Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: A. K. Chakravarty

6 Respiratory Indices and Sports Performance: A Comparision between Different Levels Basketballers

Authors: Ranjan Chakravarty, Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan


The purpose of this study is to compare the basketball players of different level on selected respiratory indices. Ninety male basketball players from different universities those who participated in intercollegiate and inter- varsity championship. Selected respiratory indices were resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate. Mean and standard deviation of selected respiratory indices were calculated and three different levels i.e. beginners, intermediate and advanced were compared by using analysis of variance. In order to test the hypothesis, level of significance was set at 0.05. It was concluded that variability does not exist among the basketball players of different groups with respect to their selected respiratory indices i.e. resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate.

Keywords: respiratory indices, sports performance, basketball players, intervarsity level

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5 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, Vijay Kumar, M. A. Mir, Rakesh Kumar


Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: life time, pregnancy rate, production, service period, standardization

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4 2-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis on Sprint Start with Sprinting Performance of Novice Athletes

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan, Ranjan Chakravarty


The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of 2D kinematical selected variables on sprint start with sprinting performance of novice athletes. Six (3 National and 3 State level) athletes of sports authority of India, Guwahati has been selected for this study. The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of sprinters were age (17.44, 1.55), height (1.74m, .84m), weight (62.25 kg, 4.55), arm length (65.00 cm, 3.72) and leg length (96.35 cm, 2.71). Biokin-2D motion analysis system V4.5 can be used for acquiring two-dimensional kinematical data/variables on sprint start with Sprinting Performance. For the purpose of kinematic analysis a standard motion driven camera which frequency of the camera was 60 frame/ second i.e. handy camera of Sony Company were used. The sequence of photographic was taken under controlled condition. The distance of the camera from the athletes was 12 mts away and was fixed at 1.2-meter height. The result was found that National and State level athletes significant difference in there, trajectory knee, trajectory ankle, displacement knee, displacement ankle, linear velocity knee, linear velocity ankle, and linear acceleration ankle whereas insignificant difference was found between National and State level athletes in their linear acceleration knee joint on sprint start with sprinting performance. For all the Statistical test the level of significance was set at p<0.05.

Keywords: 2D kinematic analysis, sprinting performance, novice athletes, sprint start

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3 Lamivudine Continuation/Tenofovir Add-on Adversely Affects Treatment Response among Lamivudine Non-Responder HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients from Eastern India

Authors: Ananya Pal, Neelakshi Sarkar, Debraj Saha, Dipanwita Das, Subhashish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha, Runu Chakravarty


Presently, tenofovir disoproxil fumurate (TDF) is the most effective anti-viral agent for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in individuals co-infected with HIV and HBV as TDF has activity to suppress both wild-type and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant HBV. However, suboptimal response to TDF was reported in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals with prior 3TC therapy from different countries recently. The incidence of 3TC-resistant HBV strains is quite high in HIV-HBV co-infected patients experiencing long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in eastern India. In spite of this risk, most of the patients with long-term 3TC treatment are continued with the same anti-viral agent in this country. Only a few have received TDF in addition to 3TC in the ART regimen since TDF has been available in India for the treatment of HIV-infected patients in 2012. In this preliminary study, we investigated the virologic and biochemical parameters among HIV-HBV co-infected patients who are non-responders to 3TC treatment during the continuation of 3TC or TDF add-on to 3TC in their ART regimen. Fifteen HIV-HBV co-infected patients who experienced long-term 3TC (mean duration months 36.87 ± 24.08 months) were identified with high HBV viremia ( > 20,000 IU/ml) or harbouring 3TC-resistant HBV. These patients receiving ART from School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, the main ART centre in eastern India were followed-up semi-annually for next three visits. Different virologic parameters including quantification of plasma HBV load by real-time PCR, detection of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by commercial ELISA and anti-viral resistant mutations by sequencing were studied. During three follow-up among study subjects, 86%, 47%, and 43% had 3TC-mono-therapy (mean treatment-duration 41.54±18.84, 49.67±11.67, 54.17±12.37 months respectively) whereas 14%, 53%, and 57% experienced TDF in addition to 3TC (mean treatment duration 4.5±2.12, 16.56±11.06, and 23±4.07 months respectively). Mean CD4 cell-count in patients receiving 3TC was tended to be lower during third follow-up as compared to the first and the second [520.67±380.30 (1st), 454.8±196.90 (2nd), and 397.5±189.24 (3rd) cells/mm3) and similar trend was seen in patients experiencing TDF in addition to 3TC [334.5±330.218 (1st), 476.5±194.25 (2nd), and 461.17±269.89 (3rd) cells/mm3]. Serum HBV load was increased during successive follow-up of patients with 3TC-mono-therapy. Initiation of TDF lowered serum HBV-load among 3TC-non-responders at the time of second visit ( < 2,000 IU/ml), interestingly during third follow-up, mean HBV viremia increased >1 log IU/ml (mean 3.56±2.84 log IU/ml). Persistence of 3TC-resistant double and triple mutations was also observed in both the treatment regimens. Mean serum alanine aminotransferase remained elevated in these patients during this follow-up study. Persistence of high HBV viraemia and 3TC-resistant mutation in HBV during the continuation of 3TC might lead to major public health threat in India. The inclusion of TDF in the ART regimen of 3TC non-responder HIV-HBV co-infected patients showed adverse treatment response in terms of virologic and biochemical parameters. Therefore, serious attention is necessary for proper management of long-term 3TC experienced HIV-HBV co-infected patients with high HBV viraemia or 3TC-resistant HBV mutants in India.

Keywords: HBV, HIV, TDF, 3TC-resistant

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2 Genetic Screening of Sahiwal Bulls for Higher Fertility

Authors: Atul C. Mahajan, A. K. Chakravarty, V. Jamuna, C. S. Patil, Neeraj Kashyap, Bharti Deshmukh, Vijay Kumar


The selection of Sahiwal bulls on the basis of dams best lactation milk yield under breeding programme in herd of the country neglecting fertility traits leads to deterioration in their performances and economy. The goal of this study was to explore polymorphism of CRISP2 gene and their association with semen traits (Post Thaw Motility, Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test, Acrosome Integrity, DNA Fragmentation and capacitation status), scrotal circumference, expected predicted difference (EPD) for milk yield and fertility. Sahiwal bulls included in present study were 60 bulls used in breeding programme as well as 50 young bulls yet to be included in breeding programme. All the Sahiwal bulls were found to be polymorphic for CRISP2 gene (AA, AG and GG) present within exon 7 to the position 589 of CRISP2 mRNA by using PCR-SSCP and Sequencing. Semen analysis were done on 60 breeding bulls frozen semen doses pertaining to four season (winter, summer, rainy and autumn). The scrotal circumference was measured from existing Sahiwal breeding bulls in the herd (n=47). The effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits were studied by least-squares technique and the significant difference of means between subclasses of season, period, parity and age group were tested. The data were adjusted for the significant non-genetic factors to remove the differential environmental effects. The adjusted data were used to generate traits like Waiting Period (WP), Pregnancy Rate (PR), Expected Predicted Difference (EPD) of fertility, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits were estimated. The overall least-squares means of Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP) and WP were estimated as 36.69 ± 0.18 months, 120.47 ± 8.98 days and 79.78 ± 3.09 days respectively. Season and period of birth had significant effect (p < 0.01) on AFC. AFC was highest during autumn season of birth followed by summer, winter and rainy. Season and period of calving had significant effect (p < 0.01) on SP and WP of sahiwal cows. The WP for Sahiwal cows was standardized based on four developed predicted model for pregnancy rate 42, 63, 84 and 105 days using all lactation records. The WP for Sahiwal cows were standardized as 42 days. A selection criterion was developed for Sahiwal breeding bulls and young Sahiwal bulls on the basis of EPD of fertility. The genotype has significant effect on expected predicted difference of fertility and some semen parameters like post thaw motility and HOST. AA Genotype of CRISP2 gene revealed better EPD for fertility than EPD of milk yield. AA genotype of CRISP2 gene has higher scrotal circumference than other genotype. For young Sahiwal bulls only AA genotypes were present with similar patterns. So on the basis of association of genotype with seminal traits, EPD of milk yield and EPD for fertility status, AA and AG genotype of CRISP2 gene was better for higher fertility in Sahiwal bulls.

Keywords: expected predicted difference, fertility, sahiwal, waiting period

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1 Transcriptional Differences in B cell Subpopulations over the Course of Preclinical Autoimmunity Development

Authors: Aleksandra Bylinska, Samantha Slight-Webb, Kevin Thomas, Miles Smith, Susan Macwana, Nicolas Dominguez, Eliza Chakravarty, Joan T. Merrill, Judith A. James, Joel M. Guthridge


Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an interferon-related autoimmune disease characterized by B cell dysfunction. One of the main hallmarks is a loss of tolerance to self-antigens leading to increased levels of autoantibodies against nuclear components (ANAs). However, up to 20% of healthy ANA+ individuals will not develop clinical illness. SLE is more prevalent among women and minority populations (African, Asian American and Hispanics). Moreover, African Americans have a stronger interferon (IFN) signature and develop more severe symptoms. The exact mechanisms involved in ethnicity-dependent B cell dysregulation and the progression of autoimmune disease from ANA+ healthy individuals to clinical disease remains unclear. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from African (AA) and European American (EA) ANA- (n=12), ANA+ (n=12) and SLE (n=12) individuals were assessed by multimodal scRNA-Seq/CITE-Seq methods to examine differential gene signatures in specific B cell subsets. Library preparation was done with a 10X Genomics Chromium according to established protocols and sequenced on Illumina NextSeq. The data were further analyzed for distinct cluster identification and differential gene signatures in the Seurat package in R and pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). Results: Comparing all subjects, 14 distinct B cell clusters were identified using a community detection algorithm and visualized with Uniform Manifold Approximation Projection (UMAP). The proportion of each of those clusters varied by disease status and ethnicity. Transitional B cells trended higher in ANA+ healthy individuals, especially in AA. Ribonucleoprotein high population (HNRNPH1 elevated, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, RNP-Hi) of proliferating Naïve B cells were more prevalent in SLE patients, specifically in EA. Interferon-induced protein high population (IFIT-Hi) of Naive B cells are increased in EA ANA- individuals. The proportion of memory B cells and plasma cells clusters tend to be expanded in SLE patients. As anticipated, we observed a higher signature of cytokine-related pathways, especially interferon, in SLE individuals. Pathway analysis among AA individuals revealed an NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress response signature in the transitional B cell cluster, not seen in EA individuals. TNFR1/2 and Sirtuin Signaling pathway genes were higher in AA IFIT-Hi Naive B cells, whereas they were not detected in EA individuals. Interferon signaling was observed in B cells in both ethnicities. Oxidative phosphorylation was found in age-related B cells (ABCs) for both ethnicities, whereas Death Receptor Signaling was found only in EA patients in these cells. Interferon-related transcription factors were elevated in ABCs and IFIT-Hi Naive B cells in SLE subjects of both ethnicities. Conclusions: ANA+ healthy individuals have altered gene expression pathways in B cells that might drive apoptosis and subsequent clinical autoimmune pathogenesis. Increases in certain regulatory pathways may delay progression to SLE. Further, AA individuals have more elevated activation pathways that may make them more susceptible to SLE.


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