Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10985

Search results for: production rate

10985 Using the Simple Fixed Rate Approach to Solve Economic Lot Scheduling Problem under the Basic Period Approach

Authors: Yu-Jen Chang, Yun Chen, Hei-Lam Wong


The Economic Lot Scheduling Problem (ELSP) is a valuable mathematical model that can support decision-makers to make scheduling decisions. The basic period approach is effective for solving the ELSP. The assumption for applying the basic period approach is that a product must use its maximum production rate to be produced. However, a product can lower its production rate to reduce the average total cost when a facility has extra idle time. The past researches discussed how a product adjusts its production rate under the common cycle approach. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have addressed how a product lowers its production rate under the basic period approach. This research is the first paper to discuss this topic. The research develops a simple fixed rate approach that adjusts the production rate of a product under the basic period approach to solve the ELSP. Our numerical example shows our approach can find a better solution than the traditional basic period approach. Our mathematical model that applies the fixed rate approach under the basic period approach can serve as a reference for other related researches.

Keywords: economic lot, basic period, genetic algorithm, fixed rate

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10984 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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10983 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural


The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
10982 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, Vijay Kumar, M. A. Mir, Rakesh Kumar


Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: life time, pregnancy rate, production, service period, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
10981 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa


This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
10980 Evaluation of Critical Rate in Mature Oil Field with Dynamic Oil Rim Fluid Contacts in the Niger Delta

Authors: Stanley Ibuchukwu Onwukwe


Most reservoir in mature oil fields are vulnerable to challenges of water and/or gas coning as the size of their oil column reduces due to long period of oil production. These often result to low oil production and excessive water and/or gas production. Since over 50 years of oil production in the Niger delta, it is apparent that most of the oil fields in the region have reached their mature stages, thereby susceptible to coning tendencies. As a result of these, a good number of wells have been shut-in and abandoned, with significant amount of oil left unproduced. Analysis of the movement of fluid contacts in the reservoir is a significant aspect of reservoir studies and can assist in the management of coning tendencies and production performance of reservoirs in a mature field. This study, therefore, seeks to evaluate the occurrence of coning through the movement of fluid contacts (GOC and OWC) and determine the critical rate for controlling coning tendencies in mature oil field. This study applies the principle of Nodal analysis to calibrate the thin oil column of a reservoir of a mature field, and was graphically evaluated using the Joshi’s equation of critical rate for gas-oil system and oil-water system respectively. A representative Proxy equation was developed and sensitivity analysis carried out to determine the trend of critical rate as the oil column is been depleted. The result shows the trend in the movement of the GOC and OWC, and the critical rate, beyond which will result in excessive water and gas production, resulting to decreasing oil production from the reservoir. This result of this study can be used as a first pass assessment in the development of mature oil field reservoirs anticipated to experience water and/or gas coning during production.

Keywords: coning, fluid contact movement, mature oil field, oil production

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10979 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim


Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluent

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10978 A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test

Authors: Ji Hun Choi, Seung Un Chae, Kyeong Suk Cho


Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.

Keywords: synthetic resins, fire test, full-scale test, heat release rate, smoke production rate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, urethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
10977 The Effect of Magnetite Particle Size on Methane Production by Fresh and Degassed Anaerobic Sludge

Authors: E. Al-Essa, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-supplementation (7 mM) on methane production from digested sludge undergoing two different microbial growth phases, namely fresh sludge (exponential growth phase) and degassed sludge (endogenous decay phase). Three different particle sizes were assessed: small (50 - 150 nm), medium (168 – 490 nm) and large (800 nm - 4.5 µm) particles. Results show that, in the case of the fresh sludge, magnetite significantly enhanced the methane production rate (up to 32%) and reduced the lag phase (by 15% - 41%) as compared to the control, regardless of the particle size used. However, the cumulative methane produced at the end of the incubation was comparable in all treatment and control bottles. In the case of the degassed sludge, only the medium-sized magnetite particles increased significantly the methane production rate (12% higher) as compared to the control. Small and large particles had little effect on the methane production rate but did result in an extended lag phase which led to significantly lower cumulative methane production at the end of the incubation period. These results suggest that magnetite produces a clear and positive effect on methane production only when an active and balanced microbial community is present in the anaerobic digester. It is concluded that, (i) the effect of magnetite particle size on increasing the methane production rate and reducing lag phase duration is strongly influenced by the initial metabolic state of the microbial consortium, and (ii) the particle size would positively affect the methane production if it is provided within the nanometer size range.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, iron oxide, methanogenesis, nanoparticle

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10976 Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation

Authors: S. Jaikeaw, S. Chavadej


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.

Keywords: hydrogen and methane production, ethanol wastewater, a two-stage upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) system, mesophillic temperature, microbial concentration (MLVSS), micronutrients

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10975 Interest Rate Prediction with Taylor Rule

Authors: T. Bouchabchoub, A. Bendahmane, A. Haouriqui, N. Attou


This paper presents simulation results of Forex predicting model equations in order to give approximately a prevision of interest rates. First, Hall-Taylor (HT) equations have been used with Taylor rule (TR) to adapt them to European and American Forex Markets. Indeed, initial Taylor Rule equation is conceived for all Forex transactions in every States: It includes only one equation and six parameters. Here, the model has been used with Hall-Taylor equations, initially including twelve equations which have been reduced to only three equations. Analysis has been developed on the following base macroeconomic variables: Real change rate, investment wages, anticipated inflation, realized inflation, real production, interest rates, gap production and potential production. This model has been used to specifically study the impact of an inflation shock on macroeconomic director interest rates.

Keywords: interest rate, Forex, Taylor rule, production, European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (FED).

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10974 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie


Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

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10973 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major


Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

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10972 Acclimatation of Bacterial Communities for Biohydrogen Production by Co-Digestion Process in Batch and Continuous Systems

Authors: Gómez Romero Jacob, García Peña Elvia Inés


The co-digestion process of crude cheese whey (CCW) with fruit vegetable waste (FVW) for biohydrogen production was investigated in batch and continuous systems, in stirred 1.8 L bioreactors at 37°C. Five different C/N ratios (7, 17, 21, 31, and 46) were tested in batch systems. While, in continuous system eight conditions were evaluated, hydraulic retention time (from 60 to 10 h) and organic load rate (from 21.96 to 155.87 g COD/L d). Data in batch tests showed a maximum specific biohydrogen production rate of 10.68 mmol H2/Lh and a biohydrogen yield of 449.84 mL H2/g COD at a C/N ratio of 21. In continuous co-digestion system, the optimum hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate were 17.5 h and 80.02 g COD/L d, respectively. Under these conditions, the highest volumetric production hydrogen rate (VPHR) and hydrogen yield were 11.02 mmol H2/L h, 800 mL H2/COD, respectively. A pyrosequencing analysis showed that the main acclimated microbial communities for co-digestion studies consisted of Bifidobacterium, with 85.4% of predominance. Hydrogen producing bacteria such as Klebsiella (9.1%), Lactobacillus (0.97%), Citrobacter (0.21%), Enterobacter (0.27%), and Clostridium (0.18%) were less abundant at this culture period. The microbial population structure was correlated with the lactate, acetate, and butyrate profiles obtained. Results demonstrated that the co-digestion of CCW with FVW improves biohydrogen production due to a better nutrient balance and improvement of the system’s buffering capacity.

Keywords: acclimatation, biohydrogen, co-digestion, microbial community

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10971 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami


Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
10970 Experimental Study on a Solar Heat Concentrating Steam Generator

Authors: Qiangqiang Xu, Xu Ji, Jingyang Han, Changchun Yang, Ming Li


Replacing of complex solar concentrating unit, this paper designs a solar heat-concentrating medium-temperature steam-generating system. Solar radiation is collected by using a large solar collecting and heat concentrating plate and is converged to the metal evaporating pipe with high efficient heat transfer. In the meantime, the heat loss is reduced by employing a double-glazed cover and other heat insulating structures. Thus, a high temperature is reached in the metal evaporating pipe. The influences of the system's structure parameters on system performance are analyzed. The steam production rate and the steam production under different solar irradiance, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate area, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate temperature and heat loss are obtained. The results show that when solar irradiance is higher than 600 W/m2, the effective heat collecting area is 7.6 m2 and the double-glazing cover is adopted, the system heat loss amount is lower than the solar irradiance value. The stable steam is produced in the metal evaporating pipe at 100 ℃, 110 ℃, and 120 ℃, respectively. When the average solar irradiance is about 896 W/m2, and the steaming cumulative time is about 5 hours, the daily steam production of the system is about 6.174 kg. In a single day, the solar irradiance is larger at noon, thus the steam production rate is large at that time. Before 9:00 and after 16:00, the solar irradiance is smaller, and the steam production rate is almost 0.

Keywords: heat concentrating, heat loss, medium temperature, solar steam production

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10969 Investigation of Polar Atmospheric Response to the Intense Geo-Space Activities

Authors: Jayanta K. Behera, Ashwini K. Sinha


The study has pointed out the relationship of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) during high speed solar wind streams (HSS) to the ionization characteristics and subsequent NOx production in the polar atmosphere. Over the last few decades, it has been shown that production of NOx in the mesosphere region during the precipitation of charged particles (with energy range >30 KeV to 1 MeV) is directly related to the ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere, extending from mesosphere to upper stratosphere. This study has dealt with the analysis of the interplanetary parameters such as interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind velocity (Vs), charged particle density (Ns), convection field enhancement (Ec) during such HSS events and their link to the rate of production of NOx in the mesosphere. Moreover, the analysis will be used to validate or, to modify the current ion-chemistry models which describe the ionization rate and NOx production in the polar atmosphere due to EPP.

Keywords: energetic particle precipitation (EPP), NOx, ozone depletion, polar vortex

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10968 CO₂ Capture by Membrane Applied to Steel Production Process

Authors: Alexandra-Veronica Luca, Letitia Petrescu


Steel production is a major contributor to global warming potential. An average value of 1.83 tons of CO₂ is emitted for every ton of steel produced, resulting in over 3.3 Mt of CO₂ emissions each year. The present paper is focused on the investigation and comparison of two O₂ separation methods and two CO₂ capture technologies applicable to the iron and steel industry. The O₂ used in steel production comes from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) using distillation or from air separation using membranes. The CO₂ capture technologies are represented by a two-stage membrane separation process and the gas-liquid absorption using methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA). Process modeling and simulation tools, as well as environmental tools, are used in the present study. The production capacity of the steel mill is 4,000,000 tones/year. In order to compare the two CO₂ capture technologies in terms of efficiency, performance and sustainability, the following cases have been investigated: Case 1: steel production using O₂ from ASU and no CO₂ capture; Case 2: steel production using O₂ from ASU and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture; Case 3: steel production using O₂ from ASU and membranes for CO₂ capture; Case 4: steel production using O₂ from membrane separation method and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture and Case 5: steel production using membranes for air separation and CO₂ capture. The O₂ separation rate obtained in the distillation technology was about 96% and about 33% in the membrane technology. Similarly, the O₂ purity resulted in the conventional process (i.e., distillation) is higher compared to the O₂ purity obtained in the membrane unit (e.g., 99.50% vs. 73.66%). The air flow-rate required for membrane separation is about three times higher compared to the air flow-rate for cryogenic distillation (e.g., 549,096.93 kg/h vs. 189,743.82 kg/h). A CO₂ capture rate of 93.97% was obtained in the membrane case while the CO₂ capture rate for the gas-liquid absorption was 89.97%. A quantity of 6,626.49 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 95.45% is separated from the total 23,352.83 kg/h flue-gas in the membrane process while with absorption 6,173.94 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 98.79% is obtained from 21,902.04 kg/h flue-gas and 156,041.80 kg/h MDEA is recycled. The simulation results, performed using ChemCAD process simulator software, lead to the conclusion that membrane-based technology can be a suitable alternative for CO₂ removal for steel production. An environmental evaluation using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was also performed. Considering the electricity consumption, performance and environmental indicators, Case 3 can be considered the most effective. The environmental evaluation, performed using GaBi software, shows that membrane technology can lead to lower environmental emissions if membrane production is based on benzene derived from toluene hydrodealkilation, and chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced using mixed technologies.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, gas-liquid absorption, Life Cycle Assessment, membrane separation, steel production

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10967 Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces

Authors: A. Kazemi Jouybari, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani


This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.

Keywords: condensation, numerical solution, analytical solution, entropy rate

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10966 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: energy and mass conservation, specific growth rate, thermophilic bacteria, temperature, rate of bio gas production

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10965 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin


Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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10964 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili


The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: broiler, feed physical quality, hardness, processing parameters, PDI

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10963 Productivity and Structural Design of Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Ryspek Usubamatov, Tan San Chin, Sarken Kapaeva


Productivity of the manufacturing systems depends on technological processes, a technical data of machines and a structure of systems. Technology is presented by the machining mode and data, a technical data presents reliability parameters and auxiliary time for discrete production processes. The term structure of manufacturing systems includes the number of serial and parallel production machines and links between them. Structures of manufacturing systems depend on the complexity of technological processes. Mathematical models of productivity rate for manufacturing systems are important attributes that enable to define best structure by criterion of a productivity rate. These models are important tool in evaluation of the economical efficiency for production systems.

Keywords: productivity, structure, manufacturing systems, structural design

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10962 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Obiora E. Anisiji, Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas plant, biogas production, bio-reactor, energy, fermentation, rate of production, temperature, therm

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10961 Effect of Aeration on Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation

Authors: Azila Adnan, Giridhar R. Nair, Mark C. Lay, Janis E. Swan


The effect of aeration on bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 was studied in 5-L bioreactor. Four aeration rates were applied (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) in the fermentation media at constant agitation rate, 150 rpm. One vvm enhanced BC concentration (4.4 g/L) and productivity (0.44 g/L/day) while greater agitation rate (1.5 vvm) decreased BC concentration (4.0 g/L) and productivity (0.40 g/L/day).

Keywords: aeration, bacterial cellulose, fermentation, gluconacetobacter xylinus

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10960 The Study on Energy Saving in Clarification Process for Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Wiwat Onnakklum


Clarification is the turbidity removal process of water treatment plant. This paper was to study the factors affecting on energy consumption in order to control energy saving strategy. The factors studied were raw water turbidity in the range of 26-40 NTU and production rate in the range of 3.76-5.20 m³/sec. Clarifiers were sludge blanket and sludge recirculation clarifier. Experimental results found that the raw water turbidity was not affected significantly by energy consumption, while the production rate was affected significantly by energy consumption. Sludge blanket clarifier provided lower energy consumption than sludge recirculation clarifier about 32-37%. Subsequently, the operating pattern in production rate can be arranged to decreased energy consumption. The results showed that it can be reduced about 5.09 % of energy saving of clarification process about 754,655 Baht per year.

Keywords: sludge blanket clarifier, sludge recirculation clarifier, water treatment plant, energy

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10959 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali


Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.

Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visit

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10958 Optimization of Monascus Orange Pigments Production Using pH-Controlled Fed-Batch Fermentation

Authors: Young Min Kim, Deokyeong Choe, Chul Soo Shin


Monascus pigments, commonly used as a natural colorant in Asia, have many biological activities, such as cholesterol level control, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant, that have recently been elucidated. Especially, amino acid derivatives of Monascus pigments are receiving much attention because they have higher biological activities than original Monascus pigments. Previously, there have been two ways to produce amino acid derivatives: one-step production and two-step production. However, the one-step production has low purity, and the two-step production—precursor(orange pigments) fermentation and derivatives synthesis—has low productivity and growth rate during its precursor fermentation step. In this study, it was verified that pH is a key factor that affects the stability of orange pigments and the growth rate of Monascus. With an optimal pH profile obtained by pH-stat fermentation, we designed a process of precursor(orange pigments) fermentation that is a pH-controlled fed-batch fermentation. The final concentration of orange pigments in this process increased to 5.5g/L which is about 30% higher than the concentration produced from the previously used precursor fermentation step.

Keywords: cultivation process, fed-batch fermentation, monascus pigments, pH stability

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10957 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu


Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/ The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

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10956 An Economic Study for Fish Production in Egypt

Authors: Manal Elsayed Elkheshin, Rasha Saleh Mansour, Mohamed Fawzy Mohamed Eldnasury, Mamdouh Elbadry Mohamed


This research Aims to identify the main factors affecting the production and the fish consumption in Egypt, through the econometric estimation for various forms functions of fish production and fish consumption during the period (1991-2014), as the aim of this research to forecast the production and the fish consumption in Egypt until 2020, through determine the best standard methods using (ARIMA).This research also aims to the economic feasibility of the production of fish in aquaculture farms study; investment cost and represents the value of land, buildings, equipment and irrigation. Aquaculture requires three types of fish (Tilapia, carp fish, and mullet fish), and the total area of the farm, about an acre. The annual Fish production from this project about 3.5 tons. The annual investment costs of about 50500 pounds, Find conclude that the project can repay the cost of their investments after about 4 years and 5 months, and therefore recommend the implementation of the project, and internal rate of return reached (IRR) of about 22.1%, where it is clear that the rate of large internal rate of return, and achieves pound invested in this project annual return is estimated at 22.1 pounds, more than the opportunity cost, so we recommend the need to implement the project.Recommendations:1. Increasing the fish agriculture to decrease the gap of animal protein. 2.Increasing the number of mechanism fishing boats, and the provision of transport equipped to maintain the quality of fish production. 3.Encourage and attract the local and foreign investments, providing advice to the investor on the aquaculture field. 4. Action newsletters awareness of the importance of these projects where these projects resulted in a net profit after recovery in less than five years, IRR amounted to about 23%, which is much more than the opportunity cost of a bank interest rate is about 7%, helping to create work and graduates opportunities, and contribute to the reduction of imports of the fish, and improve the performance of the food trade balance.

Keywords: equation model, individual share, red meat, consumption, production, endogenous variable, exogenous variable, financial performance evaluates fish culture, feasibility study, fish production, aquaculture

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