Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3824

Search results for: small cell networks.

3824 Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks

Authors: Abdullah A. Al Orainy

Abstract:

Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.

Keywords: Backhaul, Small Cells, Wireless, 5G.

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3823 Neighbour Cell List Reduction in Multi-Tier Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

The ongoing call or data session must be maintained to ensure a good quality of service. This can be accomplished by performing handover procedure while the user is on the move. However, dense deployment of small cells in 5G networks is a challenging issue due to the extensive number of handovers. In this paper, a neighbour cell list method is proposed to reduce the number of target small cells and hence minimizing the number of handovers. The neighbour cell list is built by omitting cells that could cause an unnecessary handover and/or handover failure because of short time of stay of a user in these cells. A multi-attribute decision making technique, simple additive weighting, is then applied to the optimized neighbour cell list. The performance of the proposed method is analysed and compared with that of the existing methods. Results disclose that our method decreases the candidate small cell list, unnecessary handovers, handover failure and short time of stay cells compared to the competitive method.

Keywords: Handover, HetNets, MADM, small cells.

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3822 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: N. Ojaroudi Parchin, H. Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Y. Al-Yasir, A. M. Abdulkhaleq, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, P. S. Excell

Abstract:

A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1x8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: MM-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks.

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3821 Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Multiple Connectivity

Authors: Sungkyung Kim, Jee-Hyeon Na, Dong-Seung Kwon

Abstract:

Future mobile networks following 5th generation will be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity; connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency and discuss our results.

Keywords: Heterogeneous networks, multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, stochastic geometry.

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3820 Handover for Dense Small Cells Heterogeneous Networks: A Power-Efficient Game Theoretical Approach

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Li Zhang, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

In this paper, a non-cooperative game method is formulated where all players compete to transmit at higher power. Every base station represents a player in the game. The game is solved by obtaining the Nash equilibrium (NE) where the game converges to optimality. The proposed method, named Power Efficient Handover Game Theoretic (PEHO-GT) approach, aims to control the handover in dense small cell networks. Players optimize their payoff by adjusting the transmission power to improve the performance in terms of throughput, handover, power consumption and load balancing. To select the desired transmission power for a player, the payoff function considers the gain of increasing the transmission power. Then, the cell selection takes place by deploying Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A game theoretical method is implemented for heterogeneous networks to validate the improvement obtained. Results reveal that the proposed method gives a throughput improvement while reducing the power consumption and minimizing the frequent handover.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, game theory, handover, HetNets, small cells.

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3819 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: Heat flux, herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity.

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3818 Centralized Controller for Microgrid

Authors: Adel Hamad Rafa

Abstract:

This paper, proposes a control system for use with microgrid consiste of  multiple small scale embedded generation networks (SSEG networks) connected to the 33kV distribution network. The proposed controller controls power flow in the grid-connected mode of operation, enables voltage and frequency control when the SSEG networks are islanded, and resynchronises the SSEG networks with the utility before reconnecting them. The performance of the proposed controller has been tested in simulations using PSCAD.

Keywords: Microgrid, Small scale embedded generation, island mode, resynchronisation.

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3817 Comparison of Inter Cell Interference Coordination Approaches

Authors: Selma Sbit, Mohamed Bechir Dadi, Belgacem Chibani Rhaimi

Abstract:

This work aims to compare various techniques used in order to mitigate Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced systems. For that, we will evaluate the performance of each one. In mobile communication networks, systems are limited by ICI particularly caused by deployment of small cells in conventional cell’s implementation. Therefore, various mitigation techniques, named Inter-Cell Interference Coordination techniques (ICIC), enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) techniques and Coordinated Multi-Point transmission and reception (CoMP) are proposed. This paper presents a comparative study of these strategies. It can be concluded that CoMP techniques can ameliorate SINR and capacity system compared to ICIC and eICIC. In fact, SINR value reaches 15 dB for a distance of 0.5 km between user equipment and servant base station if we use CoMP technology whereas it cannot exceed 12 dB and 9 dB for eICIC and ICIC approaches respectively as reflected in simulations.

Keywords: 4th generation, interference, coordination, ICIC.

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3816 Hubs as Catalysts for Geospatial Communication in Kinship Networks

Authors: Sameer Kumar, Jariah Mohd. Jan

Abstract:

Earlier studies in kinship networks have primarily focused on observing the social relationships existing between family relatives. In this study, we pre-identified hubs in the network to investigate if they could play a catalyst role in the transfer of physical information. We conducted a case study of a ceremony performed in one of the families of a small Hindu community – the Uttar Rarhi Kayasthas. Individuals (n = 168) who resided in 11 geographically dispersed regions were contacted through our hub-based representation. We found that using this representation, over 98% of the individuals were successfully contacted within the stipulated period. The network also demonstrated a small-world property, with an average geodesic distance of 3.56.

Keywords: Social Networks, Kinship Networks, Social Network Analysis, Geospatial Communication, Hubs

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3815 Free-Form Query for Cell Phones

Authors: R. Ahmad, S. Abdul-Kareem

Abstract:

It is a challenge to provide a wide range of queries to database query systems for small mobile devices, such as the PDAs and cell phones. Currently, due to the physical and resource limitations of these devices, most reported database querying systems developed for them are only offering a small set of pre-determined queries for users to possibly pose. The above can be resolved by allowing free-form queries to be entered on the devices. Hence, a query language that does not restrict the combination of query terms entered by users is proposed. This paper presents the free-form query language and the method used in translating free-form queries to their equivalent SQL statements.

Keywords: Cell phone, database query language, free-formqueries, unplanned queries.

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3814 An Agent-based Model for Analyzing Interaction of Two Stable Social Networks

Authors: Masatora Daito, Hisashi Kojima

Abstract:

In this research, the authors analyze network stability using agent-based simulation. Firstly, the authors focus on analyzing large networks (eight agents) by connecting different two stable small social networks (A small stable network is consisted on four agents.). Secondly, the authors analyze the network (eight agents) shape which is added one agent to a stable network (seven agents). Thirdly, the authors analyze interpersonal comparison of utility. The “star-network "was not found on the result of interaction among stable two small networks. On the other hand, “decentralized network" was formed from several combination. In case of added one agent to a stable network (seven agents), if the value of “c"(maintenance cost of per a link) was larger, the number of patterns of stable network was also larger. In this case, the authors identified the characteristics of a large stable network. The authors discovered the cases of decreasing personal utility under condition increasing total utility.

Keywords: Social Network, Symmetric Situation, Network Stability, Agent-Based Modeling.

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3813 Design of a Compact Meshed Antennas for 5G Communication Systems

Authors: Chokri Baccouch, Chayma Bahhar, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid system solar cell antenna for 5G mobile communications networks. We propose here a solar cell antenna with either a front face collection grid or mesh patch. The solar cell antenna of our contribution combines both optical and radiofrequency signals. Thus, we propose two solar cell antenna structures in the frequency bands of future 5G standard respectively in both 2.6 and 3.5 GHz bands. Simulation using the Advanced Design System (ADS) software allows us to analyze and determine the antenna parameters proposed in this work such as the reflection coefficient (S11), gain, directivity and radiated power.

Keywords: Patch antenna, solar cell, DC, RF, 5G.

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3812 Performance Enhancement Employing Vertical Beamforming for FFR Technique

Authors: P. Chaipanya, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul

Abstract:

This paper proposes a vertical beamforming concept to a cellular network employing Fractional Frequency Reuse technique including with cell sectorization. Two different beams are utilized in cell-center and cell-edge, separately. The proposed concept is validated through computer simulation in term of SINR and channel capacity. Also, comparison when utilizing horizontal and vertical beam formation is in focus. The obtained results indicate that the proposed concept can improve the performance of the cellular networks comparing with the one using horizontal beamforming.

Keywords: Beamforming, Fractional Frequency Reuse, Inter- Cell Interference, cell sectorization.

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3811 A General Model for Amino Acid Interaction Networks

Authors: Omar Gaci, Stefan Balev

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein-s amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we identify a number of properties of these networks. We compare them to the general small-world network model and we analyze their hierarchical structure.

Keywords: interaction network, protein structure, small-world network.

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3810 The Determination of Cellulose Spiral Angle by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Structurally Characterized Acacia mangium Cell Wall

Authors: Tamer A. Tabet, Fauziah Abdul Aziz, Shahidan Radiman

Abstract:

The spiral angle of the elementary cellulose fibril in the wood cell wall, often called microfibril angle, (MFA). Microfibril angle in hardwood is one of the key determinants of solid timber performance due to its strong influence on the stiffness, strength, shrinkage, swelling, thermal-dynamics mechanical properties and dimensional stability of wood. Variation of MFA (degree) in the S2 layer of the cell walls among Acacia mangium trees was determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The length and orientation of the microfibrils of the cell walls in the irradiated volume of the thin samples are measured using SAXS and optical microscope for 3D surface measurement. The undetermined parameters in the analysis are the MFA, (M) and the standard deviation (σФ) of the intensity distribution arising from the wandering of the fibril orientation about the mean value. Nine separate pairs of values are determined for nine different values of the angle of the incidence of the X-ray beam relative to the normal to the radial direction in the sample. The results show good agreement. The curve distribution of scattered intensity for the real cell wall structure is compared with that calculated with that assembly of rectangular cells with the same ratio of transverse to radial cell wall length. It is demonstrated that for β = 45°, the peaks in the curve intensity distribution for the real and the rectangular cells coincide. If this peak position is Ф45, then the MFA can be determined from the relation M = tan-1 (tan Ф45 / cos 45°), which is precise for rectangular cells. It was found that 92.93% of the variation of MFA can be attributed to the distance from pith to bark. Here we shall present our results of the MFA in the cell wall with respect to its shape, structure and the distance from pith to park as an important fast check and yet accurate towards the quality of wood, its uses and application.

Keywords: Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Microfibril Angle, MFA, rectangular cell wall and real cell wall, Acacia mangium.

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3809 An ACO Based Algorithm for Distribution Networks Including Dispersed Generations

Authors: B. Bahmani Firouzi, T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

With Power system movement toward restructuring along with factors such as life environment pollution, problems of transmission expansion and with advancement in construction technology of small generation units, it is expected that small units like wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, ... that most of the time connect to the distribution networks play a very essential role in electric power industry. With increase in developing usage of small generation units, management of distribution networks should be reviewed. The target of this paper is to present a new method for optimal management of active and reactive power in distribution networks with regard to costs pertaining to various types of dispersed generations, capacitors and cost of electric energy achieved from network. In other words, in this method it-s endeavored to select optimal sources of active and reactive power generation and controlling equipments such as dispersed generations, capacitors, under load tapchanger transformers and substations in a way that firstly costs in relation to them are minimized and secondly technical and physical constraints are regarded. Because the optimal management of distribution networks is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables, the new evolutionary method based on Ant Colony Algorithm has been applied. The simulation results of the method tested on two cases containing 23 and 34 buses exist and will be shown at later sections.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Optimal Operation Management of distribution networks, Ant Colony Optimization(ACO).

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3808 Hybrid Weighted Multiple Attribute Decision Making Handover Method for Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Li Zhang, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

Small cell deployment in 5G networks is a promising technology to enhance the capacity and coverage. However, unplanned deployment may cause high interference levels and high number of unnecessary handovers, which in turn result in an increase in the signalling overhead. To guarantee service continuity, minimize unnecessary handovers and reduce signalling overhead in heterogeneous networks, it is essential to properly model the handover decision problem. In this paper, we model the handover decision problem using Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) method, specifically Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and propose a hybrid TOPSIS method to control the handover in heterogeneous network. The proposed method adopts a hybrid weighting policy, which is a combination of entropy and standard deviation. A hybrid weighting control parameter is introduced to balance the impact of the standard deviation and entropy weighting on the network selection process and the overall performance. Our proposed method show better performance, in terms of the number of frequent handovers and the mean user throughput, compared to the existing methods.

Keywords: Handover, HetNets, interference, MADM, small cells, TOPSIS, weight.

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3807 Cluster-Based Multi-Path Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Si-Gwan Kim

Abstract:

Small-size and low-power sensors with sensing, signal processing and wireless communication capabilities is suitable for the wireless sensor networks. Due to the limited resources and battery constraints, complex routing algorithms used for the ad-hoc networks cannot be employed in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose node-disjoint multi-path hexagon-based routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks. We suggest the details of the algorithm and compare it with other works. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of efficiency and message delivery ratio.

Keywords: Clustering, multi-path, routing protocol, sensor network.

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3806 Next Generation Networks and Their Relation with Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Hamid Barati, Ali Movaghar, Ali Barati, Arash Azizi Mazreah , Ehsan Shahsavari Gogheri, Faranak Mohsenzadeh

Abstract:

The communication networks development and advancement during two last decades has been toward a single goal and that is gradual change from circuit-switched networks to packed switched ones. Today a lot of networks operates are trying to transform the public telephone networks to multipurpose packed switch. This new achievement is generally called "next generation networks". In fact, the next generation networks enable the operators to transfer every kind of services (sound, data and video) on a network. First, in this report the definition, characteristics and next generation networks services and then ad-hoc networks role in the next generation networks are studied.

Keywords: NGNs services, Ad-hoc Networks, NGN.

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3805 Evolutionary Dynamics on Small-World Networks

Authors: Jan Rychtar, Brian Stadler

Abstract:

We study how the outcome of evolutionary dynamics on graphs depends on a randomness on the graph structure. We gradually change the underlying graph from completely regular (e.g. a square lattice) to completely random. We find that the fixation probability increases as the randomness increases; nevertheless, the increase is not significant and thus the fixation probability could be estimated by the known formulas for underlying regular graphs.

Keywords: evolutionary dynamics, small-world networks

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3804 Cost Benefit Analysis: Evaluation among the Millimetre Wavebands and SHF Bands of Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Lourenço, Fernando J. Velez, Jon M. Peha

Abstract:

This article discusses the benefit cost analysis aspects of millimetre wavebands (mmWaves) and Super High Frequency (SHF). The devaluation along the distance of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance is assessed by considering two different path loss models, the two-slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) for the SHF band and the modified Friis propagation model, for frequencies above 24 GHz. The equivalent supported throughput is estimated at the 5.62, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands and the influence of carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process is explored. Mostly owing to the lessening caused by the behaviour of the two-slope propagation model for SHF band, the supported throughput at this band is higher than at the millimetre wavebands only for the longest cell lengths. The benefit cost analysis of these pico-cellular networks was analysed for regular cellular topologies, by considering the unlicensed spectrum. For shortest distances, we can distinguish an optimal of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R ≈ 10 m for the millimeter wavebands and for longest distances an optimal of the revenue can be observed at R ≈ 550 m for the 5.62 GHz. It is possible to observe that, for the 5.62 GHz band, the profit is slightly inferior than for millimetre wavebands, for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase for cell lengths approximately equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor, achieving a maximum for values of R approximately equal to 550 m.

Keywords: 5G, millimetre wavebands, super high-frequency band, SINR, signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, cost benefit analysis.

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3803 Bandwidth Allocation for ABR Service in Cellular Networks

Authors: Khaja Kamaluddin, Muhammed Yousoof

Abstract:

Available Bit Rate Service (ABR) is the lower priority service and the better service for the transmission of data. On wireline ATM networks ABR source is always getting the feedback from switches about increase or decrease of bandwidth according to the changing network conditions and minimum bandwidth is guaranteed. In wireless networks guaranteeing the minimum bandwidth is really a challenging task as the source is always in mobile and traveling from one cell to another cell. Re establishment of virtual circuits from start to end every time causes the delay in transmission. In our proposed solution we proposed the mechanism to provide more available bandwidth to the ABR source by re-usage of part of old Virtual Channels and establishing the new ones. We want the ABR source to transmit the data continuously (non-stop) inorderto avoid the delay. In worst case scenario at least minimum bandwidth is to be allocated. In order to keep the data flow continuously, priority is given to the handoff ABR call against new ABR call.

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Virtual Channel (VC), CBR, ABR, MCR and QOS.

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3802 Sensitivity of Small Disturbance Angle Stability to the System Parameters of Future Power Networks

Authors: Nima Farkhondeh Jahromi, George Papaefthymiou, Lou van der Sluis

Abstract:

The incorporation of renewable energy sources for the sustainable electricity production is undertaking a more prominent role in electric power systems. Thus, it will be an indispensable incident that the characteristics of future power networks, their prospective stability for instance, get influenced by the imposed features of sustainable energy sources. One of the distinctive attributes of the sustainable energy sources is exhibiting the stochastic behavior. This paper investigates the impacts of this stochastic behavior on the small disturbance rotor angle stability in the upcoming electric power networks. Considering the various types of renewable energy sources and the vast variety of system configurations, the sensitivity analysis can be an efficient breakthrough towards generalizing the effects of new energy sources on the concept of stability. In this paper, the definition of small disturbance angle stability for future power systems and the iterative-stochastic way of its analysis are presented. Also, the effects of system parameters on this type of stability are described by performing a sensitivity analysis for an electric power test system.

Keywords: Power systems stability, Renewable energy sources, Stochastic behavior, Small disturbance rotor angle stability.

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3801 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya

Abstract:

In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: Cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis.

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3800 Design and Implementation a New Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm using Genetic Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Moslem Afrashteh Mehr

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks consist of small battery powered devices with limited energy resources. once deployed, the small sensor nodes are usually inaccessible to the user, and thus replacement of the energy source is not feasible. Hence, One of the most important issues that needs to be enhanced in order to improve the life span of the network is energy efficiency. to overcome this demerit many research have been done. The clustering is the one of the representative approaches. in the clustering, the cluster heads gather data from nodes and sending them to the base station. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic clustering algorithm using genetic algorithm. This algorithm takes different parameters into consideration to increase the network lifetime. To prove efficiency of proposed algorithm, we simulated the proposed algorithm compared with LEACH algorithm using the matlab

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Clustering, Geneticalgorithm, Energy Consumption

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3799 Fault Detection and Isolation using RBF Networks for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Mahanijah Md Kamal., Dingli Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) dynamic systems under an open-loop scheme. This method uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to perform fault identification, classification and isolation. The novelty is that the RBF model of independent mode is used to predict the future outputs of the FC stack. One actuator fault, one component fault and three sensor faults have been introduced to the PEMFC systems experience faults between -7% to +10% of fault size in real-time operation. To validate the results, a benchmark model developed by Michigan University is used in the simulation to investigate the effect of these five faults. The developed independent RBF model is tested on MATLAB R2009a/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for FDI under an open-loop condition. By using this method, the RBF networks able to detect and isolate all five faults accordingly and accurately.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, radial basis function neural networks, fault detection, fault isolation.

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3798 A Predictive control based on Neural Network for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, M. Rezaei, V. Najmi

Abstract:

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) control system has an important effect on operation of cell. Traditional controllers couldn-t lead to acceptable responses because of time- change, long- hysteresis, uncertainty, strong- coupling and nonlinear characteristics of PEMFCs, so an intelligent or adaptive controller is needed. In this paper a neural network predictive controller have been designed to control the voltage of at the presence of fluctuations of temperature. The results of implementation of this designed NN Predictive controller on a dynamic electrochemical model of a small size 5 KW, PEM fuel cell have been simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keywords: PEMFC, Neural Network, Predictive Control..

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3797 Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

Authors: Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Dmitri O. Lapotko

Abstract:

Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

Keywords: Delivery, cell separation, graft, laser, plasmonic nanobubble, cell therapy, gold nanoparticle.

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3796 Organizational De-Evolution; the Small Group or Single Actor Terrorist

Authors: Audrey Heffron, Casserleigh, Jarrett Broder, Brad Skillman

Abstract:

Traditionally, terror groups have been formed by ideologically aligned actors who perceive a lack of options for achieving political or social change. However, terrorist attacks have been increasingly carried out by small groups of actors or lone individuals who may be only ideologically affiliated with larger, formal terrorist organizations. The formation of these groups represents the inverse of traditional organizational growth, whereby structural de-evolution within issue-based organizations leads to the formation of small, independent terror cells. Ideological franchising – the bypassing of formal affiliation to the “parent" organization – represents the de-evolution of traditional concepts of organizational structure in favor of an organic, independent, and focused unit. Traditional definitions of dark networks that are issue-based include focus on an identified goal, commitment to achieving this goal through unrestrained actions, and selection of symbolic targets. The next step in the de-evolution of small dark networks is the miniorganization, consisting of only a handful of actors working toward a common, violent goal. Information-sharing through social media platforms, coupled with civil liberties of democratic nations, provide the communication systems, access to information, and freedom of movement necessary for small dark networks to flourish without the aid of a parent organization. As attacks such as the 7/7 bombings demonstrate the effectiveness of small dark networks, terrorist actors will feel increasingly comfortable aligning with an ideology only, without formally organizing. The natural result of this de-evolving organization is the single actor event, where an individual seems to subscribe to a larger organization-s violent ideology with little or no formal ties.

Keywords: Organizational de-evolution, single actor, small group, terrorism.

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3795 A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad Reza Sahebi, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani

Abstract:

To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.

Keywords: SRAM Cell, leakage current, cell area.

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