect of electrical Rayleigh number and the amplitude of modulation on heat transport is studied.

Keywords: Dielectric liquid, Nusselt number, amplitude equation.

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121 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar

Abstract:

The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by Radio frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40oC to +150oC can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by Capacitance Bridge and in-waveguide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement.

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120 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: Copper plates, Electric field distribution, Dielectric heating.

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119 Heteromolecular Structure Formation in Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol, Tetrahydrofuran and Dimethylformamide

Authors: Sh. Gofurov, O. Ismailova, U. Makhmanov, A. Kokhkharov

Abstract:

The refractometric method has been used to determine optical properties of concentration features of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide at the room temperature. Changes in dielectric permittivity of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide in a wide range of concentrations (0÷1.0 molar fraction) have been studied using molecular dynamics method. The curves depending on the concentration of experimental data on excess refractive indices and excess dielectric permittivity were compared. It has been shown that stable heteromolecular complexes in binary solutions are formed in the concentration range of 0.3÷0.4 mole fractions. The real and complex part of dielectric permittivity was obtained from dipole-dipole autocorrelation functions of molecules. At the concentrations of C = 0.3 / 0.4 m.f. the heteromolecular structures with hydrogen bonds are formed. This is confirmed by the extremum values of excessive dielectric permittivity and excessive refractive index of aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Refractometric method, dielectric constant, molecular dynamics, aqueous solution.

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118 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified with Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 1050°C-1090°C for 2-3 h to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

Keywords: Piezoceramics, Conventional Sintering, KNN, Lead Free.

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117 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi

Abstract:

Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: Defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission.

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116 Metal-Dielectric Antireflection Coating on Metallic Substrate for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems

Authors: Chien-Cheng Kuo

Abstract:

We design and discuss metal-dielectric antireflection coating on metallic substrates for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. The average reflectance is 8.5% at 400-3000nm and 84.4% at 3000nm-10000nm of the metal-dielectric structure.

Keywords: Concentrating solar power systems, solar thermal, solar selective absorber, absorptance, emittance.

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115 Modeling of Sensitivity for SPR Biosensors- New Aspects

Authors: Volodymyr Chegel

Abstract:

The computer modeling is carried out for parameter of sensitivity of optoelectronic chemical and biosensors, using phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The physical model of SPR-sensor-s is described with (or without) of modifications of sensitive gold film surface by a dielectric layer. The variants of increasing of sensitivity for SPR-biosensors, constructed on the principle gold – dielectric – biomolecular layer are considered. Two methods of mathematical treatment of SPR-curve are compared – traditional, with estimation of sensor-s response as shift of the SPRcurve minimum and proposed, for system with dielectric layer, using calculating of the derivative in the point of SPR-curve half-width.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, modeling, sensitivity, biosensor

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114 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro-Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi

Abstract:

Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: Dielectric Electro-active Polymer, Pull Actuator, Static, Dynamic, Electromechanical.

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113 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso

Abstract:

Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples would be tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: Dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content.

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112 Effect of Field Dielectric Material on Performance of InGaAs Power LDMOSFET

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Swati Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, a power laterally-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As is presented. The device utilizes a thicker field-oxide with low dielectric constant under the field-plate in order to achieve possible reduction in device capacitances and reduced-surface-field effect. Using 2D numerical simulations, performance of the proposed device is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional LDMOSFET. The proposed structure provides 50% increase in the breakdown voltage, 21% increase in transit frequency, and 72% improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device for same cell pitch.

Keywords: InGaAs, dielectric, lateral, power MOSFET.

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111 Air-Filled Circular Cross Sectional Cavity for Microwave Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Mohd Tarmizi Ali, Mohd Khairul Mohd Salleh, Md. Mahfudz Md. Zan

Abstract:

Dielectric sheet perturbation to the dominant TE111 mode resonant frequency of a circular cavity is studied and presented in this paper. The dielectric sheet, placed at the middle of the airfilled cavity, introduces discontinuities and disturbs the configuration of electromagnetic fields in the cavity. For fixed dimensions of cavity and fixed thickness of the loading dielectric, the dominant resonant frequency varies quite linearly with the permittivity of the dielectric. This quasi-linear relationship is plotted using Maple software and verified using 3D electromagnetic simulations. Two probes are used in the simulation for wave excitation into and from the cavity. The best length of probe is found to be 3 mm, giving the closest resonant frequency to the one calculated using Maple. A total of fourteen different dielectrics of permittivity ranging from 1 to 12.9 are tested one by one in the simulation. The works show very close agreement between the results from Maple and the simulation. A constant difference of 0.04 GHz is found between the resonant frequencies collected during simulation and the ones from Maple. The success of this project may lead to the possibility of using the middle loaded cavity at TE111 mode as a microwave non-destructive testing of solid materials.

Keywords: Middle-loaded cavity, dielectric sheet perturbation.

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110 Design and Development of Ferroelectric Material for Microstrip Patch Array Antenna

Authors: F.H.Wee, F. Malek

Abstract:

This paper presents the utilizing of ferroelectric material on antenna application. There are two different ferroelectric had been used on the proposed antennas which include of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) and Bismuth Titanate (BiT), suitable for Access Points operating in the WLAN IEEE 802.11 b/g and WiMAX IEEE 802.16 within the range of 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz application. BST, which had been tested to own a dielectric constant of εr = 15 while BiT has a dielectric constant that higher than BST which is εr = 21 and both materials are in rectangular shaped. The influence of various parameters on antenna characteristics were investigated extensively using commercial electromagnetic simulations software by Communication Simulation Technology (CST). From theoretical analysis and simulation results, it was demonstrated that ferroelectric material used have not only improved the directive emission but also enhanced the radiation efficiency.

Keywords: Ferroelectric material, WLAN, WiMAX, dielectric constant

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109 Improvement of Short Channel Effects in Cylindrical Strained Silicon Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Fatemeh Karimi, Morteza Fathipour, Hamdam Ghanatian, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate the electrical characteristics of a new structure of gate all around strained silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with dual dielectrics by changing the radius (RSiGe) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) wire and gate dielectric. Indeed the effect of high-κ dielectric on Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL) has been studied. Due to the higher electron mobility in tensile strained silicon, the n-type FETs with strained silicon channel have better drain current compare with the pure Si one. In this structure gate dielectric divided in two parts, we have used high-κ dielectric near the source and low-κ dielectric near the drain to reduce the short channel effects. By this structure short channel effects such as FIBL will be reduced indeed by increasing the RSiGe, ID-VD characteristics will be improved. The leakage current and transfer characteristics, the threshold-voltage (Vt), the drain induced barrier height lowering (DIBL), are estimated with respect to, gate bias (VG), RSiGe and different gate dielectrics. For short channel effects, such as DIBL, gate all around strained silicon nanowire FET have similar characteristics with the pure Si one while dual dielectrics can improve short channel effects in this structure.

Keywords: SNWT (silicon nanowire transistor), Tensile Strain, high-κ dielectric, Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL), cylindricalnano wire (CW), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL).

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108 Broadband Annular-Ring Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Authors: Mohammad J. Almalkawi

Abstract:

A broadband wire monopole antenna loaded by inhomogeneous stack of annular dielectric ring resonators (DRRs) is proposed. The proposed antenna exhibits a broad impedance bandwidth from 3 to 30 GHz. This is achieved by adding an external step matching network at the antenna feed point. The matching network is comprised of three annular DRRs possessing different permittivity values and sharing the same axial over a finite ground plane. The antenna performance is characterized using full-wave EM simulation. Compared to previous-reported wire antennas with improved bandwidth achieved by DRRs, the proposed topology provides relatively compact realization and superior broadband performance.

Keywords: Broadband, dielectric ring resonator, wire monopole antenna.

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107 Effect of Bentonite on the Properties of Liquid Insulating Oil

Authors: Loai Nasrat, Mervat S. Hassan

Abstract:

Bentonitic material from South Aswan, Egypt was evaluated in terms of mineral-ogy and chemical composition as bleaching clay in refining of transformer oil before and after acid activation and thermal treatment followed by acid leaching using HCl and H2SO4 for different contact times. Structural modification and refining power of bento-nite were investigated during modification by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the activated bentonite could be used for refining of transformer oil. The oil parameters such as; dielectric strength, viscosity and flash point had been improved. The dielectric breakdown strength of used oil increased from 29 kV for used oil treated with unactivated bentonite to 74 kV after treatment with activated bentonite. Kinematic Viscosity changed from 19 to 11 mm2 /s after treatment with activated bentonite. However, flash point achieved 149 ºC.

Keywords: Dielectric strength, unactivated bentonite, X-ray diffraction, SEM image

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