Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 992

Search results for: base station

992 Compatibility of Integrated Satellite Systems with Another Satellite System Operating in Adjacent Beam

Authors: Hyemi Gam, Dae-Sub Oh, Bon-Jun Ku

Abstract:

This paper addresses the analysis of the interference between complementary ground component (CGC) base station and mobile earth station (MES). In the frequency sharing scenario between CGC base station and MES, the interference from the adjacent beams must be considered. In this paper, we estimated the interference to MES of an integrated satellite system and the result is presented as the carrier to interference ratio(C/I) with respect to the number of CGC base station in the adjacent beam and the ratio of satellite beam center radius to the total beam radius (R1/R). By using these results, we can determine the minimum separation distance between the CGC base stations of adjacent beam and MES for compatibility. This result can be applied to the CGC base station of an integrated satellite system for the effective frequency sharing.

Keywords: Integrated satellite system, interference, frequency reuse pattern, CGC base station, MES, frequency sharing.

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991 Cooperative Scheme Using Adjacent Base Stations in Wireless Communication

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Seung-Jun Yu, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In a wireless communication system, the failure of base station can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This paper proposes a way to deal with the failure of base station in a wireless communication system based on OFDM. Cooperative communication of the adjacent base stations can be a solution of the problem. High performance is obtained by the configuration of transmission signals which is applied CDD scheme in the cooperative communication. The Cooperative scheme can be a e ective solution in case of the particular situation.

Keywords: Base station, CDD, OFDM, Diversity gain, MIMO.

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990 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah

Abstract:

This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband.

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989 A Multiple Beam LTE Base Station Antenna with Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Sectorization

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A low wind-load light-weight broad-band multi-beam base station antenna has been developed. It can generate any required number of beams with the required beamwidths. It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. Vertical sectorization doubles the overall number of beams. It will be very valuable in LTE-A and 5G. It can be used to serve vertically split inner and outer cells, which improves system performance. The intersection between the beams of the proposed multi-beam antenna can be controlled by optimizing the design parameters of the antenna. The gain at the points of intersection between the beams, the null filling and the overlap between the beams can all be modified. The proposed multi-beam base station antenna can cover an unlimited number of wireless applications, regardless of their frequency bands. It can simultaneously cover all, current and future, wireless technology generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G (LTE), --- etc. For example, in LTE, it covers the bands 450-470 MHz, 690-960 MHz, 1.4-2.7 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz. It has at least 2 ports for each band in each beam for ±45° polarizations. It can include up to 72 ports or even more, which could facilitate any further needed capacity expansions.

Keywords: Base station antenna, multi-beam antenna, smart antenna, vertical sectorization.

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988 On the Quantizer Design for Base Station Cooperation Systems with SC-FDE Techniques

Authors: K. Firsanov, S. Gritsutenko, R. Dinis

Abstract:

By employing BS (Base Station) cooperation we can increase substantially the spectral efficiency and capacity of cellular systems. The signals received at each BS are sent to a central unit that performs the separation of the different MT (Mobile Terminal) using the same physical channel. However, we need accurate sampling and quantization of those signals so as to reduce the backhaul communication requirements. In this paper we consider the optimization of the quantizers for BS cooperation systems. Four different quantizer types are analyzed and optimized to allow better SQNR (Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio) and BER (Bit Error Rate) performance.

Keywords: Base Stations cooperation scheme, Bit Error Rate (BER), Quantizer, Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR), SCFDE.

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987 High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique

Authors: P. Kamphikul, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.

Keywords: Gain Improvement, Microstrip Antenna Array, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Base Station.

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986 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, MLPNN, base station, prediction, best effort, real time.

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985 Analytical Model of Connection Establishment Duration Calculation in Wireless Networks

Authors: Y. Chaiko

Abstract:

It is important to provide possibility of so called “handover" for the mobile subscriber from GSM network to Wi-Fi network and back. To solve specified problem it is necessary to estimate connection time between base station and wireless access point. Difficulty to estimate this parameter is that it doesn-t described in specifications of the standard and, hence, no recommended value is given. In this paper, the analytical model is presented that allows the estimating connection time between base station and IEEE 802.11 access point.

Keywords: Access point, connection procedure, Wi-Fi network.

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984 Averaging Mechanisms to Decision Making for Handover in GSM

Authors: S. Akhila, M. Lakshminarayana

Abstract:

In cellular networks, limited availability of resources has to be tapped to its fullest potential. In view of this aspect, a sophisticated averaging and voting technique has been discussed in this paper, wherein the radio resources available are utilized to the fullest value by taking into consideration, several network and radio parameters which decide on when the handover has to be made and thereby reducing the load on Base station .The increase in the load on the Base station might be due to several unnecessary handover taking place which can be eliminated by making judicious use of the radio and network parameters.

Keywords: Averaging and Voting, Handover, QoS.

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983 Game Theory Based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm for Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: X. Mercilin Raajini, R. Raja Kumar, P. Indumathi, V. Praveen

Abstract:

Many cluster based routing protocols have been proposed in the field of wireless sensor networks, in which a group of nodes are formed as clusters. A cluster head is selected from one among those nodes based on residual energy, coverage area, number of hops and that cluster-head will perform data gathering from various sensor nodes and forwards aggregated data to the base station or to a relay node (another cluster-head), which will forward the packet along with its own data packet to the base station. Here a Game Theory based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm (GTDEA) for routing is proposed. In GTDEA, the cluster head selection is done with the help of game theory, a decision making process, that selects a cluster-head based on three parameters such as residual energy (RE), Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Packet Reception Rate (PRR). Finding a feasible path to the destination with minimum utilization of available energy improves the network lifetime and is achieved by the proposed approach. In GTDEA, the packets are forwarded to the base station using inter-cluster routing technique, which will further forward it to the base station. Simulation results reveal that GTDEA improves the network performance in terms of throughput, lifetime, and power consumption.

Keywords: Cluster head, Energy utilization, Game Theory, LEACH, Sensor network.

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982 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station

Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa

Abstract:

In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.

Keywords: Attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the station.

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981 Performance Analysis of Energy-Efficient Home Femto Base Stations

Authors: Yun Won Chung

Abstract:

The energy consumption of home femto base stations (BSs) can be reduced, by turning off the Wi-Fi radio interface when there is no mobile station (MS) under the coverage of the BSs or MSs do not transmit or receive data packet for long time, especially in late night. In the energy-efficient home femto BSs, if MSs have any data packet to transmit and the Wi-Fi radio interface in off state, MSs wake up the Wi-Fi radio interface of home femto BSs by using additional low power radio interface. In this paper, the performance of the energy-efficient home femto BSs from the aspect of energy consumption and cumulative average delay, and show the effect of various parameters on energy consumption and cumulative average delay. From the results, the tradeoff relationship between energy consumption and cumulative average delay is shown and thus, appropriate operation should be needed to balance the tradeoff.

Keywords: energy consumption, power saving, femto base station.

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980 Mitigation of Radiation Levels for Base Transceiver Stations based on ITU-T Recommendation K.70

Authors: Reyes C., Ramos B.

Abstract:

This essay presents applicative methods to reduce human exposure levels in the area around base transceiver stations in a environment with multiple sources based on ITU-T recommendation K.70. An example is presented to understand the mitigation techniques and their results and also to learn how they can be applied, especially in developing countries where there is not much research on non-ionizing radiations.

Keywords: Electromagnetic fields (EMF), human exposure limits, intentional radiator, cumulative exposure ratio, base transceiver station (BTS), radiation levels.

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979 Reducing the Need for Multi-Input Multi-Output in Multi-Beam Base Transceiver Station Antennas Using Orthogonally-Polarized Feeds with an Arbitrary Number of Ports

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A multi-beam BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antenna has been developed using dual parabolic cylindrical reflectors. The ±45° polarization feeds are used in spatial diversity MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output). They can be replaced by single-port orthogonally polarized feeds. Then, with two sets of beams generated above each other, the ± 45° polarization ports of any conventional transceiver can be connected to two of these beam sets. Thus, with two-port transceivers, the system will be equivalent to 4x4 MIMO, instead of 2x2. Radio Frequency (RF) power combiners/splitters can also be used to combine the multiple beams into a single beam or any arbitrary number of beams/ports. The gain of the combined-beam will be more than 20-24 dBi instead of 17-18 dBi of conventional wide-beam antennas. Furthermore, the gain of the combined beam will be high over the whole beam angle. Moreover, the users will always be close to the peak gain value of the combined beam regardless of their location within the combined beam angle. The frequency bands of all the combined beams are adjusted such that they all have the same frequency band. Different configurations of RF power splitter/combiners can be used to provide any arbitrary number of beams/ports according to the requirements of any existing base station configuration.

Keywords: 5G mobile communications, BTS antennas, MIMO, orthogonally polarized antennas, multi-beam antennas.

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978 Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Freshwater from Jega River, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: D. Y. Bawa, M. I. Ribah, I. S. Jega, V. O. Oyedepo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration (Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) in freshwater from Jega river. 30 water samples were collected in two 1-liter sterile plastic containers from three designated sampling points, namely; Station A (before the bridge; upstream), Station B (at the bridge where human activities such as washing of cars, motorbike, clothes, bathing and other household materials are concentrated), Station C (after the bridge; downstream) fortnightly, between March and July 2014. Results indicated that the highest pH mean value of 7.08 ± 1.12 was observed in station C, the highest conductivity with the mean 58.75 ± 7.87 µs/cm was observed at station A, the highest mean value of the water total hardness was observed at station A (54 ± 16.11 mg/L), the highest mean value of nitrate deposit was observed in station A (1.66 ± 1.33 mg/L), the highest mean value of alkalinity was observed at station B (51.33 ± 6.66 mg/L) and the highest mean (39.56 ± 3.24 mg/L) of total dissolved solids was observed at station A. The highest concentration mean value of Fe was observed in station C (65.33 ± 4.50 mg/L), the highest concentrations of Cd was observed in station C (0.99 ± 0.36 mg/L), the mean value of 2.13 ± 1.99 mg/L was the highest concentration of Zn observed in station B, the concentration of Pb was not detected (ND) and the highest concentration of Cu with the mean value of 0.43 ± 0.16 mg/L was observed in station B, while the lowest concentration was observed at station C (0.27 ± 0.26 mg/L). Statistical analysis shows no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the sampling stations for both the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations. The results were found to be within the internationally acceptable standard limits.

Keywords: Assessment, freshwater, heavy metal concentration, physicochemical.

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977 Assessing the Problems of Pumping Stations: A Case Study of Boneh Basht Pumping Station

Authors: Emad Hazbkhah, Abdolreza Zahiri, Hossein Ghorbanizade Kharazi, Afshin Kiani

Abstract:

Establishing pumping stations is one of the most common ways of providing water from rivers. There are many issues involved in the design and operation of pumping stations most important of which is the problem of sedimentation. One of the significant issues which must be taken into consideration in designing pumping stations is the operation method and technical matters related to it. Safety and convenience of operation is one of the issues that must be always considered by the designer. Some of the major issues in making decisions regarding the type of design for the station are geographical condition, the location of the station and availability of experts in maintenance and operation of the station. Dimensions of the station must allow free movement for checking and operating pumps after installation of pumps and plumbing system.

Keywords: Boneh Basht, Iran, pumping station.

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976 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative  scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error  rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the  coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage  is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed  cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive  signals from both broadcasting station and cellular station. The  proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to  achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The  performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system.

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975 Parallel Distributed Computational Microcontroller System for Adaptive Antenna Downlink Transmitter Power Optimization

Authors: K. Prajindra Sankar, S.K. Tiong, S.P. Johnny Koh

Abstract:

This paper presents a tested research concept that implements a complex evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), in a multi-microcontroller environment. Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm (PDGA) is employed in adaptive beam forming technique to reduce power usage of adaptive antenna at WCDMA base station. Adaptive antenna has dynamic beam that requires more advanced beam forming algorithm such as genetic algorithm which requires heavy computation and memory space. Microcontrollers are low resource platforms that are normally not associated with GAs, which are typically resource intensive. The aim of this project was to design a cooperative multiprocessor system by expanding the role of small scale PIC microcontrollers to optimize WCDMA base station transmitter power. Implementation results have shown that PDGA multi-microcontroller system returned optimal transmitted power compared to conventional GA.

Keywords: Microcontroller, Genetic Algorithm, Adaptiveantenna, Power optimization.

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974 Influence of IMV on Space Station

Authors: Fu Shiming, Pei Yifei

Abstract:

To study the impact of the inter-module ventilation (IMV) on the space station, the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model under the influence of IMV, the mathematical model, boundary conditions and calculation method are established and determined to analyze the influence of IMV on cabin air flow characteristics and velocity distribution firstly; and then an integrated overall thermal mathematical model of the space station is used to consider the impact of IMV on thermal management. The results show that: the IMV has a significant influence on the cabin air flow, the flowrate of IMV within a certain range can effectively improve the air velocity distribution in cabin, if too much may lead to its deterioration; IMV can affect the heat deployment of the different modules in space station, thus affecting its thermal management, the use of IMV can effectively maintain the temperature levels of the different modules and help the space station to dissipate the waste heat.

Keywords: CFD, Environment control and life support, Space station, Thermal management, Thermal mathematical model.

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973 Intelligent BRT in Tehran

Authors: P. Parvizi, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

an intelligent BRT system is necessary when communities looking for new ways to use high capacity rapid transit at a reduced cost.This paper will describe the intelligent control system that works with Datacenter. With the help of GPS system, the data center can monitor the situation of each bus and bus station. Through RFID technology, bus station and traffic light can transfer data with bus and by Wimax communication technology all of parts can talk together; data center learns all information about the location of bus, the arrival of bus in each station and the number of passengers in station and bus.Finally, the paper presents the case study of those theories in Tehran BRT.

Keywords: TehranBRT, RFID, Intelligent Transportation

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972 Land Use around Metro Stations: A Case Study

Authors: A. Roukouni, S. Basbas, M. Giannopoulou

Abstract:

Transport and land use are two systems that are mutually influenced. Their interaction is a complex process associated with continuous feedback. The paper examines the existing land use around an under construction metro station of the new metro network of Thessaloniki, Greece, through the use of field investigations, around the station-s predefined location. Moreover, except from the analytical land use recording, a sampling questionnaire survey is addressed to several selected enterprises of the study area. The survey aims to specify the characteristics of the enterprises, the trip patterns of their employees and clients, as well as the stated preferences towards the changes the new metro station is considered to bring to the area. The interpretation of the interrelationships among selected data from the questionnaire survey takes place using the method of Principal Components Analysis for Categorical Data. The followed methodology and the survey-s results contribute to the enrichment of the relevant bibliography concerning the way the creation of a new metro station can have an impact on the land use pattern of an area, by examining the situation before the operation of the station.

Keywords: land use, metro station, questionnaire survey

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971 Deployment of a Biocompatible International Space Station into Geostationary Orbit

Authors: Tim Falk, Chris Chatwin

Abstract:

This study explores the possibility of a space station that will occupy a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) and create artificial gravity using centripetal acceleration. The concept of the station is to create a habitable, safe environment that can increase the possibility of space tourism by reducing the wide variation of hazards associated with space exploration. The ability to control the intensity of artificial gravity through Hall-effect thrusters will allow experiments to be carried out at different levels of artificial gravity. A feasible prototype model was built to convey the concept and to enable cost estimation. The SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket with a 26,700 kg payload to GEO was selected to take the 675 tonne spacecraft into orbit; space station construction will require up to 30 launches, this would be reduced to 5 launches when the SpaceX BFR becomes available. The estimated total cost of implementing the Sussex Biocompatible International Space Station (BISS) is approximately $47.039 billion, which is very attractive when compared to the cost of the International Space Station, which cost $150 billion.

Keywords: Artificial gravity, biocompatible, geostationary orbit, space station.

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970 Towards for Admission Control in WIMAX Relay Station Mesh Network for Mobile Stations out of Coverage Using Ad-Hoc

Authors: Anas Majeed, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, Laiha Mat Kiah

Abstract:

WIMAX relay station mesh network has been approved by IEEE 802.16j as a standard to provide a highly data rate transmission, the RS was implemented to extend the coverage zone of the BS, for instance the MSs previously were out of the coverage of the BS they become in the coverage of the RS, therefore these MSs can have Admission control from the BS through the RS. This paper describe a problem in the mesh network Relay station, for instance the problem of how to serve the mobile stations (MSs) which are out of the Relay station coverage. This paper also proposed a solution for mobile stations out of the coverage of the WIMAX Relay stations mesh Network. Therefore Ad-hoc network defined as a solution by using its admission control schema and apply it on the mobiles inside and outside the Relay station coverage.

Keywords: WIMAX, relay station, mesh network, ad-hoc, WiFi, generic algorithm.

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969 Real Time Approach for Data Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Sanjeev Gupta, Mayank Dave

Abstract:

The issue of real-time and reliable report delivery is extremely important for taking effective decision in a real world mission critical Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based application. The sensor data behaves differently in many ways from the data in traditional databases. WSNs need a mechanism to register, process queries, and disseminate data. In this paper we propose an architectural framework for data placement and management. We propose a reliable and real time approach for data placement and achieving data integrity using self organized sensor clusters. Instead of storing information in individual cluster heads as suggested in some protocols, in our architecture we suggest storing of information of all clusters within a cell in the corresponding base station. For data dissemination and action in the wireless sensor network we propose to use Action and Relay Stations (ARS). To reduce average energy dissipation of sensor nodes, the data is sent to the nearest ARS rather than base station. We have designed our architecture in such a way so as to achieve greater energy savings, enhanced availability and reliability.

Keywords: Cluster head, data reliability, real time communication, wireless sensor networks.

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968 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai

Abstract:

The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: Mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station.

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967 A Performance Analysis of Different Scheduling Schemes in WiMAX

Authors: A. Youseef

Abstract:

IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) aims to present high speed wireless access to cover wide range coverage. The base station (BS) and the subscriber station (SS) are the main parts of WiMAX. WiMAX uses either Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) or mesh topologies. In the PMP mode, the SSs connect to the BS to gain access to the network. However, in the mesh mode, the SSs connect to each other to gain access to the BS. The main components of QoS management in the 802.16 standard are the admission control, buffer management and packet scheduling. In this paper, we use QualNet 5.0.2 to study the performance of different scheduling schemes, such as WFQ, SCFQ, RR and SP when the numbers of SSs increase. We find that when the number of SSs increases, the average jitter and average end-to-end delay is increased and the throughput is reduced.

Keywords: WiMAX, Scheduling Scheme, QoS, QualNet.

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966 Optimization of a Triangular Fin with Variable Fin Base Thickness

Authors: Hyung Suk Kang

Abstract:

A triangular fin with variable fin base thickness is analyzed and optimized using a two-dimensional analytical method. The influence of fin base height and fin base thickness on the temperature in the fin is listed. For the fixed fin volumes, the maximum heat loss, the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness, fin base height and fin tip length as a function of the fin base thickness, convection characteristic number and dimensionless fin volume are represented. One of the results shows that the optimum heat loss increases whereas the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness decreases with the increase of fin volume.

Keywords: A triangular fin, Convection characteristic number, Heat loss, Fin base thickness.

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965 Hybrid System Configurations and Charging Strategies for Isolated Electric Tuk-Tuk Charging Station in South Africa

Authors: L. Bokopane, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaark

Abstract:

The success of renewable powered electric vehicle charging station in isolated areas depends highly on the availability and sustainability of renewable resources all year round at a selected location. The main focus of this paper is to discuss the possible charging strategies that could be implemented to find the best possible configuration of an electric Tuk-Tuk charging station at a given location within South Africa. The charging station is designed, modeled and simulated to evaluate its performances. The technoeconomic analysis of different feasible supply configurations of the charging station using renewable energies is simulated using HOMER software and the results compared in order to select the best possible charging strategies in terms of cost of energy consumed.

Keywords: Electric Tuk-Tuk, Renewable energy, Energy Storage, Hybrid systems, HOMER.

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964 A Study of Flow and Sedimentation at the Basins of Khoozestan Province Rivers: A Case Study of Boneh Basht Pumping Station

Authors: Emad Hazbkhah. Abdolreza zahiri, Hossein ghorbanizade kharazi

Abstract:

The present paper is a case study about exploitation of Kheir Abad river (Khoozestan, Iran) water resources and the problems caused by river sediments around the pumping stations. The weak points and strong points of Boneh Basht pumping station have been studied by experienced experts, work teams, and consulting engineers and technical and executive solutions have been suggested. Therefore, the suggestions of this article are based on the performed studies and are proposed in order to evaluate the logical solutions. Rather complicated processes resulting from the interaction of water flows and sediments observed at Boneh Basht pumping station occur at other pumping stations in almost the same way. Therefore, Boneh Basht pumping station can be selected as a sample (pilot) and up-to-date theories and experiences can be applied to this station and the results can be offered to other stations.

Keywords: Boneh Basht , Iran , Pumping Station, Sedimentation

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963 Design Method for Knowledge Base Systems in Education Using COKB-ONT

Authors: Nhon Do, Tuyen Trong Tran, Phan Hoai Truong

Abstract:

Nowadays e-Learning is more popular, in Vietnam especially. In e-learning, materials for studying are very important. It is necessary to design the knowledge base systems and expert systems which support for searching, querying, solving of problems. The ontology, which was called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology (COB-ONT), is a useful tool for designing knowledge base systems in practice. In this paper, a design method for knowledge base systems in education using COKB-ONT will be presented. We also present the design of a knowledge base system that supports studying knowledge and solving problems in higher mathematics.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, knowledge base systems, ontology, educational software.

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