Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11446

Search results for: feed physical quality

11446 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili

Abstract:

The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: broiler, feed physical quality, hardness, processing parameters, PDI

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11445 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić

Abstract:

The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: microbiology, safety, hygiene, feed

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11444 A Research About to Determination the Quality of Feed Oils Used as Mixedfeed Raw Material from Some Feed Factories in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Veysel Ayhan

Abstract:

Feed oil samples which are used as mixed feed raw material were taken from six different feed factories in March, May and July. All factories make production in Konya, Turkey and all of the samples were which taken are crude soybean oil. Some physical and chemical analysis, free radical scavenger effect and total phenol content were determined on these oil samples. Moisture content was found between 0.10-22.23 %, saponification number was determined 143.13 to 167.93 KOH/kg, free fatty acidity was varied 0.73 to 35.00 % , peroxide value was found between 1.53 and 28.43 meq/kg , unsaponifiable matter was determined from 0.40 to 17.10 % , viscosity was found between 34.30 and 625.67 mPas, sediment amount was determined between 0.60-18.16 % , free radical scavenger effect was varied 20.7 to 43.04 % inhibition of the extract and total phenol content was found between 1.20 and 2.69 mg/L extract. Different results were found between months and factories.

Keywords: crude soybean oil, feed oils, mixed feed, Konya

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11443 Influence of Dairy Cows Food on Uncooked Pressed Dough Cheese "Edam" Quality

Authors: Nougha Meriem, Sadouki Mohammed

Abstract:

Cheese quality is an important manufacturing requirement. It deals with traceability, from the dairy cows feed to the storage location. In this study, we have seen the impact of distributing two different types of green feed (purple clover VS alfalfa), in a ration composed of oat hay, silage of corn and concentrated feed, in equal quantities, on resulting milk destined for an Edam manufacturing. It reveals that alfalfa allows a high production of milk, comparatively to purple clover. However, this latter allows a high quality of milk, in point of view physico-chemical properties, especially regarding proteins and fat yields, two essential factors affecting Edam quality. The obtained results indicated that milk allowed by purple clover shows a best physico-chemical quality beside alfalfa, for it use in Edam manufacturing according to the values recommended by standardized dairies.

Keywords: dairy cows, Edam, food, quality

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11442 Quality of Romanian Food Products on Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Notifications

Authors: Silvius Stanciu

Abstract:

Romanian food products sold on European markets have been accused of several non-conformities of quality and safety. Most products incriminated last period were those of animal origin, especially meat and meat products. The study proposed an analysis of the notifications made by network members through Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed on products originating in Romania. As a source of information, the Rapid Alert System portal and the official communications of the National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority were used. The research results showed that nearly a quarter of network notifications were rejected and were withdrawn by the European Authority. Although national authorities present these issues as success stories of national quality policies, the large number of notifications related to the volume of exported products is worrying. The paper is of practical and applicative importance for both the business environment and the academic environment, laying the basis for a wider research on the quality differences between Romanian and imported products.

Keywords: food, quality, RASFF, Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, Romania

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11441 Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed

Authors: Anna Martin, Raffael Osen

Abstract:

The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.

Keywords: extrusion, fish feed, press cake, rapeseed

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11440 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel

Abstract:

The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

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11439 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed

Abstract:

Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial, camel, toxicity

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11438 The Role of Concussion and Physical Pain on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life

Authors: Daniel Walker, Adam Qureshi, David Marchant, Alex Bahrami Balani

Abstract:

The present study aimed to assess the impact of concussion and physical pain on depression and health-related quality of life. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and scores of health-related quality of life were measured by health-related quality of life short form-12. Data analysis of 67 participants (concussed 32 vs. 35 non-concussed) revealed that (i) 52% were displaying depressive symptoms (concussed 30% vs. non-concussed 22%) (ii) concussion had a significant effect on depressive symptoms when controlling for pain but no effect on the quality of life scores when controlling the same variable (iii) pain had a significant effect on depressive symptoms and quality of life. With this, both concussion and physical pain seem to have a negative impact on mental health; however, individuals may only recognise a reduction in quality of life with increased physical pain, hence a deterioration in mental well-being could be disregarded as a factor of health-related quality of life.

Keywords: depression, quality of life, concussion, physical pain

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11437 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex

Abstract:

Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, growth performance, bactocell

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11436 The Effects of Neurospora crassa-Fermented Palm Kernel Cake in the Diet on the Production Performance and Egg-Yolk Quality of Arab Laying-Hens

Authors: Yose Rizal, Nuraini, Mirnawati, Maria Endo Mahata, Rio Darman, Dendi Kurniawan

Abstract:

An experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa- fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance and egg-yolk quality of Arab laying-hens, and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment, and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15, and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Measured variables were production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production), and egg-yolk quality (ether extract and cholesterol contents, and egg-yolk color index). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight, hen-day egg production and egg-yolk color index were not influenced (P>0.05) by diets. However, the ether extract and cholesterol contents of egg-yolk were very significantly reduced (P<0.01) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in Arab laying-hens diet without adverse effect on the production performance.

Keywords: neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake, Arab laying-hens, production performance, ether extract, cholesterol, egg-yolk color index

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11435 Effects of Feed Forms on Growth Pattern, Behavioural Responses and Fecal Microbial Load of Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae Probiotics

Authors: O. A. Adebiyi, A. O. Oni, A. O. K. Adeshehinwa, I. O. Adejumo

Abstract:

In forty nine (49) days, twenty four (24) growing pigs (Landrace x Large white) with an average weight of 17 ±2.1kg were allocated to four experimental treatments T1 (dry mash without probiotics), T2 (wet feed without probiotics), T3 (dry mash + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) and T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) which were replicated three times with two pigs per replicate in a completely randomised design. The basal feed (dry feed) was formulated to meet the nutritional requirement of the animal with crude protein of 18.00% and metabolisable energy of 2784.00kcal/kgME. Growth pattern, faecal microbial load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and frequency of visiting the drinking troughs) were accessed. Pigs fed dry mash without probiotics (T1) had the highest daily feed intake among the experimental animals (1.10kg) while pigs on supplemented diets (T3 and T4) had an average daily feed intake of 0.95kg. However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p < 0.05) affected with pigs on T3 having least value of 6.26 compared those on T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae) with means of 7.41. Total organism counts varied significantly (p < 0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, T3 and T4 with mean values of 179.50 x106cfu; 132.00 x 106cfu; 32.00 x 106cfu and 64.50 x 106cfu respectively. Coliform count was also significantly (p < 0.05) different among the treatments with corresponding values of 117.50 x 106cfu; 49.00 x 106cfu, 8.00 x 106cfu for pigs in T1, T2 and T4 respectively. The faecal Saccaromyces cereviseae was significantly lower in pigs fed supplemented diets compared to their counterparts on unsupplemented diets. This could be due to the inability of yeast organisms to be voided easily through feaces. The pigs in T1 spent the most time eating (7.88%) while their counterparts on T3 spent the least time eating. The corresponding physical pen interaction times expressed in percentage of a day for pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4 are 6.22%, 5.92%, 4.04% and 4.80% respectively. These behavioural responses exhibited by these pigs (T3) showed that little amount of dry feed supplemented with probiotics is needed for better performance. The water intake increases as a result of the dryness of the feed with consequent decrease in pen interaction and more time was spent resting than engaging in other possible vice-habit like fighting or tail biting. Pigs fed dry feed (T3) which was supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics had a better overall performance, least faecal microbial load than wet fed pigs either supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae or non-supplemented.

Keywords: behaviour, feed forms, feed utilization, growth, microbial

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11434 Evaluation of the Performance of ACTIFLO® Clarifier in the Treatment of Mining Wastewaters: Case Study of Costerfield Mining Operations, Victoria, Australia

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Samaei, Shirley Gato-Trinidad

Abstract:

A pre-treatment stage prior to reverse osmosis (RO) is very important to ensure the long-term performance of the RO membranes in any wastewater treatment using RO. This study aims to evaluate the application of the Actiflo® clarifier as part of a pre-treatment unit in mining operations. It involves performing analytical testing on RO feed water before and after installation of Actiflo® unit. Water samples prior to RO plant stage were obtained on different dates from Costerfield mining operations in Victoria, Australia. Tests were conducted in an independent laboratory to determine the concentration of various compounds in RO feed water before and after installation of Actiflo® unit during the entire evaluated period from December 2015 to June 2018. Water quality analysis shows that the quality of RO feed water has remarkably improved since installation of Actiflo® clarifier. Suspended solids (SS) and turbidity removal efficiencies has been improved by 91 and 85 percent respectively in pre-treatment system since the installation of Actiflo®. The Actiflo® clarifier proved to be a valuable part of pre-treatment system prior to RO. It has the potential to conveniently condition the mining wastewater prior to RO unit, and reduce the risk of RO physical failure and irreversible fouling. Consequently, reliable and durable operation of RO unit with minimum requirement for RO membrane replacement is expected with Actiflo® in use.

Keywords: ACTIFLO ® clarifier, mining wastewater, reverse osmosis, water treatment

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11433 Effect of Extrusion Parameters on the Rheological Properties of Ready-To-Eat Extrudates Developed from De-Oiled Rice Bran

Authors: Renu Sharma, D. C. Saxena, Tanuja Srivastava

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Mechanical properties of ready-to-eat extrudates are perceived by the consumers as one of the quality criteria. Texture quality of any product has a strong influence on the sensory evaluation as well as on the acceptability of the product. The main texture characteristics influencing the product acceptability are crispness, elasticity, hardness and softness. In the present work, the authors investigated one of the most important textural characteristics of extrudates i.e. hardness. A five-level, four-factor central composite rotatable design was employed to investigate the effect of temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content and feed composition mainly rice bran content and their interactions, on the mechanical hardness of extrudates. Among these, feed moisture was found to be a prominent factor affecting the product hardness. It was found that with the increase of feed moisture content, the rice bran proportion leads to increase in hardness of extrudates whereas the increase of temperature leads to decrease of hardness of product. A good agreement between the predicted (26.49 N) and actual value (28.73N) of the response confirms the validation of response surface methodology (RSM)-model.

Keywords: deoiled rice bran, extrusion, rheological properties, RSM

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11432 A Review on Potential Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Livestock Feed with Particular Emphasis to Developing Countries in Africa

Authors: Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Firew Tegegne, A. Tsunekawa, Dereje Tewabe

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive review on the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential livestock feed and argue its utilization as complementary strategy to other control methods. Water Hyacinth is one of the most noxious plant invaders of rivers and lakes. Such weeds cause environmental disaster and interfere with economic and recreational activities such as water transportation and fishing. Economic impacts of the weed in seven African countries have been estimated at between 20-50 million US$ every year. It would, therefore, be prudent to suggest utilization as a complementary control method. The majority of people in developing countries are dependent on traditional and inefficient crop-livestock production system that constrains their ability to enhance economic productivity and quality of life. Livestock in developing countries faces shortage of feed, especially during the long dry seasons. Existing literature shows the use of water hyacinth as livestock and fish feed. The chemical composition of water hyacinth varies considerably. Due to its relatively high crude protein (CP) content (5.8-20.0%), water hyacinth can be considered as a potential protein supplement for livestock which commonly feed cereal crop residues whose contribution as source of feed is increasing in Africa. Though the effects of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) present in water hyacinth is not investigated, their concentrations are not above threshold hinder its utilization as livestock feed. In conclusion, water hyacinth could provide large quantities of nutritious feed for animals. Like other feeds, water hyacinth may not be offered as a sole feed and based on existing literature its optimum inclusion level reaches 50%.

Keywords: Africa, livestock feed, water bodies, water hyacinth and weed control method

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11431 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje

Abstract:

The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

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11430 Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan: Physical Facilities as Encouragement

Authors: Ijaz Ahamad Tatlah

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The justification of this study was to identify about physical facilities as encouragement to Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan concerning the views of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells’ (QEC’s) and to differentiate the views of students, teachers and Directors of QECs in relation to physical facilities about quality assurance practices in the universities of Pakistan. It was a quantitative and qualitative research study. This study was conducted on a sample of 28 universities (public and private sector) of Pakistan by using random and purposive sampling technique. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were planned to gather information from students, teachers and Directors of QECs in relation to physical facilities about quality assurance practices in the universities of Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using Descriptive, inferential statistics, and thematic coding. The study revealed that students, teachers and Directors of QEC’s faced a lot of problems and issues without physical facilities. Quality assurance Agency (QAA), Quality Assurance Department (QAD) and Higher Education commission (HEC) all are relevant Pakistani Agencies, which are working consistently of both sectors i.e. public and private to supervise, guide and facilitate the universities of Pakistan for developing quality assurance practices. Majority of the students teachers and Directors’ of QECs opined that books, research journals, manuals for use of science laboratories, equipment for experiments and update computers were available for teachers and students’ in the universities. It was suggested by the students teachers and Directors of QECs of universities that Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) can be accelerated by thinking the following steps: provision of sufficient resources, add the latest software for computers laboratories and new edition of books.

Keywords: physical facilities, quality assurance practices, library, laboratory

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11429 Relationship between Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Teachers of Physical Education

Authors: Minu Lakra

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The present study was done on 100 (male=50 and female=50) teachers of physical education at tertiary level from Varanasi city. They were chosen according to the stratified sampling method. Data collection tool was Perceived Stress Scale: 14 items (Cohen, Kamarck and mermelstain 1983) and Quality of Life was developed by THE WHOQOL GROUP in 1991. Data was analyzed with the help of correlation. Findings explore that perceived stress and quality of life has been positively correlated in female teachers of higher education from physical education whereas in male teachers the relationship was found insignificant.

Keywords: higher education, male and female teachers , percieved stress, quality of life

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11428 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: butyric acids, Ca formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity

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11427 Cost Effective and Efficient Feeding: A Way Forward for Sustainable and Profitable Aquaculture

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, S. Anand, Chandana B. L.

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Protein is the major component for the success in culture of shrimp and fishes. Apparently, excess dietary protein is undesirable, as it not only enhances the production cost but also leads to water quality deterioration. A field survey was conducted with aqua farmers of Kerala, India, a leading state in coastal aquaculture, to assess the role of protein component in feed that can be efficiently and effectively managed for sustainable aquaculture. The study showed an average feed amount of 13.55 ± 2.16 tonnes per hectare was being used by the farmers of Kerala. The average feed cost percentage of Rs. 57.76 ± 13.46 /kg was invested for an average protein level of 36.26 % ± 0.082 in the feed and Rs.78.95 ± 3.086 per kilogram of feed was being paid by the farmers. Study revealed that replacement of fish meal and fish oil within shrimp aquafeeds with alternative protein, and lipid sources can only be achieved if changes are made in the basic shrimp culturing practices, such as closed farming system through water recycling or zero-water exchange, and by maximizing in-situ, floc and natural food production within the culture system. The upshot of such production systems is that imports of high-quality feed ingredients and aqua feeds can eventually be eliminated, and the utilization of locally available feed ingredients from agricultural by-products can be greatly improved and maximized. The promotion of closed shrimp production systems would also greatly reduce water use and increase shrimp production per unit area but would necessitate the continuous provision of electricity for aeration during production. Alternative energy sources such as solar power might be used, and resource poor farming communities should also explore wind energy for use. The study concluded that farm made feed and closed farming systems are essential for the sustainability and profitability of the aquaculture industry.

Keywords: aqua feeds, floc, fish meal, protein, zero-water exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
11426 Improving Egg Production by Using Split-Phase Lighting Program

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

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The egg shell quality and oviposition in laying hens are influenced by a range of factors including strain of birds, age, nutrition, water quality, general stress, heat stress, disease, and lighting program inside houses. A layer experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of split-phase lighting program on egg production efficiency. Four different feeds and average phosphorus (av. P) levels were tested. Diet A was a ration with an av. P level of 0.471%; Diet B was a ration with an av. P level of 0.510%; Diet C contained an av. P level of 0.293%; and Diet D contained an av. P level of 0.327%. The split-phase lighting program tested was one that inserted a 7-hour dark period from 9 am to 4 pm to reduce the heat produced by the feeding increment and physical activity of the hens. Diet B produced significantly more eggs than Diet C, or Diet D. Diet A was not significantly different from any of the other diets. Diet B also had the best feed efficiency with the other three diets in the same order and significance as for egg production. Diet D produced eggshells significantly thicker than either Diet A, or Diet B. Diet C produced thicker eggshells than Diet B, whose shells were significantly thinner than the other three diets. There were no differences in egg size. From these data, it is apparent that the minimal av. P level for the Lohmann strain of layer in Kuwait is above 0.327%. There was no difference in egg production or eggshell thickness between the split-phase light treatment and the standard light program. There was no difference in oviposition frequency. The split-phase light used 3.66% less feed, however, which was significant. The standard light produced eggs that were significantly heavier (66.30g vs. 65.73g). These results indicate that considerable savings in feed costs could be attained by using split-phase lighting, especially when cooling is not very efficient.

Keywords: egg, laying, nutrition, oviposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
11425 The Inclusion of the Cabbage Waste in Buffalo Ration Made of Sugarcane Waste and Its Effect on Characteristics of the Silage

Authors: Adrizal, Irsan Ryanto, Sri Juwita, Adika Sugara, Tino Bapirco

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The objective of the research was to study the influence of the inclusion of the cabbage waste into a buffalo rations made of sugarcane waste on the feed formula and characteristic of complete feed silage. Research carried out a two-stage i.e. the feed formulation and experiment of making complete feed silage. Feed formulation is done by linear programming. Data input is the price of feed stuffs and their nutrient contents as well as requirements for rations, while the output is the use of each feed stuff and the price of complete feed. The experiment of complete feed silage was done by a completely random design 4 x 4. The treatments were 4 inclusion levels of the cabbage waste i.e. 0%,(T1) 5%(T2), 10%(T3) and 15% (T4), with 4 replications. The result of feed formulation for T1 was cabbage (0%), sugarcane top (17.9%), bagasse (33.3%), Molasses (5.0%), cabagge (0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (2.7%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (9.1%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T2 was cabagge (5%), sugarcane top (1.7%), bagasse (45.2%), Molasses (5.0%), , Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.6%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (7.5%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T3 was cabbage (10%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (45.3%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.8%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (3.9%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt(0.5%). The formula of T4 was cabagge (15.0%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (44.1%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.9%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (0%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). An increase in the level of inclusion of the cabbage waste can decrease the cost of rations. The cost of rations (IDR/kg on DM basis) were 1442, 1367, 1333, and 1300 respectively. The rations formula were not significantly (P > 0.05) influent the on fungal colonies, smell, texture and color of the complete ration silage, but the pH increased significantly (P < 0.05). It concluded that inclusion of cabbage waste can minimize the cost of buffalo ration, without decreasing the silage quality of complete feed.

Keywords: buffalo, cabbage, complete feed, sillage characteristic, sugarcane waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
11424 Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Authors: Sérgio Afonso Mulema, Andrés Carrión García, Vicente Ernesto

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.

Keywords: fertilizer, tilapia, growth, statistical methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
11423 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

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The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
11422 Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Efficacy of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus, Feed Experimental Diet with Several Dosages of Papain Enzyme

Authors: Zainal A. Muchlisin, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdullah A. Muhammadar

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The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed, 27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g, total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters was found in the dosage of 3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.

Keywords: betok, feed conversion ratio, freshwater fish, nutrition, feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
11421 The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler

Authors: Waode Nurmayani, Nikmatul Riswanda

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Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.

Keywords: earthworm, broiler, protein, antibiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
11420 Pattern of Physical Activity and Its Impact on the Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

Authors: Ali Maksum

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In a number of countries, including Indonesia, the tendency for non-communicable diseases is increasing. As a result, health costs must be paid by the state continues to increase as well. People's lifestyles, including due to lack of physical activity, are thought to have contributed significantly to the problem. This study aims to examine the impact of participation in sports on quality of life, which is reflected in three main indicators, namely health, psychological, and social aspects. The study was conducted in the city of Surabaya and its surroundings, with a total of 490 participants, consisting of 245 men and 245 women with an average age of 45.4 years. Data on physical activity and quality of life were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The test results of the model prove that the value of chi-square = 8,259 with p = .409, RMSEA = .008, NFI = .992, and CFI = 1. This means that the model is compatible with the data. The model explains that physical activity has a significant effect on quality of life. People who exercise regularly are better able to cope with stress, have a lower risk of illness, and have higher pro-social behavior. Therefore, it needs serious efforts from stakeholders, especially the government, to create an ecosystem that allows the growth of movement culture in the community.

Keywords: participation, physical activity, quality of life, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
11419 Palatability of a Garlic and Citrus Extract Feed Supplement to Enhance Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vivo

Authors: Michael Graz, Andrew Shearer, Gareth Evans

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Manipulation of rumen bacteria is receiving increasing attention as a way of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are generated by the agricultural sector. Feed supplementation in particular is one of the ways in which this drive is being addressed, in particular with reference to livestock-generated GHG emissions. A blend of naturally occurring chemical extracts obtained from garlic and bitter orange extracts has been identified as a natural, sustainable and non-antibiotic based way of reducing methane production by ruminant livestock. In the current study, the acceptability and impact of this blend of natural extracts on feed rations of beef cattle was trialed in vivo on a commercial farm in Europe. Initial findings have demonstrated acceptable palatability, with all animals accepting the feed supplement into their ration both when it was mixed into the total daily ration and when used as a part of their high energy rations. Measurement of the impact of this feed supplement on productivity weight gain and milk quality is ongoing. In conclusion, this field study confirmed the palatability of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts and hence pointed to possibility of the extract blend to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: citrus, garlic, methane reduction, palatability, ruminants

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
11418 Product Quality and Profitability of Sea Bream Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, S. Anastasiou, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis

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Production parameters of gilt head sea bream fish farm such as feeding regimes, mortalities, fish densities were used to calculate the economic efficiency of six different aquaculture sites from West Greece. Samples of farmed sea bream were collected and lipid content, microbial load and filleting yield of the samples were used as quality criteria. The results indicate that Lipid content, filleting yield and microbial load of fish originating from different fish farms varied significantly with improved quality exhibited in fish farms which exhibited improved Feed conversion rates and lower mortalities. Changes in feeding management practices such as feed quality and feeding regimes have a significant impact on the financial performance of sea bass farms. Fish farms which exhibited improved feeding conversion rates also exhibited increased profitability. Improvements in the FCR explained about 13.4 % of the difference in profitability of the different aquaculture sites. Lower mortality and higher growth rates were also exhibited by the fish farms which exhibited improved FCR. It is concluded that best feeding management practices resulted in improved product quality and profitability.

Keywords: aquaculture economics, gilt head sea, production fish, feeding management

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
11417 Analysis of Pollution Caused by the Animal Feed Industry and the Fertilizer Industry Using Rock Magnetic Method

Authors: Kharina Budiman, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine

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Industrial activities get increase in this globalization era, one of the major impacts of industrial activities is a problem to the environment. This can happen because at the industrial production term will bring out pollutant in the shape of solid, liquid or gas. Normally this pollutant came from some dangerous materials for environment. However not every industry produces the same amount of pollutant, every industry produces different kind of pollution. To compare the pollution impact of industrial activities, soil sample has been taken around the animal feed industry and the fertilizer industry. This study applied the rock magnetic method and used Bartington MS2B to measured magnetic susceptibility (χ) as the physical parameter. This study tested soil samples using the value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) and Frequency Dependent (χ FD). Samples only taken in the soil surface with 0-5 cm depth and sampling interval was 20 cm. The animal feed factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 111,9 – 325,7 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 0,8 – 3,57 %. And the fertilizer factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 187,1 – 494,8 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 1,37 – 2,46 %. Based on the results, the highest value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) is the fertilizer factory, but the highest value of Frequency Dependent (FD) is the animal feed factory.

Keywords: industrial, pollution, magnetic susceptibility, χlf, χfd, animal feed industry and fertilizer industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 275