Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 358

Search results for: ozone depletion

358 Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area

Authors: S. Dey, P. Sibanda, S. Gupta, A. Chakraborty

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The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime.

Keywords: nocturnal ozone, planetary boundary layer, horizontal transport, meteorology, urban area

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357 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov

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The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: lidar, ozone distribution, atmosphere, DIAL

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356 Climate Change and Food Security: Effects of Ozone on Crops in North-West Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nauman Ahmad, Patrick Büker, Sofia Khalid, Leon Van Den Berg, Hamid Ullah Shah, Abdul Wahid, Lisa Emberson, Sally A. Power, Mike Ashmore

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Although ozone is well-documented to affect crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects around cities in more remote areas of South Asia. We surveyed crops around the city of Peshawar, Pakistan for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found in the field on potato, onion and cotton when the mean monthly ozone concentration reached 35-55ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60ppb and above significantly reduce the growth of Pakistani varieties of both spinach (Beta vulgaris) and onion. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations in Peshawar are comparable to those through many parts of northern south Asia, where ozone may therefore be a significant threat to sensitive vegetable crops in peri-urban regions.

Keywords: ozone, air pollution, vegetable crops, peshawar, south asia

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355 Carbon Sequestering And Structural Capabilities Of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy

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Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

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354 Clouds Influence on Atmospheric Ozone from GOME-2 Satellite Measurements

Authors: S. M. Samkeyat Shohan

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This study is mainly focused on the determination and analysis of the photolysis rate of atmospheric, specifically tropospheric, ozone as function of cloud properties through-out the year 2007. The observational basis for ozone concentrations and cloud properties are the measurement data set of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sensor on board the polar orbiting Metop-A satellite. Two different spectral ranges are used; ozone total column are calculated from the wavelength window 325 – 335 nm, while cloud properties, such as cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical thick-ness (COT) are derived from the absorption band of molecular oxygen centered at 761 nm. Cloud fraction (CF) is derived from measurements in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared range of GOME-2. First, ozone concentrations above clouds are derived from ozone total columns, subtracting the contribution of stratospheric ozone and filtering those satellite measurements which have thin and low clouds. Then, the values of ozone photolysis derived from observations are compared with theoretical modeled results, in the latitudinal belt 5˚N-5˚S and 20˚N - 20˚S, as function of CF and COT. In general, good agreement is found between the data and the model, proving both the quality of the space-borne ozone and cloud properties as well as the modeling theory of ozone photolysis rate. The found discrepancies can, however, amount to approximately 15%. Latitudinal seasonal changes of photolysis rate of ozone are found to be negatively correlated to changes in upper-tropospheric ozone concentrations only in the autumn and summer months within the northern and southern tropical belts, respectively. This fact points to the entangled roles of temperature and nitrogen oxides in the ozone production, which are superimposed on its sole photolysis induced by thick and high clouds in the tropics.

Keywords: cloud properties, photolysis rate, stratospheric ozone, tropospheric ozone

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353 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii

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Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
352 Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with Alternate Refrigerants

Authors: K. Parthiban, P. Pradeep, I. Pon Surya Prakash, S. Vinoth, A. Murugan

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The main aim of this project is to analyze the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system with alternate refrigerants. Currently we are using R134a as refrigerant. It is used in both household and industrial appliances as refrigerant. It has an advantage that the ozone depletion potential is zero i.e. R134a does not affects ozone layer. But its Global warming potential is considerably high. Also the compressor failure occurs frequently. Hence this project deals with how the performance of R134a varies with blended refrigerants such as R416a and R407c. This analysis is based on how much the Co-efficient of Performance (COP) varies with different refrigerants.

Keywords: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator

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351 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi

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The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
350 Efficient Compact Micro Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Reactor for Ozone Generation for Industrial Application in Liquid and Gas Phase Systems

Authors: D. Kuvshinov, A. Siswanto, J. Lozano-Parada, W. Zimmerman

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Ozone is well known as a powerful fast reaction rate oxidant. The ozone based processes produce no by-product left as a non-reacted ozone returns back to the original oxygen molecule. Therefore an application of ozone is widely accepted as one of the main directions for a sustainable and clean technologies development. There are number of technologies require ozone to be delivered to specific points of a production network or reactors construction. Due to space constrains, high reactivity and short life time of ozone the use of ozone generators even of a bench top scale is practically limited. This requires development of mini/micro scale ozone generator which can be directly incorporated into production units. Our report presents a feasibility study of a new micro scale rector for ozone generation (MROG). Data on MROG calibration and indigo decomposition at different operation conditions are presented. At selected operation conditions with residence time of 0.25 s the process of ozone generation is not limited by reaction rate and the amount of ozone produced is a function of power applied. It was shown that the MROG is capable to produce ozone at voltage level starting from 3.5kV with ozone concentration of 5.28E-6 (mol/L) at 5kV. This is in line with data presented on numerical investigation for a MROG. It was shown that in compare to a conventional ozone generator, MROG has lower power consumption at low voltages and atmospheric pressure. The MROG construction makes it applicable for emerged and dry systems. With a robust compact design MROG can be used as incorporated unit for production lines of high complexity.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), micro reactor, ozone, plasma

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349 Impact of Ozone Produced by Vehicular Emission on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Mohd Kamil Vakil

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Air Pollution is caused by the introduction of chemicals in the biosphere. Primary pollutants on reaction with the components of the earth produce Secondary Pollutants like Smog. Ozone is the main ingredient of Smog. The ground level ozone is created by the chemical reactions between Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of Sunlight. This ozone can enter inside and call as indoor ozone. The automobile emissions in both moving and idling conditions contribute to the indoor ozone formation. During engine ignition and shutdown, motor vehicles emit the ozone forming pollutants like NOx and VOCs, and the phenomena are called Cold Start and Hot-Soak respectively. Subjects like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma associated with chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible to the harmful effects of Indoor Ozone. The most common cause of COPD other than smoking is the long-term contract with harmful pollutants like ground-level ozone. It is estimated by WHO that COPD will become the third leading cause of all deaths worldwide by 2030. In this paper, the cold-start and hot-soak vehicle emissions are studied in the context of accumulation of oxides of nitrogen at the outer walls of the building which may cause COPD. The titanium oxide coated building material is further discussed as an absorber of NOx when applied to the walls and roof.

Keywords: indoor air quality, cold start emission, hot-soak, ozone

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348 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa

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Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption

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347 Investigation of Polar Atmospheric Response to the Intense Geo-Space Activities

Authors: Jayanta K. Behera, Ashwini K. Sinha

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The study has pointed out the relationship of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) during high speed solar wind streams (HSS) to the ionization characteristics and subsequent NOx production in the polar atmosphere. Over the last few decades, it has been shown that production of NOx in the mesosphere region during the precipitation of charged particles (with energy range >30 KeV to 1 MeV) is directly related to the ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere, extending from mesosphere to upper stratosphere. This study has dealt with the analysis of the interplanetary parameters such as interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind velocity (Vs), charged particle density (Ns), convection field enhancement (Ec) during such HSS events and their link to the rate of production of NOx in the mesosphere. Moreover, the analysis will be used to validate or, to modify the current ion-chemistry models which describe the ionization rate and NOx production in the polar atmosphere due to EPP.

Keywords: energetic particle precipitation (EPP), NOx, ozone depletion, polar vortex

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346 Depletion Layer Parameters of Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS Structures

Authors: A. C. Sarmah

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The Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS sandwich structures were fabricated by vacuum deposition method on cleaned glass substrates. Capacitance versus voltage measurements were performed at different frequencies and sweep rates of applied voltages for oxide and semiconductor films of different thicknesses. In the negative voltage region of the C-V curve a high differential capacitance of the semiconductor was observed and at high frequencies (<10 kHz) the transition from accumulation to depletion and further to deep depletion was observed as the voltage was swept from negative to positive. A study have been undertaken to determine the value of acceptor density and some depletion layer parameters such as depletion layer capacitance, depletion width, impurity concentration, flat band voltage, Debye length, flat band capacitance, diffusion or built-in-potential, space charge per unit area etc. These were determined from C-V measurements for different oxide and semiconductor thicknesses.

Keywords: debye length, depletion width, flat band capacitance, impurity concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
345 Climate Change, Global Warming and Future of Our Planet

Authors: Indu Gupta

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Climate change and global warming is most burning issue for “our common future”. For this common global interest. Countries organize conferences of government and nongovernment type. Human being destroying the non-renewable resources and polluting the renewable resources of planet for economic growth. Air pollution is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change .Due to global warming ice glaciers are shrinking and melting. Forests are shrinking, deserts expanding and soil eroding. The depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is depleting and hole in ozone layer that protect us from harmful ultra violet radiation. Extreme high temperature in summer and extreme low temperature and smog in winters, floods in rainy season. These all are indication of climate change. The level of carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases in the atmosphere is increasing at high speed. Nation’s are worried about environmental degradation.

Keywords: environmental degradation, global warming, soil eroding, ultra-Violate radiation

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344 Influence of UV/Ozone Treatment on the Electrical Performance of Polystyrene Buffered Pentacene-Based OFETs

Authors: Lin Gong, Holger Göbel

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In the present study, we have investigated the influence of UV/ozone treatment on pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a bilayer gate dielectric. The OFETs for this study were fabricated on heavily n-doped Si substrates with a thermally deposited SiO2 dielectric layer (300nm). On the SiO2 dielectric a very thin (≈ 15nm) buffer layer of polystyrene (PS) was first spin-coated and then treated by UV/ozone to modify the surface prior to the deposition of pentacene. We found out that by extending the UV/ozone treatment time the threshold voltage of the OFETs was monotonically shifted towards positive values, whereas the field effect mobility first decreased but eventually reached a stable value after a treatment time of approximately thirty seconds. Since the field effect mobility of the UV/ozone treated bilayer OFETs was found to be higher than the value of a comparable transistor with a single layer dielectric, we propose that the bilayer (SiO2/PS) structure can be used to shift the threshold voltage to a desired value without sacrificing field effect mobility.

Keywords: buffer layer, organic field effect transistors, threshold voltage, UV/ozone treatment

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343 Comparative Study of Ozone Based AOP's for Mineralization of Reactive Black 5

Authors: Sandip Sharma, Jayesh Ruparelia

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The present work focuses on the comparative study of ozone based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): O3, O3/UV and O3/UV/Persulfate for mineralization of synthetic wastewater containing Reactive Black5 (RB5) dye. The effect of various parameters: pH, ozone flow rate, initial concentration of dye and intensity of UV light was analyzed to access performance efficiency of AOPs. The performance of all the three AOPs was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, % TOC removal and ozone consumption. The highest mineralization rate of 86.83% was achieved for O3/UV/Persulfate followed by 71.53% and 66.82 % for O3/UV and O3 respectively. This is attributed to the fact that Persulfate ions (S2O82-) upon activation produce sulfate radical (SO4-●) which is very strong oxidant capable of degrading a wide variety of recalcitrant organic compounds, moreover to enhance the performance of Persulfate it is activated using UV irradiation. On increasing the intensity of UV irradiation from 11W to 66W, TOC removal efficiency is increased by 59.04%. Ozone based AOPs gives better mineralization on basic conditions, at pH 12 it gives 68.81%, 60.01% and 40.32% TOC removal for O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. The result also reveals that decolorization of 98.95%, 95.17% and 94.71% was achieved by O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. In addition to above, ozone consumption was also considerably decreased by 17% in case of O3/UV/Persulfate, as efficiency of process is enhanced by means of activation of persulfate through UV irradiation. Thus study reveals that mineralization follows: O3/UV/Persulfate> O3/UV> O3.

Keywords: AOP, mineralization, TOC, recalcitrant organic compounds

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342 Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products

Authors: C. W. Kan, H. F. Cheung, Y. S. Lee

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This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.

Keywords: learning materials, colour fading, colour properties, fashion products

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341 Urban Vegetative Planning for Ambient Ozone Pollution: An Eco-Management Approach

Authors: M. Anji Reddy, R. Uma Devi

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Environmental planning for urban development is very much needed to reduce air pollution through the enhancement of vegetative cover in the cities like Hyderabad. This can be mainly based on the selection of appropriate native plant species as bioindicators to assess the impact of ambient Ozone. In the present study, tolerant species are suggested aimed to reduce the magnitude of ambient ozone concentrations which not only increase eco-friendly vegetation but also moderate air pollution. Hyderabad city is divided into 5 zones based on Land Use/Land Cover category further each zone divided into residential, traffic, industrial, and peri-urban areas. Highest ambient ozone levels are recorded in Industrial areas followed by traffic areas in the entire study area ( > 180 µg/m3). Biomonitoring of selected sixteen local urban plant species with the help of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) showed its susceptibility to air pollution. Statistical regression models in between the tolerant plant species and ambient ozone levels suggested five plant species namely Azardirachta indica A. Juss which have a high tolerant response to ambient ozone followed by Delonix regia Hook. along with Millingtonia hortensis L.f., Alestonia Scholaries L., and Samania saman Jacq. in the industrial and traffic areas of the study area to mitigate ambient Ozone pollution and also to improve urban greenery.

Keywords: air pollution tolerance index, bio-indicators, eco-friendly vegetation, urban greenery

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340 Effect of Different Ozone Doses on Antioxidant Activity in Different Tomato Tissues and at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Shalluf Milad

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Tomatoes are widely produced and consumed due to their nutritional content and versatility. However, the tomato is a soft fruit liable to damage and flavour deterioration. Hence, the main challenge for the tomato producing industry is to prevent the high loss incurred during harvest, handling and transportation of the crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall nutritional implication of controlled storage of tomatoes using ozone on the basic nutritional components of tomatoes. This investigation was also designed to focus on the effect of different ozone doses on the basic components (antioxidant activity). Green, yellow and red stages of ripeness (elegance tomatoes), were harvested at different dates for each experiment. The tomatoes were cleaned and placed inside the glass reactors and ozonated at 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes and clean air respectively for 5 days at 15°C ± 2 and 90-95 % relative humidity respectively. The fruits were analysed for total antioxidant activity. Analysis of the fruits clearly showed that antioxidant activity in the pericarp tissue was the lowest (P<0.001) compared with the pulp tissue of tomatoes during storage in the red stage of maturity, after being treated with ozone in the atmosphere of storage in a dose of 1.00 mgO3/g tomatoes. It can be concluded from this study that the use of ozone in the atmospheres of storage and handling of fresh products maintains the important compounds of these products while maintaining the nutritional value and health quality.

Keywords: post-harvest treatment, controlled atmosphere storage, ozone, tomatoes, antioxidant activity

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339 Investigation in Gassy Ozone Influence on Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains Quality Parameters

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Jelena Zagorska, Elina Zvezdina

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The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on in year 2012 harvested wheat grains variety ′Zentos′. Grains were washed, wetted; grain biological activation was performed in the climatic chamber up to 24 hours. After biological activation grains was compressed; than flaxes was dried in convective drier till constant moisture content 9±1%. For grain treatment gassy ozone concentration as 0.0002% and treatment time – 6 min was used. In the processed flaxes the content of A and G tocopherol decrease by 23% and by 9%; content of B2 and B6 vitamins – by 11% and by 10%; elaidic acid – by 46%, oleic acid – by 29%; arginine (by 80%), glutamine (by 74%), asparagine and serine (by 68%), valine (by 62%), cysteine (by 54%) and tyrosine (by 47%).

Keywords: gassy ozone, flaxes, biologically activated grains, quality parameters, treatment

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338 Analysis of Ozone Episodes in the Forest and Vegetation Areas with Using HYSPLIT Model: A Case Study of the North-West Side of Biga Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Deniz Sari, Selahattin İncecik, Nesimi Ozkurt

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Surface ozone, which named as one of the most critical pollutants in the 21th century, threats to human health, forest and vegetation. Specifically, in rural areas surface ozone cause significant influences on agricultural productions and trees. In this study, in order to understand to the surface ozone levels in rural areas we focus on the north-western side of Biga Peninsula which covers by the mountainous and forested area. Ozone concentrations were measured for the first time with passive sampling at 10 sites and two online monitoring stations in this rural area from 2013 and 2015. Using with the daytime hourly O3 measurements during light hours (08:00–20:00) exceeding the threshold of 40 ppb over the 3 months (May, June and July) for agricultural crops, and over the six months (April to September) for forest trees AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) cumulative index was calculated. AOT40 is defined by EU Directive 2008/50/EC to evaluate whether ozone pollution is a risk for vegetation, and is calculated by using hourly ozone concentrations from monitoring systems. In the present study, we performed the trajectory analysis by The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to follow the long-range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region. The ozone episodes observed between 2013 and 2015 were analysed using the HYSPLIT model developed by the NOAA-ARL. In addition, the cluster analysis is used to identify homogeneous groups of air mass transport patterns can be conducted through air trajectory clustering by grouping similar trajectories in terms of air mass movement. Backward trajectories produced for 3 years by HYSPLIT model were assigned to different clusters according to their moving speed and direction using a k-means clustering algorithm. According to cluster analysis results, northerly flows to study area cause to high ozone levels in the region. The results present that the ozone values in the study area are above the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

Keywords: AOT40, Biga Peninsula, HYSPLIT, surface ozone

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337 Sustainable Development Change within Our Environs

Authors: Akinwale Adeyinka

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Critical natural resources such as clean ground water, fertile topsoil, and biodiversity are diminishing at an exponential rate, orders of magnitude above that at which they can be regenerated. Based on news on world population record, over 6 billion people on earth, and almost a quarter million added each day, the scale of human activity and environmental impact is unprecedented. Soaring human population growth over the past century has created a visible challenge to earth’s life support systems. In addition, the world faces an onslaught of other environmental threats including degenerated global climate change, global warming, intensified acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and health threatening pollution. Overpopulation and the use of deleterious technologies combine to increase the scale of human activities to a level that underlies these entire problems. These intensifying trends cannot continue indefinitely, hopefully, through increased understanding and valuation of ecosystems and their services, earth’s basic life-support system will be protected for the future.To say the fact, human civilization is now the dominant cause of change in the global environment. Now that our relationship to the earth has change so utterly, we have to see that change and understand its implication. These are actually 2 aspects to the challenges which we should believe. The first is to realize that our power to harm the earth can indeed have global and even permanent effects. Second is to realize that the only way to understand our new role as a co-architect of nature is to see ourselves as part of a complex system that does operate according to the same simple rules of cause and effect we are used to. So understanding the physical/biological dimension of earth system is an important precondition for making sensible policy to protect our environment. Because we believe Sustainable Development Is a matter of reconciling respect for the environment, social equity and economic profitability. Also, we strongly believe that environmental protection is naturally about reducing air and water pollution, but it also includes the improvement of the environmental performance of existing process. That is why we should always have it at the heart of our business that the environmental problem is not our effect on the environment so much as our relationship with the environment. We should always think of being environmental friendly in our operation.

Keywords: Stratospheric ozone depletion ion , Climate Change, global warming, social equity and economic profitability

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336 An Improved Prediction Model of Ozone Concentration Time Series Based on Chaotic Approach

Authors: Nor Zila Abd Hamid, Mohd Salmi M. Noorani

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This study is focused on the development of prediction models of the Ozone concentration time series. Prediction model is built based on chaotic approach. Firstly, the chaotic nature of the time series is detected by means of phase space plot and the Cao method. Then, the prediction model is built and the local linear approximation method is used for the forecasting purposes. Traditional prediction of autoregressive linear model is also built. Moreover, an improvement in local linear approximation method is also performed. Prediction models are applied to the hourly ozone time series observed at the benchmark station in Malaysia. Comparison of all models through the calculation of mean absolute error, root mean squared error and correlation coefficient shows that the one with improved prediction method is the best. Thus, chaotic approach is a good approach to be used to develop a prediction model for the Ozone concentration time series.

Keywords: chaotic approach, phase space, Cao method, local linear approximation method

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335 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain

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Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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334 Long-Term Variabilities and Tendencies in the Zonally Averaged TIMED-SABER Ozone and Temperature in the Middle Atmosphere over 10°N-15°N

Authors: Oindrila Nath, S. Sridharan

Abstract:

Long-term (2002-2012) temperature and ozone measurements by Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite zonally averaged over 10°N-15°N are used to study their long-term changes and their responses to solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The region is selected to provide more accurate long-term trends and variabilities, which were not possible earlier with lidar measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), which are limited to cloud-free nights, whereas continuous data sets of SABER temperature and ozone are available. Regression analysis of temperature shows a cooling trend of 0.5K/decade in the stratosphere and that of 3K/decade in the mesosphere. Ozone shows a statistically significant decreasing trend of 1.3 ppmv per decade in the mesosphere although there is a small positive trend in stratosphere at 25 km. Other than this no significant ozone trend is observed in stratosphere. Negative ozone-QBO response (0.02ppmv/QBO), positive ozone-solar cycle (0.91ppmv/100SFU) and negative response to ENSO (0.51ppmv/SOI) have been found more in mesosphere whereas positive ozone response to ENSO (0.23ppmv/SOI) is pronounced in stratosphere (20-30 km). The temperature response to solar cycle is more positive (3.74K/100SFU) in the upper mesosphere and its response to ENSO is negative around 80 km and positive around 90-100 km and its response to QBO is insignificant at most of the heights. Composite monthly mean of ozone volume mixing ratio shows maximum values during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in middle stratosphere (25-30 km) and in upper mesosphere (85-95 km) around 10 ppmv. Composite monthly mean of temperature shows semi-annual variation with large values (~250-260 K) in equinox months and less values in solstice months in upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (40-55 km) whereas the SAO becomes weaker above 55 km. The semi-annual variation again appears at 80-90 km, with large values in spring equinox and winter months. In the upper mesosphere (90-100 km), less temperature (~170-190 K) prevails in all the months except during September, when the temperature is slightly more. The height profiles of amplitudes of semi-annual and annual oscillations in ozone show maximum values of 6 ppmv and 2.5 ppmv respectively in upper mesosphere (80-100 km), whereas SAO and AO in temperature show maximum values of 5.8 K and 4.6 K in lower and middle mesosphere around 60-85 km. The phase profiles of both SAO and AO show downward progressions. These results are being compared with long-term lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and the results obtained will be presented during the meeting.

Keywords: trends, QBO, solar cycle, ENSO, ozone, temperature

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333 Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples

Authors: Rahil Malekipoor, Zora Singh, Alan Payne

Abstract:

Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.

Keywords: apple, cold storage, organic oil, ozone

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332 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2

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331 Microbubbles Enhanced Synthetic Phorbol Ester Degradation by Ozonolysis

Authors: D. Kuvshinov, A. Siswanto, W. Zimmerman

Abstract:

A phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) is a synthetic analogue of phorbol ester (PE), a natural toxic compound of Euphorbiaceae plant. The oil extracted from plants of this family is useful source for primarily biofuel. However this oil can also be used as a food stock due to its significant nutrition content. The limitations for utilizing the oil as a food stock are mainly due to a toxicity of PE. Nowadays a majority of PE detoxification processes are expensive as include multi steps alcohol extraction sequence. Ozone is considered as a strong oxidative agent. It reaction with PE it attacks the carbon double bond of PE. This modification of PE molecular structure results into nontoxic ester with high lipid content. This report presents data on development of simple and cheap PE detoxification process with water application as a buffer and ozone as reactive component. The core of this new technique is a simultaneous application of new microscale plasma unit for ozone production and patented gas oscillation technology. In combination with a reactor design the technology permits ozone injection to the water-TPA mixture in form of microbubbles. The efficacy of a heterogeneous process depends on diffusion coefficient which can be controlled by contact time and interface area. The low velocity of rising microbubbles and high surface to volume ratio allow fast mass transfer to be achieved during the process. Direct injection of ozone is the most efficient process for a highly reactive and short lived chemical. Data on the plasma unit behavior are presented and influence of the gas oscillation technology to the microbubbles production mechanism has been discussed. Data on overall process efficacy for TPA degradation is shown.

Keywords: microbubble, ozonolysis, synthetic phorbol ester, chemical engineering

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330 Ozone Therapy and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Interplay in Controlling Tumor Growth, Symptom and Pain Management: A Case Report

Authors: J. F. Pollo Gaspary, F. Peron Gaspary, E. M. Simão, R. Concatto Beltrame, G. Orengo de Oliveira, M. S. Ristow Ferreira, F. Sartori Thies, I. F. Minello, F. dos Santos de Oliveira

Abstract:

Background: The immune system has evolved several mechanisms to protect the host against cancer, and it has now been suggested that the expansion of its functions may prevent tumor growth and control the symptoms of cancer patients. Two techniques, ozone therapy and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), are independently associated with an increase in the immune system functions and they maybe help palliative care of patients in these conditions. Case Report: A patient with rectal adenocarcinoma with metastases decides to interrupt the clinical chemotherapy protocol due to refractoriness and side effects. As a palliative care alternative treatment it is suggested to the patient the use of ozone therapy associated with PEMF techniques. Results: The patient reports an improvement in well-being, in autonomy and in pain control. Imaging tests confirm a pause in tumor growth despite more than 60 days without using classic treatment. These results associated with palliative care alternative treatment stimulate the return to the chemotherapy protocol. Discussion: This case illustrates that these two techniques can contribute to the control of tumor growth and refractory symptoms, such as pain, probably by enhancing the immune system. Conclusions: The potential use of the combination of these two therapies, ozone therapy and PEMF therapy, can contribute to palliation of cancer patients, alone or in combination with pharmacological therapies. The conduct of future investigations on this paradigm can elucidate how much these techniques contribute to the survival and well-being of these patients.

Keywords: cancer, complementary and alternative medicine , ozone therapy, palliative care, PEMF therapy

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329 Application of the Least Squares Method in the Adjustment of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) Regression Models

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, V. S. Filho, J. V. Ferreira Nunes, G. C. Bergamo

Abstract:

There are many situations in which human activities have significant effects on the environment. Damage to the ozone layer is one of them. The objective of this work is to use the Least Squares Method, considering the linear, exponential, logarithmic, power and polynomial models of the second degree, to analyze through the coefficient of determination (R²), which model best fits the behavior of the chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) in parts per trillion between 1992 and 2018, as well as estimates of future concentrations between 5 and 10 periods, i.e. the concentration of this pollutant in the years 2023 and 2028 in each of the adjustments. A total of 809 observations of the concentration of HCFC-142b in one of the monitoring stations of gases precursors of the deterioration of the ozone layer during the period of time studied were selected and, using these data, the statistical software Excel was used for make the scatter plots of each of the adjustment models. With the development of the present study, it was observed that the logarithmic fit was the model that best fit the data set, since besides having a significant R² its adjusted curve was compatible with the natural trend curve of the phenomenon.

Keywords: chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b), ozone, least squares method, regression models

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