Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 405

Search results for: polyethylene glycol

405 Investigation of Interaction between Interferons and Polyethylene Glycol Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, F. Kamali, M. Klantari Pour, L. Zeidabadi-Nejad


Chemical bonding between polyethylene glycol (PEG) with pharmaceutical proteins called pegylation is one of the most effective methods of improving the pharmacological properties. The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins will increase their pharmacologic properties. For the formation of a combination of pegylated protein should first be activated PEG and connected to the protein. Interferons(IFNs) are a family of cytokines which show antiviral effects in front of the biological and are responsible for setting safety system. In this study, the nature and properties of the interaction between active positions of IFNs and polyethylene glycol have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The main aspect of this theoretical work focuses on the achievement of valuable data on the reaction pathways of PEG-IFNs and the transition state energy. Our results provide a new perspective on the interactions, chemical properties and reaction pathways between IFNs and PEG.

Keywords: interaction, interferons, molecular dynamics simulation, polyethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
404 Extraction of Dyes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System in Stratified and Slug Flow Regimes of a Microchannel

Authors: Garima, S. Pushpavanam


In this work, analysis of an Aqueous two-phase (polymer-salt) system for extraction of sunset yellow dye is carried out. A polymer-salt ATPS i.e.; Polyethylene glycol-600 and anhydrous sodium sulfate is used for the extraction. Conditions are chosen to ensure that the extraction results in a concentration of the dye in one of the phases. The dye has a propensity to come to the Polyethylene glycol-600 phase. This extracted sunset yellow dye is degraded photo catalytically into less harmful components. The cloud point method was used to obtain the binodal curve of ATPS. From the binodal curve, the composition of salt and Polyethylene glycol -600 was chosen such that the volume of Polyethylene glycol-600 rich phase is low. This was selected to concentrate the dye from a dilute solution in a large volume of contaminated solution into a small volume. This pre-concentration step provides a high reaction rate for photo catalytic degradation reaction. Experimentally the dye is extracted from the salt phase to Polyethylene glycol -600 phase in batch extraction. This was found to be very fast and all dye was extracted. The concentration of sunset yellow dye in salt and polymer phase is measured at 482nm by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The extraction experiment in micro channels under stratified flow is analyzed to determine factors which affect the dye extraction. Focus will be on obtaining slug flow by adding nanoparticles in micro channel. The primary aim is to exploit the fact that slug flow will help improve mass transfer rate from one phase to another through internal circulation in dispersed phase induced by shear.

Keywords: aqueous two phase system, binodal curve, extraction, sunset yellow dye

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
403 Phase Diagrams and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Biphasic Systems Formed by Polyethylene Glycol and Potassium Sodium Tartrate at 303.15 K

Authors: Amanda Cristina de Oliveira, Elias de Souza Monteiro Filho, Roberta Ceriani


Liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) constitutes a powerful tool for purifying bio-materials, such as cells, organelles, proteins, among others. In this work, the extraction of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied in systems formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1500, 4000, and 6000 g.mol⁻¹) + potassium sodium tartrate + water at 303.15°K. Phase diagrams were obtained by turbidimetry and Merchuk’s method (1998). The experimental tie-lines were described using the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. ATPSs were correlated with the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. The results were considered excellent according to global root-mean-square deviations found which were between 0,72 and 1,13%. The concentrations of the proteins in each phase were determined by spectrophotometry at 280 nm, finding partition efficiencies greater than 71%.

Keywords: aqueous two phases systems, bovine serum albumin , liquid-liquid extraction, polyethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
402 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník


In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: geopolymer, mechanical properties, metakaolin, microstructure, polymer admixtures, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
401 Screening of the Sunflower Genotypes for Drought Stress at Seedling Stage by Polyethylene Glycol under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Uzma Ayaz, Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan


Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under water-stressed conditions. A total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested against drought stress at Seedling stages by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principal component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency are positively linked with each other hence, these traits were responsible for most of the variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-3, line-2, and 17578, line-1, line-7, line-6 and 17562 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of drought-tolerant inbreed lines which could be subsequently used in future heterosis breeding programs.

Keywords: sunflower, drought, stress, polyethylene- glycol, screening

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400 Synthesis and Characterization of an Aerogel Based on Graphene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: Javiera Poblete, Fernando Gajardo, Katherina Fernandez


Graphene, and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO), are emerging nanoscopic materials, with interesting physical and chemical properties. From them, it is possible to develop three-dimensional macrostructures, such as aerogels, which are characterized by a low density, high porosity, and large surface area, having a promising structure for the development of materials. The use of GO as a precursor of these structures provides a wide variety of materials, which can be developed as a result of the functionalization of their oxygenated groups, with specific compounds such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). The synthesis of aerogels of GO-PEG for non-covalent interactions has not yet been widely reported, being of interest due to its feasible escalation and economic viability. Thus, this work aims to develop a non-covalently functionalized GO-PEG aerogels and characterize them physicochemically. In order to get this, the GO was synthesized from the modified hummers method and it was functionalized with the PEG by polymer-assisted GO gelation (crosslinker). The gelation was obtained for GO solutions (10 mg/mL) with the incorporation of PEG in different proportions by weight. The hydrogel resulting from the reaction was subsequently lyophilized, to obtain the respective aerogel. The material obtained was chemically characterized by analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images; as well as water absorption tests. The results obtained showed the formation of a non-covalent aerogel (FTIR), whose structure was highly porous (SEM) and with a water absorption values greater than 50% g/g. Thus, a methodology of synthesis for GO-PEG was developed and validated.

Keywords: aerogel, graphene oxide, polyethylene glycol, synthesis

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399 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane


Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste, recycling, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
398 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer


Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
397 The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim


In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.

Keywords: bioydrogen, immobilization, polyethylene glycol, palm oil mill effluent, dark fermentation

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396 Fabrication of Cellulose Acetate/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes Blended with Silica and Carbon Nanotube for Desalination Process

Authors: Siti Nurkhamidah, Yeni Rahmawati, Fadlilatul Taufany, Eamor M. Woo, I Made P. A. Merta, Deffry D. A. Putra, Pitsyah Alifiyanti, Krisna D. Priambodo


Cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG) membrane was modified with varying amount of silica and carbon nanotube (CNT) to enhance its separation performance in the desalination process. These composite membranes were characterized for their hydrophilicity, morphology and permeation properties. The experiment results show that hydrophilicity of CA/PEG/Silica membranes increases with the increasing of silica concentration and the decreasing particle size of silica. From Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image, it shows that pore structure of CA/PEG membranes increases with the addition of silica. Membrane performance analysis shows that permeate flux, salt rejection, and permeability of membranes increase with the increasing of silica concentrations. The effect of CNT on the hydrophylicity, morphology, and permeation properties was also discussed.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, cellulose acetate, desalination, membrane, PEG

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395 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on Physiochemical Properties of Spherical Agglomerates of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

Authors: S. V. Patil , S. K. Sahoo, K. Y. Chougule, S. S. Patil


Spherically agglomerated crystals of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) with improved flowability and compactibility were successfully prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Plane agglomerates and agglomerates with additives: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and β cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared using methanol, chloroform and water as good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Particle size, flowability, compactibility and packability of plane, PEG and β-CD agglomerates were preferably improved for direct tableting compared with raw crystals and PVP agglomerates of PGH. These improved properties of spherically agglomerated crystals were due to their large and spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction which was well supported by increased tensile strength and less elastic recovery of its compact. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry study were indicated polymorphic transition of PGH from form II to I during recrystallization but not associated with chemical transition indicated by fourier transforms infrared spectra.

Keywords: spherical crystallization, pioglitazone hydrochloride, compactibility, packability

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
394 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim


Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluent

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393 Synthesis of Solid Polymeric Materials by Maghnite-H⁺ as a Green Catalyst

Authors: Draoua Zohra, Harrane Amine


The Solid Polymeric Materials have been successfully prepared by the copolymerization of e-caprolactone (CL) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) employing Maghnite-H+ at 80°C. Maghnite-H+ is a solid catalyst non-toxic. The presence of PEG chains leads to a break in the growth of PCL chains and consequently leads to the copolymer tri-block PCL-PEG-PCL. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize of Solid Polymeric Materials. The highly hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol has sparked our interest in developing a Solid Polymeric based e-caprolactone and poly (ethylene glycol). PCL and PEG are biocompatible materials. Their ring-opening copolymerization using Maghnite H+ makes to the Solid Polymeric Materials. The morphology and structure of Solid polymeric Materials were characterized by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR spectra and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). This paper developed the application of Maghnite-H+ as an efficient catalyst by an easy-to-handle procedure to get solid polymeric materials. A cationic mechanism for the copolymerization reaction was proposed.

Keywords: block copolymers, maghnite, montmorillonite, poly(e-caprolactone)

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392 Germination Behavior of Tricholaena teneriffae L. a perennial Grass Species

Authors: Imed Mezghani, Yousra Ben Salah, Mohamed Chaieb


Tricholaena teneriffae L. is a xerophytic perennial herb that belongs to the Poaceae family likely to be used for ecological restoration programs. It's a dominant and economically important species widely distributed in the Bou-Hedma National Park, Tunisia. Reintroduction and expansion of T. teneriffae depend solely on sexual reproduction. This makes the understanding of its germination requirements vital for conservation and management. To provide basic information for its conservation and reintroduction, we studied the influence of environmental factors on seed germination patterns. The germination responses of seeds were determined over a wide range of constant temperatures (15–35°C), polyethylene glycol solutions of different osmotic potentials (0 to −2 MPa) and salt solution (0 to 150 mM of NaCl). Results indicated that the optimum temperature germination was attained at 25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during mid spring season in the Mediterranean area. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.6 MPa. Germination percentage and rate decreased with an increase NaCl concentration. Seeds germination was substantially delayed and reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 50 mM. T. teneriffae is moderately salt tolerant at germination stage.

Keywords: germination, temperature, Tricholaena teneriffae L., salt stress, water stress, rehabilitation

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391 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov


The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

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390 Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Abdul Qadir


In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.

Keywords: protein refolding, antiproliferative activities, biomedical applications, human interferon alpha-2b, pegylation, mPEG-propionaldehyde, site directed mutagenesis, E. coli expression

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389 Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self-Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments

Authors: R. Malathy


High performance concrete is not only characterized by its high strength, workability, and durability but also by its smartness in performance without human care since the first day. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high performance self-curing concrete. In this paper, an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using biomaterials, namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis gigantea as self-curing agents, and it is compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical, namely polyethylene glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength, and durability study on M20, M30, and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea pleracea, Calatropis gigantea, and polyethylene glycol was taken as 0.6%, 0.24%, and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed, it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping compressive strength of conventionally cured concrete for 28 days as unity and observed that, for self-cured concrete, it is more than 1 after 28 days and more than 1.15 after 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack, and chloride attack was made, and the results are positive and encouraging in bio-self-cured concretes which are ecofriendly, cost effective, and high performance materials.

Keywords: bio materials, Calatropis gigantea, self curing concrete, Spinacea oleracea

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388 Experimental Design in Extraction of Pseudomonas sp. Protease from Fermented Broth by Polyethylene Glycol/Citrate Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Omar Pillaca-Pullo, Arturo Alejandro-Paredes, Carol Flores-Fernandez, Marijuly Sayuri Kina, Amparo Iris Zavaleta


Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an interesting alternative for separating industrial enzymes due to it is easy to scale-up and low cost. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixed with potassium phosphate or magnesium sulfate is one of the most frequently polymer/salt ATPS used, but the consequences of its use is a high concentration of phosphates and sulfates in wastewater causing environmental issues. Citrate could replace these inorganic salts due to it is biodegradable and does not produce toxic compounds. On the other hand, statistical design of experiments is widely used for ATPS optimization and it allows to study the effects of the involved variables in the purification, and to estimate their significant effects on selected responses and interactions. The 24 factorial design with four central points (20 experiments) was employed to study the partition and purification of proteases produced by Pseudomonas sp. in PEG/citrate ATPS system. ATPS was prepared with different sodium citrate concentrations [14, 16 and 18% (w/w)], pH values (7, 8 and 9), PEG molecular weight (2,000; 4,000 and 6,000 g/mol) and PEG concentrations [18, 20 and 22 % (w/w)]. All system components were mixed with 15% (w/w) of the fermented broth and deionized water was added to a final weight of 12.5 g. Then, the systems were mixed and kept at room temperature until to reach two-phases separation. Volumes of the top and bottom phases were measured, and aliquots from both phases were collected for subsequent proteolytic activity and total protein determination. Influence of variables such as PEG molar mass (MPEG), PEG concentration (CPEG), citrate concentration (CSal) and pH were evaluated on the following responses: purification factor (PF), activity yield (Y), partition coefficient (K) and selectivity (S). STATISTICA program version 10 was used for the analysis. According to the obtained results, higher levels of CPEG and MPEG had a positive effect on extraction, while pH did not influence on the process. On the other hand, the CSal could be related with low values of Y because of the citrate ions have a negative effect on solubility and enzymatic structure. The optimum values of Y (66.4 %), PF (1.8), K (5.5) and S (4.3) were obtained at CSal (18%), MPEG (6,000 g/mol), CPEG (22%) and pH 9. These results indicated that the PEG/citrate system is accurate to purify these Pseudomonas sp. proteases from fermented broth as a first purification step.

Keywords: citrate, polyethylene glycol, protease, Pseudomonas sp

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387 Preparation of Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b with High Antiviral Activity Using Linear 20 KDa Polyethylene Glycol Derivative

Authors: Ehab El-Dabaa, Omnia Ali, Mohamed Abd El-Hady, Ahmed Osman


Recombinant human interferon alpha 2 (rhIFN-α2) is FDA approved for treatment of some viral and malignant diseases. Approved pegylated rhIFN-α2 drugs have highly improved pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and therapeutic efficiency compared to native protein. In this work, we studied the pegylation of purified properly refolded rhIFN-α2b using linear 20kDa PEG-NHS (polyethylene glycol- N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester) to prepare pegylated rhIFN-α2b with high stability and activity. The effect of different parameters like rhIFN-α2b final concentration, pH, rhIFN-α2b/PEG molar ratios and reaction time on the efficiency of pegylation (high percentage of monopegylated rhIFN-α2b) have been studied in small scale (100µl) pegylation reaction trials. Study of the percentages of different components of these reactions (mono, di, polypegylated rhIFN-α2b and unpegylated rhIFN-α2b) indicated that 2h is optimum time to complete the reaction. The pegylation efficiency increased at pH 8 (57.9%) by reducing the protein concentration to 1mg/ml and reducing the rhIFN-α2b/PEG ratio to 1:2. Using larger scale pegylation reaction (65% pegylation efficiency), ion exchange chromatography method has been optimized to prepare and purify the monopegylated rhIFN-α2b with high purity (96%). The prepared monopegylated rhIFN-α2b had apparent Mwt of approximately 65 kDa and high in vitro antiviral activity (2.1x10⁷ ± 0.8 x10⁷ IU/mg). Although it retained approximately 8.4 % of the antiviral activity of the unpegylated rhIFN-α2b, its activity is high compared to other pegylated rhIFN-α2 developed by using similar approach or higher molecular weight branched PEG.

Keywords: antiviral activity, rhIFN-α2b, pegylation, pegylation efficiency

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386 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi


In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
385 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub


In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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384 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari


This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

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383 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek


Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
382 Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.

Keywords: liquid crystals, polymers, small-angle scattering, optical properties

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381 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah


In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

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380 Surface Functionalized Biodegradable Polymersome for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Susmita Roy, Madhavan Nallani


In recent years' polymersomes, self-assembled polymeric vesicles emerge from block copolymers, have been widely investigated due to their enhance stability and unique advantageous properties compared to their phospholipid counterpart, liposomes, dendrimers, and micelles. It provides a distinctive platform for advanced therapeutics and the creation of complex (bio) catalytically active systems for research in Nanomedicine and synthetic biology. Inspired by nature, where compartmentalization of biological components is all ubiquitous, we are interested in developing a platform technology of self-assembled multifunctional compartments with applications in areas from targeted drug/gene delivery, biosensing, pharmaceutical to cosmetics. Polymersome surfaces can be a proper choice of derivatization with a controlled amount of functional groups. To achieve site-specific targeting of polymersomes, biological recognition motives can be attached to the polymersomes surface by standard bioconjugation techniques, (like esterification, amidation, thiol-maleimide coupling, click-chemistry routes or other coupling methods). Herein, we are developing easy going, one-step bioconjugation strategies for site-specific surface functionalized biodegradable polymeric and/or polymer-lipid hybrid vesicles for targeted drug delivery. Biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG), polylactic acid-b-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) and phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2- oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) has been widely used for numerous vesicle formulations. Some of these drug-loaded formulations are being tested on mice for controlled release. These surface functionalized polymersomes are also appropriate for membrane protein reconstitution/insertion, antibodies conjugation and various bioconjugation with diverse targeted molecules for controlled drug delivery.

Keywords: drug delivery, membrane protein, polymersome, surface modification

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379 Rheological Characteristics of Ice Slurries Based on Propylene- and Ethylene-Glycol at High Ice Fractions

Authors: Senda Trabelsi, Sébastien Poncet, Michel Poirier


Ice slurries are considered as a promising phase-changing secondary fluids for air-conditioning, packaging or cooling industrial processes. An experimental study has been here carried out to measure the rheological characteristics of ice slurries. Ice slurries consist in a solid phase (flake ice crystals) and a liquid phase. The later is composed of a mixture of liquid water and an additive being here either (1) Propylene-Glycol (PG) or (2) Ethylene-Glycol (EG) used to lower the freezing point of water. Concentrations of 5%, 14% and 24% of both additives are investigated with ice mass fractions ranging from 5% to 85%. The rheological measurements are carried out using a Discovery HR-2 vane-concentric cylinder with four full-length blades. The experimental results show that the behavior of ice slurries is generally non-Newtonian with shear-thinning or shear-thickening behaviors depending on the experimental conditions. In order to determine the consistency and the flow index, the Herschel-Bulkley model is used to describe the behavior of ice slurries. The present results are finally validated against an experimental database found in the literature and the predictions of an Artificial Neural Network model.

Keywords: ice slurry, propylene-glycol, ethylene-glycol, rheology

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378 Synthesis and Characterization of Fibrin/Polyethylene Glycol-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks for Dermal Tissue Engineering

Authors: O. Gsib, U. Peirera, C. Egles, S. A. Bencherif


In skin regenerative medicine, one of the critical issues is to produce a three-dimensional scaffold with optimized porosity for dermal fibroblast infiltration and neovascularization, which exhibits high mechanical properties and displays sufficient wound healing characteristics. In this study, we report on the synthesis and characterization of macroporous sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) combining skin wound healing properties of fibrin with the excellent physical properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fibrin fibers serve as a provisional biologically active network to promote cell adhesion and proliferation while PEG provides the mechanical stability to maintain the entire 3D construct. After having modified both PEG and Serum Albumin (used for promoting enzymatic degradability) by adding methacrylate residues (PEGDM and SAM, respectively), Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs were synthesized as follows: Macroporous sponges were first produced from PEGDM-SAM hydrogels by a freeze-drying technique and then rehydrated by adding the fibrin precursors. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize their microstructure. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated during one week in the constructs and different cell culture parameters (viability, morphology, proliferation) were evaluated. Subcutaneous implantations of the scaffolds were conducted on five-week old male nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. We successfully synthesized interconnected and macroporous Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs. The viability of primary dermal fibroblasts was well maintained (above 90%) after 2 days of culture. Cells were able to adhere, spread and proliferate in the scaffolds suggesting the suitable porosity and intrinsic biologic properties of the constructs. The fibrin network adopted a spider web shape that covered partially the pores allowing easier cell infiltration into the macroporous structure. To further characterize the in vitro cell behavior, cell proliferation (EdU incorporation, MTS assay) is being studied. Preliminary histological analysis of animal studies indicated the persistence of hydrogels even after one-month post implantation and confirmed the absence of inflammation response, good biocompatibility and biointegration of our scaffolds within the surrounding tissues. These results suggest that our Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM IPNs could be considered as potential candidates for dermis regenerative medicine. Histological analysis will be completed to further assess scaffold remodeling including de novo extracellular matrix protein synthesis and early stage angiogenesis analysis. Compression measurements will be conducted to investigate the mechanical properties.

Keywords: fibrin, hydrogels for dermal reconstruction, polyethylene glycol, semi-interpenetrating polymer network

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377 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of an Anti-Epileptic Drug Carbamazepine

Authors: Sharmin Akhter, M. Salahuddin, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Fahim Kadir


Relatively insoluble candidate drug like carbamazepine (CBZ) often exhibit incomplete or erratic absorption; and hence wide consideration is given to improve aqueous solubility of such compound. Solid dispersions were formulated with an aim of improving aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and the rate of dissolution of Carbamazepine using different hydrophyllic polymer like Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 4000, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 cps, poloxamer 407 and povidone k 30. Solid dispersions were prepared with different drug to polymer weight ratio by the solvent evaporation method where methanol was used as solvent. Drug-polymer physical mixtures were also prepared to compare the rate of dissolution. Effects of different polymer were studied for solid dispersion formulation as well as physical mixtures. These formulations were characterized in the solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Solid state characterization indicated CBZ was present as fine particles and entrapped in carrier matrix of PEG 6000 and PVP K30 solid dispersions. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies showed the stability of CBZ and absence of well-defined drug-polymer interactions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure CBZ, dispersions of drug in polymers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersion formulations containing PEG 6000 and Povidone K 30 showed maximum drug release within one hour at the ratio of 1:1:1. Even physical mixtures of CBZ prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure CBZ. In conclusions, solid dispersions could be a promising delivery of CBZ with improved oral bioavailability and immediate release profiles.

Keywords: carbamazepine, FTIR, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 CPS, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, poloxamer 407, water solubility, povidone k 30, SEM, solid dispersion

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376 Phase Changing Dicationic Polymeric Ionic Liquid with CO2 Capture Abilities

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni


Polymeric ionic liquids combine the properties of ionic liquids and polymers into a single material which has gained massive interest in the recent years. These ionic liquids offer several advantages such as high phase change enthalpy, wide temperature range, chemical and thermal stability, non-volatility and the ability to make them task-specific. Separation of CO2 is an area of critical importance due to the concerns over greenhouse gasses leading to global warming. Thermal energy storage materials, also known as phase change materials absorb latent heat during fusion process and release the absorbed energy to the surrounding environment during crystallization. These materials retain this property over a number of cycles and therefore, are useful for bridging the gap between energy requirement and use. In an effort to develop materials, which will help in minimizing the growing energy demand and environmental concerns, a series of dicationic poly(ethylene glycol) based polymeric ionic liquids were synthesized. One part of an acrylate of poly(ethylene glycol) was reacted with imidazolium quarternizing agent and the second part was reacted with triazolium quarternizing agent. These two different monomers were then copolymerized to prepare dicationic polymeric ionic liquid. These materials were characterized for solid-liquid phase transition and the enthalpy by using differential scanning calorimetry. The CO2 capture studies were performed on a fabricated setup with varying pressure range from 1-20 atm. The findings regarding the prepared materials, having potential dual applications in the fields of thermal energy storage and CO2 capture, will be discussed in the presentation.

Keywords: CO2 capture, phase change materials, polyethylene glycol, polymeric ionic liquids, thermal energy storage

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