Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Cyanobacteria

42 Usage of Cyanobacteria in Battery: Saving Money, Enhancing the Storage Capacity, Making Portable, and Supporting the Ecology

Authors: Saddam Husain Dhobi, Bikrant Karki

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The main objective of this paper is save money, balance ecosystem of the terrestrial organism, control global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of the battery with requiring weight and thinness by using Cyanobacteria in the battery. To fulfill this purpose of paper we can use different methods: Analysis, Biological, Chemistry, theoretical and Physics with some engineering design. Using this different method, we can produce the special type of battery that has the long life, high storage capacity, and clean environment, save money so on and by using the byproduct of Cyanobacteria i.e. glucose. Cyanobacteria are a special type of bacteria that produces different types of extracellular glucoses and oxygen with the help of little sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and can survive in freshwater, marine and in the land as well. In this process, O₂ is more in the comparison to plant due to rapid growth rate of Cyanobacteria. The required materials are easily available in this process to produce glucose with the help of Cyanobacteria. Since CO₂, is greenhouse gas that causes the global warming? We can utilize this gas and save our ecological balance and the byproduct (glucose) C₆H₁₂O₆ can be utilized for raw material for the battery where as O₂ escape is utilized by living organism. The glucose produce by Cyanobateria goes on Krebs's Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle, in which glucose is complete, oxidizes and all the available energy from glucose molecule has been release in the form of electron and proton as energy. If we use a suitable anodes and cathodes, we can capture these electrons and protons to produce require electricity current with the help of byproduct of Cyanobacteria. According to "Virginia Tech Bio-battery" and "Sony" 13 enzymes and the air is used to produce nearly 24 electrons from a single glucose unit. In this output power of 0.8 mW/cm, current density of 6 mA/cm, and energy storage density of 596 Ah/kg. This last figure is impressive, at roughly 10 times the energy density of the lithium-ion batteries in your mobile devices. When we use Cyanobacteria in battery, we are able to reduce Carbon dioxide, Stop global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of battery more than 10 times that of lithium battery, saving money, balancing ecology. In this way, we can produce energy from the Cyanobacteria and use it in battery for different benefits. In addition, due to the mass, size and easy cultivation, they are better to maintain the size of battery. Hence, we can use Cyanobacteria for the battery having suitable size, enhancing the storing capacity of battery, helping the environment, portability and so on.

Keywords: anode, byproduct, cathode, cyanobacteri, glucose, storage capacity

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41 The Effects of Above-Average Precipitation after Extended Drought on Phytoplankton in Southern California Surface Water Reservoirs

Authors: Margaret K. Spoo-Chupka

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The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) manages surface water reservoirs that are a source of drinking water for more than 19 million people in Southern California. These reservoirs experience periodic planktonic cyanobacteria blooms that can impact water quality. MWDSC imports water from two sources – the Colorado River (CR) and the State Water Project (SWP). The SWP brings supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that are characterized as having higher nutrients than CR water. Above average precipitation in 2017 after five years of drought allowed the majority of the reservoirs to fill. Phytoplankton was analyzed during the drought and after the drought at three reservoirs: Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which receives SWP water exclusively, Lake Skinner, which can receive a blend of SWP and CR water, and Lake Mathews, which generally receives only CR water. DVL experienced a significant increase in water elevation in 2017 due to large SWP inflows, and there were no significant changes to total phytoplankton biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity of the phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years despite the higher nutrient loads. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact DVL water quality (Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum spp., and Limnoraphis birgei) did not differ significantly between the heavy precipitation year and drought years. Compared to the other reservoirs, DVL generally has the highest concentration of cyanobacteria due to the water supply having greater nutrients. Lake Mathews’ water levels were similar in drought and wet years due to a reliable supply of CR water and there were no significant changes in the total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton diversity, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Lake Mathews (L. birgei and Microcystis spp.) did not differ significantly between 2017 and previous drought years. Lake Mathews generally had the lowest cyanobacteria biomass due to the water supply having lower nutrients. The CR supplied most of the water to Lake Skinner during drought years, while the SWP was the primary source during 2017. This change in water source resulted in a significant increase in phytoplankton biomass in 2017, no significant change in diversity, and a significant increase in cyanobacteria biomass. Cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Skinner included: Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp., and A.flos-aquae. There was no significant difference in Microcystis spp. biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years, but biomass of Dolichospermum spp. and A.flos-aquae were significantly greater in 2017 compared to previous drought years. Dolichospermum sp. and A. flos-aquae are two cyanobacteria that are more sensitive to nutrients than Microcystis spp., which are more sensitive to temperature. Patterns in problem cyanobacteria abundance among Southern California reservoirs as a result of above-average precipitation after more than five years of drought were most closely related to nutrient loading.

Keywords: drought, reservoirs, cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton ecology

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40 A Review of Toxic and Non-Toxic Cyanobacteria Species Occurrence in Water Supplies Destined for Maize Meal Production Process: A Case Study of Vhembe District

Authors: M. Mutoti, J. Gumbo, A. Jideani

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Cyanobacteria or blue green algae have been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Cyanobacteria can multiply quickly in surface waters and form blooms when favorable conditions prevail, such as high temperature, intense light, high pH, and increased availability of nutrients, especially phosphorous and nitrogen, artificially released by anthropogenic activities. Consumption of edible cyanotoxins such as Spirulina may reduce risks of cataracts and age related macular degeneration. Sulfate polysaccharides exhibit antitumor, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and even antiviral activity against HIV, herpes, and hepatitis. In humans, exposure to cyanotoxins can occur in various ways; however, the oral route is the most important. This is mainly through drinking water, or by eating contaminated foods; it may even involve ingesting water during recreational activities. This paper seeks to present a review on cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin contamination of water and food and implications for human health. In particular, examining the water quality used during maize seed that passes through mill grinding processes. In order to fulfil the objective, this paper starts with the theoretical framework on cyanobacteria contamination of food that will guide review of the present paper. A number of methods for decontaminating cyanotoxins in food is currently available. Therefore, physical, chemical, and biological methods for treating cyanotoxins are reviewed and compared. Furthermore, methods that are utilized for detecting and identifying cyanobacteria present in water and food were also informed in this review. This review has indicated various routes through which humans can be exposed to cyanotoxins. Accumulation of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins, in food has raised an awareness of the importance of food as microcystins exposure route to human body. Therefore, this review demonstrates the importance of expanding research on cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin contamination of water and food for water treatment and water supply management, with focus on examining water for domestic use. This will help providing information regarding the prevention or minimization of contamination of water and food, and also reduction or removal of contamination through treatment processes and prevention of recontamination in the distribution system.

Keywords: biofilm, cyanobacteria, cyanotoxin, food contamination

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39 Antimicrobial Activity of the Cyanobacteria spp. against Fish Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: I. Tulay Cagatay

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Blue-green microalgae cyanobacteria, which are important photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems, are the primary sources of many bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and enzymes that can be used as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Some of these organisms are nowadays used directly in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, or in aquaculture and biotechnological approaches like biofuel or drug therapy. Finding the effective, environmental friendly chemotropic and antimicrobial agents to control fish pathogens are crucial in a country like Turkey which has a production capacity of about 240 thousand tons of cultured fish and has 2377 production farms and which is the second biggest producer in Europe. In our study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacterium spp. against some fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri that are important pathogens for rainbow trout farms. Agar disk diffusion test method was used for studying antimicrobial activity on pathogens. Both tested microorganisms have shown antimicrobial activity positively as the inhibition zones were 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm respectively.

Keywords: fish pathogen, cyanobacteria, antimicrobial activity, trout

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38 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Prepared From Nostoc Commune Cyanobacteria Exopolysaccharides

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Omar P. Troncoso

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A wide range of bacteria synthesizes and secretes polymeric substances composed of a mixture of high-molecular-mass heteropolysaccharides. Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in colonial spherules of 10-20 mm in diameter. These spherules are filled with an internal gel made from a variety of polysaccharides known as Nostoc commune exopolysaccharides (NCE). In this paper, we report the use of these exopolysaccharides as a raw material for the preparation of a solid polymer electrolyte. Ammonium iodide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) salts were used to provide NCE films with ionic conductivity. In addition, a carboxymethylation treatment was used to further increase the conductivity of NCE films. The structural characterization of the NCE films was assessed by FTIR, XRD, and DSC tests. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) were used to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the samples. The results showed that NCE can be used to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films and that carboxymethylation improves their ionic conductivity. These NCE films can be used in the development of novel energy storage devices such as flat batteries or supercapacitors.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, Nostoc commune, cyanobacteria, exopolysaccharides

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
37 Electrochemical Inactivation of Toxic Cyanobacteria and Degradation of Cyanotoxins

Authors: Belal Bakheet, John Beardall, Xiwang Zhang, David McCarthy

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The potential risks associated with toxic cyanobacteria have raised growing environmental and public health concerns leading to an increasing effort into researching ways to bring about their removal from water, together with destruction of their associated cyanotoxins. A variety of toxins are synthesized by cyanobacteria and include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, and cytotoxins which can cause a range of symptoms in humans from skin irritation to serious liver and nerve damage. Therefore drinking water treatment processes should ensure the consumers’ safety by removing both cyanobacterial cells, and cyanotoxins from the water. Cyanobacterial cells and cyanotoxins presented challenges to the conventional water treatment systems; their accumulation within drinking water treatment plants has been reported leading to plants shut down. Thus, innovative and effective water purification systems to tackle cyanobacterial pollution are required. In recent years there has been increasing attention to the electrochemical oxidation process as a feasible alternative disinfection method which is able to generate in situ a variety of oxidants that would achieve synergistic effects in the water disinfection process and toxin degradation. By utilizing only electric current, the electrochemical process through electrolysis can produce reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals from the water, or other oxidants such as chlorine from chloride ions present in the water. From extensive physiological and morphological investigation of cyanobacterial cells during electrolysis, our results show that these oxidants have significant impact on cell inactivation, simultaneously with cyanotoxins removal without the need for chemicals addition. Our research aimed to optimize existing electrochemical oxidation systems and develop new systems to treat water containing toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. The research covers detailed mechanism study on oxidants production and cell inactivation in the treatment under environmental conditions. Overall, our study suggests that the electrochemical treatment process e is an effective method for removal of toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

Keywords: toxic cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, electrochemical process, oxidants

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36 Mixotrophic Growth as a Tool for Increasing Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Production in Cyanobacteria

Authors: Zuzana Sedrlova, Eva Slaninova, Ines Fritz, Christina Daffert, Stanislav Obruca

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Cyanobacteria are ecologically extremely important phototrophic gram-negative bacteria capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. They synthesize many interesting metabolites such as glycogen, carotenoids, but the most interesting metabolites are polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The main advantage of cyanobacteria is the fact they do not require costly organic substrate and, oppositely, cyanobacteria can fix CO₂. PHA serves primarily as a carbon and energy source and occurs in the form of intracellular granules in bacterial cells. It is possible, PHA helps cyanobacteria to survive stress conditions since increased PHA synthesis was observed during cultivation in stress conditions. PHA is microbial biopolymers that are biodegradable with similar properties as petrochemical synthetic plastics. Production of PHA by heterotrophic bacteria is expensive; for price reduction waste materials as input, materials are used. Positively, cyanobacteria principally do not require organic carbon substrate since they are capable of CO₂ fixation. In this work, we demonstrated that stress conditions lead to the highest obtained yields of PHA in cyanobacterial cultures. Two cyanobacterial cultures from genera Synechocystis were used in this work. Cultivations were performed either in Erlenmayer flask or in tube multicultivator. Multiple stressors were applied on cyanobacterial cultures, and stressors include PHA precursors. PHA precursors are chemical substances and some of them do not occur naturally in the environment. Cultivation with the same PHA precursors in the same concentration led to a 1,6x higher amount of PHA when a multicultivator was used. The highest amount of PHA reached 25 % of PHA in dry cyanobacterial biomass. Both strains are capable of co-polymer synthesis in the presence of their structural precursor. The composition of co-polymer differs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechocystis salina CCALA 192. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cultivated with γ-butyrolakton accumulated co-polymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) the composition of the copolymer was 56 % of 4HB and 44 % of 3HB. The total amount of PHA, as well as yield of biomass, was lower than in control due to the toxic properties of γ-butyrolakton. Funding: This study was partly funded by the project GA19- 19-29651L of the Czech Science Foundation (GACR) and partly funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), a project I 4082-B25. This work was supported by Brno, Ph.D. Talent – Funded by the Brno City Municipality.

Keywords: co-polymer, cyanobacteria, PHA, synechocystis

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35 Characterization of Cyanobacteria as Polyhydroxybutyrate Producer

Authors: Eva Slaninova, Diana Cernayova, Zuzana Sedrlova, Katerina Mrazova, Petr Sedlacek, Jana Nebesarova, Stanislav Obruca

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Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative prokaryotes that belong to a group of photosynthetic bacteria. In comparison with heterotrophic microorganisms, cyanobacteria utilize atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide without any additional substrates. This ability of these microorganisms could be employed in biotechnology for the production of bioplastics, concretely polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which are primarily accumulated as a storage material in cells in the form of intracellular granules. In this study, two cyanobacterial cultures from genera Synechocystis were used, namely Synechocystic sp. PCC 6803 and Synechocystis salina CCALA 192. There were optimized and used several various approaches, including microscopic techniques such as Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using Nile red as a fluorescent probe (FLIM). Due to these instrumental techniques, the morphology of intracellular space and surface of cells were characterized. The next group of methods that were employed was spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy measured in two modes (turbidimetry and integrating sphere) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All these diverse techniques were used for detection and characterization of pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids, phycocyanin, etc.) and PHAs, in our case poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB). To verify results, gas chromatography (GC) was employed concretely for the determination of the amount of P3HB in biomass. Cyanobacteria were also characterized as polyhydroxybutyrate producers by flow cytometer, which could count cells and at the same time distinguish cells including P3HB and without P3HB due to fluorescent probe called BODIPY and live/dead fluorescent probe SYTO Blue. Based on the results, P3HB content in cyanobacteria cells was determined and also overall fitness of the cells. Funding: This study was partly funded by the project GA19- 19-29651L of the Czech Science Foundation (GACR) and partly funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), a project I 4082-B25.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, fluorescent probe, microscopic techniques, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), chromatography, spectroscopy

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34 Modeling and Monitoring of Agricultural Influences on Harmful Algal Blooms in Western Lake Erie

Authors: Xiaofang Wei

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Harmful Algal Blooms are a recurrent disturbing occurrence in Lake Erie that has caused significant negative impacts on water quality and aquatic ecosystem around Great Lakes areas in the United States. Targeting the recent HAB events in western Lake Erie, this paper utilizes satellite imagery and hydrological modeling to monitor HAB cyanobacteria blooms and analyze the impacts of agricultural activities from Maumee watershed, the biggest watershed of Lake Erie and agriculture dominant.SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) Model for Maumee watershed was established with DEM, land use data, crop data layer, soil data, and weather data, and calibrated with Maumee River gauge stations data for streamflow and nutrients. Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Hypercubes (FLAASH) was applied to remove atmospheric attenuation and cyanobacteria Indices were calculated from Landsat OLI imagery to study the intensity of HAB events in the years 2015, 2017, and 2019. The agricultural practice and nutrients management within the Maumee watershed was studied and correlated with HAB cyanobacteria indices to study the relationship between HAB intensity and nutrient loadings. This study demonstrates that hydrological models and satellite imagery are effective tools in HAB monitoring and modeling in rivers and lakes.

Keywords: harmful algal bloom, landsat OLI imagery, SWAT, HAB cyanobacteria

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33 Genome-Wide Assessment of Putative Superoxide Dismutases in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria

Authors: Shivam Yadav, Neelam Atri

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Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes able to grow in diverse ecological habitats, originated 2.5 - 3.5 billion years ago and brought oxygenic photosynthesis. Since then superoxide dismutases (SODs) acquired great significance due to their ability to catalyze detoxification of byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis, i.e. superoxide radicals. Sequence information from several cyanobacterial genomes offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of the superoxide dismutases family. In the present study, we extracted information regarding SODs from species of sequenced cyanobacteria and investigated their diversity, conservation, domain structure, and evolution. 144 putative SOD homologues were identified. SODs are present in all cyanobacterial species reflecting their significant role in survival. However, their distribution varies, fewer in unicellular marine strains whereas abundant in filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Motifs and invariant amino acids typical in eukaryotic SODs were conserved well in these proteins. These SODs were classified into three major families according to their domain structures. Interestingly, they lack additional domains as found in proteins of other family. Phylogenetic relationships correspond well with phylogenies based on 16S rRNA and clustering occurs on the basis of structural characteristics such as domain organization. Similar conserved motifs and amino acids indicate that cyanobacterial SODs make use of a similar catalytic mechanism as eukaryotic SODs. Gene gain-and-loss is insignificant during SOD evolution as evidenced by absence of additional domain. This study has not only examined an overall background of sequence-structure-function interactions for the SOD gene family but also revealed variation among SOD distribution based on ecophysiological and morphological characters.

Keywords: comparative genomics, cyanobacteria, phylogeny, superoxide dismutases

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32 Application of Response Surface Methodology to Assess the Impact of Aqueous and Particulate Phosphorous on Diazotrophic and Non-Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria Associated with Harmful Algal Blooms

Authors: Elizabeth Crafton, Donald Ott, Teresa Cutright

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Harmful algal blooms (HABs), more notably cyanobacteria-dominated HABs, compromise water quality, jeopardize access to drinking water and are a risk to public health and safety. HABs are representative of ecosystem imbalance largely caused by environmental changes, such as eutrophication, that are associated with the globally expanding human population. Cyanobacteria-dominated HABs are anticipated to increase in frequency, magnitude, and are predicted to plague a larger geographical area as a result of climate change. The weather pattern is important as storm-driven, pulse-input of nutrients have been correlated to cyanobacteria-dominated HABs. The mobilization of aqueous and particulate nutrients and the response of the phytoplankton community is an important relationship in this complex phenomenon. This relationship is most apparent in high-impact areas of adequate sunlight, > 20ᵒC, excessive nutrients and quiescent water that corresponds to ideal growth of HABs. Typically the impact of particulate phosphorus is dismissed as an insignificant contribution; which is true for areas that are not considered high-impact. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a simulated storm-driven, pulse-input of reactive phosphorus and the response of three different cyanobacteria assemblages (~5,000 cells/mL). The aqueous and particulate sources of phosphorus and changes in HAB were tracked weekly for 4 weeks. The first cyanobacteria composition consisted of Planktothrix sp., Microcystis sp., Aphanizomenon sp., and Anabaena sp., with 70% of the total population being non-diazotrophic and 30% being diazotrophic. The second was comprised of Anabaena sp., Planktothrix sp., and Microcystis sp., with 87% diazotrophic and 13% non-diazotrophic. The third composition has yet to be determined as these experiments are ongoing. Preliminary results suggest that both aqueous and particulate sources are contributors of total reactive phosphorus in high-impact areas. The results further highlight shifts in the cyanobacteria assemblage after the simulated pulse-input. In the controls, the reactors dosed with aqueous reactive phosphorus maintained a constant concentration for the duration of the experiment; whereas, the reactors that were dosed with aqueous reactive phosphorus and contained soil decreased from 1.73 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L of reactive phosphorus from time zero to 7 days; this was higher than the blank (0.11 mg/L). Suggesting a binding of aqueous reactive phosphorus to sediment, which is further supported by the positive correlation observed between total reactive phosphorus concentration and turbidity. The experiments are nearly completed and a full statistical analysis will be completed of the results prior to the conference.

Keywords: Anabaena, cyanobacteria, harmful algal blooms, Microcystis, phosphorous, response surface methodology

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31 Intentional Cultivation of Non-toxic Filamentous Cyanobacteria Tolypothrix as an Approach to Treat Eutrophic Waters

Authors: Simona Lucakova, Irena Branyikova

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Eutrophication, a condition when water becomes over-enriched with nutrients (P, N), can lead to undesirable excessive growth of phytoplankton, so-called algal bloom. This process results in the accumulation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria and oxygen depletion, both possibly leading to the collapse of the whole ecosystem. In real conditions, the limiting nutrient, which determines the possible growth of harmful algal bloom, is usually phosphorus. Algicides or flocculants have been applied in the eutrophicated waterbody in order to reduce the phytoplankton growth, which leads to the introduction of toxic chemicals into the water. In our laboratory, the idea of the prevention of harmful phytoplankton growth by the intentional cultivation of non-toxic cyanobacteria Tolypothrix tenuis in semi-open floating photobioreactors directly on the surface of phosphorus-rich waterbody is examined. During the process of cultivation, redundant phosphorus is incorporated into cyanobacterial biomass, which can be subsequently used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, or biostimulants for agricultural use. To determine the ability of phosphorus incorporation, batch-cultivation of Tolypothrix biomass in media simulating eutrophic water (10% BG medium) and in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant, both with the initial phosphorus concentration in the range 0.5-1.0 mgP/L was performed in laboratory-scale models of floating photobioreactors. After few hours of cultivation, the phosphorus content was decreased below the target limit of 0.035 mgP/L, which was given as a borderline for the algal bloom formation. Under laboratory conditions, the effect of several parameters on the rate of phosphorus decrease was tested (illumination, temperature, stirring speed/aeration gas flow, biomass to medium ratio). Based on the obtained results, a bench-scale floating photobioreactor was designed and will be tested for Tolypothrix growth in real conditions. It was proved that intentional cultivation of cyanobacteria Tolypothrix could be a suitable approach for extracting redundant phosphorus from eutrophic waters as prevention of algal bloom formation.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, floating photobioreactor, Tolypothrix

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30 Risks for Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms in Georgia Piedmont Waterbodies Due to Land Management and Climate Interactions

Authors: Sam Weber, Deepak Mishra, Susan Wilde, Elizabeth Kramer

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The frequency and severity of cyanobacteria harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) have been increasing over time, with point and non-point source eutrophication and shifting climate paradigms being blamed as the primary culprits. Excessive nutrients, warm temperatures, quiescent water, and heavy and less regular rainfall create more conducive environments for CyanoHABs. CyanoHABs have the potential to produce a spectrum of toxins that cause gastrointestinal stress, organ failure, and even death in humans and animals. To promote enhanced, proactive CyanoHAB management, risk modeling using geospatial tools can act as predictive mechanisms to supplement current CyanoHAB monitoring, management and mitigation efforts. The risk maps would empower water managers to focus their efforts on high risk water bodies in an attempt to prevent CyanoHABs before they occur, and/or more diligently observe those waterbodies. For this research, exploratory spatial data analysis techniques were used to identify the strongest predicators for CyanoHAB blooms based on remote sensing-derived cyanobacteria cell density values for 771 waterbodies in the Georgia Piedmont and landscape characteristics of their watersheds. In-situ datasets for cyanobacteria cell density, nutrients, temperature, and rainfall patterns are not widely available, so free gridded geospatial datasets were used as proxy variables for assessing CyanoHAB risk. For example, the percent of a watershed that is agriculture was used as a proxy for nutrient loading, and the summer precipitation within a watershed was used as a proxy for water quiescence. Cyanobacteria cell density values were calculated using atmospherically corrected images from the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2A satellite and multispectral instrument sensor at a 10-meter ground resolution. Seventeen explanatory variables were calculated for each watershed utilizing the multi-petabyte geospatial catalogs available within the Google Earth Engine cloud computing interface. The seventeen variables were then used in a multiple linear regression model, and the strongest predictors of cyanobacteria cell density were selected for the final regression model. The seventeen explanatory variables included land cover composition, winter and summer temperature and precipitation data, topographic derivatives, vegetation index anomalies, and soil characteristics. Watershed maximum summer temperature, percent agriculture, percent forest, percent impervious, and waterbody area emerged as the strongest predictors of cyanobacteria cell density with an adjusted R-squared value of 0.31 and a p-value ~ 0. The final regression equation was used to make a normalized cyanobacteria cell density index, and a Jenks Natural Break classification was used to assign waterbodies designations of low, medium, or high risk. Of the 771 waterbodies, 24.38% were low risk, 37.35% were medium risk, and 38.26% were high risk. This study showed that there are significant relationships between free geospatial datasets representing summer maximum temperatures, nutrient loading associated with land use and land cover, and the area of a waterbody with cyanobacteria cell density. This data analytics approach to CyanoHAB risk assessment corroborated the literature-established environmental triggers for CyanoHABs, and presents a novel approach for CyanoHAB risk mapping in waterbodies across the greater southeastern United States.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, land use/land cover, remote sensing, risk mapping

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29 Green Synthesis of Silver and Silver-Gold Alloy Nanoparticle Using Cyanobacteria as Bioreagent

Authors: Piya Roychoudhury, Ruma Pal

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Cyanobacteria, commonly known as blue green algae were found to be an effective bioreagent for nanoparticle synthesis. Nowadays silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are very popular due to their antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity. To exploit these characters in different biotechnological fields, it is very essential to synthesize more stable, non-toxic nano-silver. For this reason silver-gold alloy (Ag-AuNPs) nanoparticles are of great interest as they are more stable, harder and more effective than single metal nanoparticles. In the present communication we described a simple technique for rapid synthesis of biocompatible AgNP and Ag-AuNP employing cyanobacteria, Leptolyngbya and Lyngbya respectively. For synthesis of AgNP the biomass of Leptolyngbya valderiana (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to 9 mM AgNO3 solution (pH 4). For synthesis of Ag-AuNP Lyngbya majuscula (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to equimolar solution of hydrogen tetra-auro chlorate and silver nitrate (1mM, pH 4). After 72 hrs of exposure thallus of Leptolyngyba turned brown in color and filaments of Lyngbya turned pink in color that indicated synthesis of nanoparticles. The produced particles were extracted from the cyanobacterial biomass using nano-capping agent, sodium citrate. Firstly, extracted brown and pink suspensions were taken for Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis to confirm the presence of silver in brown suspension and presence of both gold and silver in pink suspension. Extracted nanoparticles showed a distinct single plasmon band (AgNP at 411 nm; Ag-Au NP at 481 nm) in Uv-vis spectroscopy. It was revealed from Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that all the synthesized particles were spherical in nature with a size range of ~2-25 nm. In X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis four intense peaks appeared at 38.2°, 44.5°, 64.8°and 77.8° which confirmed the crystallographic nature of synthesized particles. Presence of different functional groups viz. N-H, C=C, C–O, C=O on the surface of nanoparticles were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the surface topography of metal treated filaments of cyanobacteria. The stability of the particles was observed by Zeta potential study. Antibiotic property of synthesized particles was tested by Agar well diffusion method against gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall, this green-technique requires low energy, less manufacturing cost and produces rapidly eco-friendly metal nanoparticles.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, silver nanoparticles, silver-gold alloy nanoparticles, spectroscopy

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28 Impact of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Metabolic Changes in the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

Authors: Rishi Saxena

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Cyanobacteria is a photosynthetic prokaryote, and these obtain their energy through photosynthesis. In this paper, we studied the effect of iron on metabolic changes in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Nowadays, metal contamination due to natural and anthropogenic sources is a global environment concern. Iron induced changes in growth, N2-fixation, CO2 fixation and photosynthetic activity were studied in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Iron at 50 uM concentration supported the maximum growth, heterocyst frequency, CO2 fixation, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II) and nitrogenase activities in the organism. Higher concentration of iron inhibited these processes. Chl a and PS II activities were more sensitive to iron than the protein and PS I activity. Here, it is also mentioned that heavy metal induced altered macromolecules metabolism and changes in the central dogma of life (DNA→ mRNA → Protein). And also recent advances have been made in understanding heavy metal-cyanobacteria interaction and their application for metal detoxification.

Keywords: cyanobacterium anabaena 7120, nitrogen fixation, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II)

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27 Spatial Variability of Phyotoplankton Assemblages during the Intermonsoon in Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound, Aurora, Fronting Philipine Rise

Authors: Aime P. Lampad-Dela Pena, Rhodora V. Azanza, Cesar L. Villanoy, Ephrime B. Metillo, Aletta T. Yniguez

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Phytoplankton community changes in relation to environmental parameters were compared between and within, the three interconnected basins. Phytoplankton samples were collected from thirteen stations of Baler Bay and Casiguran Sound, Aurora last May 2013 by filtering 10 L buckets of surface water and 5 L Niskin samples at 20 meters and at 30 to 40 meters depths through a 20um sieve. Duplicate samples per station were preserved, counted, and identified up to genus level, in order to determine the horizontal and vertical spatial variation of different phytoplankton functional groups during the summer ebb and flood flow. Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound had a total of 89 genera from four phytoplankton groups: Diatom (62), Dinoflagellate (25), Silicoflagellate (1) and Cyanobacteria (1). Non-toxic diatom Chaetoceros spp. bloom (averaged 2.0 x 105 to 2.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) co-existed with Bacteriastrum spp. at surface waters in Inner and Outer Casiguran. Pseudonitzschia spp. (1.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) bloomed at bottom waters of the innermost embayment near Casiguran mangrove estuary. Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. significantly increased during ebb tide at the mid-water layers (20 meters depth) in the three basins (ranged from 6, 900 to 15, 125 filaments L⁻¹), forming another bloom. Gonyaulax spp. - dominated dinoflagellate did not significantly change with depth across the three basins. Overall, diatoms and dinoflagellates community assemblages significantly changed between sites (p < 0.001) while diatoms and cyanobacteria varied within Casiguran outer and inner sites (p < 0.001) only. Tidal fluctuations significantly affected dinoflagellates and diatom groups (p < 0.001) in inner and baler sites. Chlorophyll significantly varied between (KW, p < 0.001) and within each basins (KW, p < 0.05), no tidal influence, with the highest value at inner Casiguran and at deeper waters indicating deep chlorophyll maxima. Aurora’s distinct shelf morphology favoring counterclockwise circulation pattern, advective transport, and continuous stratification of the water column could basically affect the phytoplankton assemblages and water quality of Baler Bay and Casiguran inner and outer basins. Observed spatial phytoplankton community changes with multi-species diatom and cyanobacteria bloom at different water layers of the three inter-connected embayments would be vital for any environmental management initiatives in Aurora.

Keywords: aurora fronting Philippines Rise, intermonsoon, multi-species diatom bloom, spatial variability

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26 Comparative Analysis of Photosynthetic and Antioxidative Responses of Two Species of Anabaena under Ni and As(III) Stress

Authors: Shivam Yadav, Neelam Atri

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Cyanobacteria, the photosynthetic prokaryotes are indispensable components of paddy soil contribute substantially to the nitrogen economy however often appended with metal load. They are well known to play crucial roles in maintenance of soil fertility and rice productivity. Nickel is one such metal that plays a vital role in the cellular physiology, however at higher concentrations it exerts adverse effects. Arsenic is another toxic metalloid that negatively affects the cyanobacterial proliferation. However species-specific comparative responses under As and Ni is largely unknown. The present study focuses on the comparative effects of nickel (Ni2+) and arsenite (As(III)) on two diazotrophic cyanobacterial species (Anabaena doliolum and Anabaena sp. PCC7120) in terms of antioxidative aspects. Oxidative damage measured in terms of lipid peroxidation and peroxide content was significantly higher after As(III) than Ni treatment as compared to control. Similarly, all the studied enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters of antioxidative defense system except glutathione reductase (GR) showed greater induction against As(III) than Ni. Moreover, integrating comparative analysis of all studied parameters also demonstrated interspecies variation in terms of stress adaptive strategies reflected through higher sensitivity of Anabaena doliolum over Anabaena PCC7120.

Keywords: antioxidative system, arsenic, cyanobacteria, nickel

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25 Evaluating the Potential of a Fast Growing Indian Marine Cyanobacterium by Reconstructing and Analysis of a Genome Scale Metabolic Model

Authors: Ruchi Pathania, Ahmad Ahmad, Shireesh Srivastava

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Cyanobacteria is a promising microbe that can capture and convert atmospheric CO₂ and light into valuable industrial bio-products like biofuels, biodegradable plastics, etc. Among their most attractive traits are faster autotrophic growth, whole year cultivation using non-arable land, high photosynthetic activity, much greater biomass and productivity and easy for genetic manipulations. Cyanobacteria store carbon in the form of glycogen which can be hydrolyzed to release glucose and fermented to form bioethanol or other valuable products. Marine cyanobacterial species are especially attractive for countries with scarcity of freshwater. We recently identified a marine native cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. BDU 130192 which has good growth rate and high level of polyglucans accumulation compared to Synechococcus PCC 7002. In this study, firstly we sequenced the whole genome and the sequences were annotated using the RAST server. Genome scale metabolic model (GSMM) was reconstructed through COBRA toolbox. GSMM is a computational representation of the metabolic reactions and metabolites of the target strain. GSMMs construction through the application of Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), which uses external nutrient uptake rates and estimate steady state intracellular and extracellular reaction fluxes, including maximization of cell growth. The model, which we have named isyn942, includes 942 reactions and 913 metabolites having 831 metabolic, 78 transport and 33 exchange reactions. The phylogenetic tree obtained by BLAST search revealed that the strain was a close relative of Synechococcus PCC 7002. The flux balance analysis (FBA) was applied on the model iSyn942 to predict the theoretical yields (mol product produced/mol CO₂ consumed) for native and non-native products like acetone, butanol, etc. under phototrophic condition by applying metabolic engineering strategies. The reported strain can be a viable strain for biotechnological applications, and the model will be helpful to researchers interested in understanding the metabolism as well as to design metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of various bioproducts.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic model, metabolic engineering

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24 Invasion of Pectinatella magnifica in Freshwater Resources of the Czech Republic

Authors: J. Pazourek, K. Šmejkal, P. Kollár, J. Rajchard, J. Šinko, Z. Balounová, E. Vlková, H. Salmonová

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Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) is an invasive freshwater animal that lives in colonies. A colony of Pectinatella magnifica (a gelatinous blob) can be up to several feet in diameter large and under favorable conditions it exhibits an extreme growth rate. Recently European countries around rivers of Elbe, Oder, Danube, Rhine and Vltava have confirmed invasion of Pectinatella magnifica, including freshwater reservoirs in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). Our project (Czech Science Foundation, GAČR P503/12/0337) is focused onto biology and chemistry of Pectinatella magnifica. We monitor the organism occurrence in selected South Bohemia ponds and sandpits during the last years, collecting information about physical properties of surrounding water, and sampling the colonies for various analyses (classification, maps of secondary metabolites, toxicity tests). Because the gelatinous matrix is during the colony lifetime also a host for algae, bacteria and cyanobacteria (co-habitants), in this contribution, we also applied a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of potentially present cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin-LR, microcystin-RR, nodularin). Results from the last 3-year monitoring show that these toxins are under limit of detection (LOD), so that they do not represent a danger yet. The final goal of our study is to assess toxicity risks related to fresh water resources invaded by Pectinatella magnifica, and to understand the process of invasion, which can enable to control it.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, fresh water resources, Pectinatella magnifica invasion, toxicity monitoring

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23 Determination of Cyanotoxins from Leeukraal and Klipvoor Dams

Authors: Moletsane Makgotso, Mogakabe Elijah, Marrengane Zinhle

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South Africa’s water resources quality is becoming more and more weakened by eutrophication, which deteriorates its usability. Thirty five percent of fresh water resources are eutrophic to hypertrophic, including grossly-enriched reservoirs that go beyond the globally-accepted definition of hypertrophy. Failing infrastructure adds to the problem of contaminated urban runoff which encompasses an important fraction of flows to inland reservoirs, particularly in the non-coastal, economic heartland of the country. Eutrophication threatens the provision of potable and irrigation water in the country because of the dependence on fresh water resources. Eutrophicated water reservoirs increase water treatment costs, leads to unsuitability for recreational purposes and health risks to human and animal livelihood due to algal proliferation. Eutrophication is caused by high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in water bodies. In South Africa, Microsystis and Anabaena are widely distributed cyanobacteria, with Microcystis being the most dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterial species associated with toxin production. Two impoundments were selected, namely the Klipvoor and Leeukraal dams as they are mainly used for fishing, recreational, agricultural and to some extent, potable water purposes. The total oxidized nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration were determined as causative nutrients for eutrophication. Chlorophyll a and total microcystins, as well as the identification of cyanobacteria was conducted as indicators of cyanobacterial infestation. The orthophosphate concentration was determined by subjecting the samples to digestion and filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis of total phosphates and dissolved phosphates using Aquakem kits. The total oxidized nitrates analysis was conducted by initially conducting filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Chlorophyll a was quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of before and after acidification. Microcystins were detected using the Quantiplate Microcystin Kit, as well as microscopic identification of cyanobacterial species. The Klipvoor dam was found to be hypertrophic throughout the study period as the mean Chlorophyll a concentration was 269.4µg/l which exceeds the mean value for the hypertrophic state. The mean Total Phosphorus concentration was >0.130mg/l, and the total microcystin concentration was > 2.5µg/l throughout the study. The most predominant algal species were found to be the Microcystis. The Leeukraal dam was found to be mesotrophic with the potential of it becoming eutrophic as the mean concentration for chlorophyll a was 18.49 µg/l with the mean Total Phosphorus > 0.130mg/l and the Total Microcystin concentration < 0.16µg/l. The cyanobacterial species identified in Leeukraal have been classified as those that do not pose a potential risk to any impoundment. Microcystis was present throughout the sampling period and dominant during the warmer seasons. The high nutrient concentrations led to the dominance of Microcystis that resulted in high levels of microcystins rendering the impoundments, particularly Klipvoor undesirable for utilisation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, cyanobacteria, microcystins

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22 Monitoring Spatial Distribution of Blue-Green Algae Blooms with Underwater Drones

Authors: R. L. P. De Lima, F. C. B. Boogaard, R. E. De Graaf-Van Dinther

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Blue-green algae blooms (cyanobacteria) is currently a relevant ecological problem that is being addressed by most water authorities in the Netherlands. These can affect recreation areas by originating unpleasant smells and toxins that can poison humans and animals (e.g. fish, ducks, dogs). Contamination events usually take place during summer months, and their frequency is increasing with climate change. Traditional monitoring of this bacteria is expensive, labor-intensive and provides only limited (point sampling) information about the spatial distribution of algae concentrations. Recently, a novel handheld sensor allowed water authorities to quicken their algae surveying and alarm systems. This study converted the mentioned algae sensor into a mobile platform, by combining it with an underwater remotely operated vehicle (also equipped with other sensors and cameras). This provides a spatial visualization (mapping) of algae concentrations variations within the area covered with the drone, and also in depth. Measurements took place in different locations in the Netherlands: i) lake with thick silt layers at the bottom, very eutrophic former bottom of the sea and frequent / intense mowing regime; ii) outlet of waste water into large reservoir; iii) urban canal system. Results allowed to identify probable dominant causes of blooms (i), provide recommendations for the placement of an outlet, day-night differences in algae behavior (ii), or the highlight / pinpoint higher algae concentration areas (iii). Although further research is still needed to fully characterize these processes and to optimize the measuring tool (underwater drone developments / improvements), the method here presented can already provide valuable information about algae behavior and spatial / temporal variability and shows potential as an efficient monitoring system.

Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, underwater drones / ROV / AUV, water quality monitoring

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21 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar

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The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, Cyanobacteria

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20 Diversity of Microbial Ground Improvements

Authors: V. Ivanov, J. Chu, V. Stabnikov

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Low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial cements, grouts, polysaccharides and bioplastics are useful in construction and geotechnical engineering. Construction-related biotechnologies are based on activity of different microorganisms: urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, denitrifying, iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, microscopic fungi. The bio-related materials and processes can be used for the bioaggregation, soil biogrouting and bioclogging, biocementation, biodesaturation of water-satured soil, bioencapsulation of soft clay, biocoating, and biorepair of the concrete surface. Altogether with the most popular calcium- and urea based biocementation, there are possible and often are more effective such methods of ground improvement as calcium- and magnesium based biocementation, calcium phosphate strengthening of soil, calcium bicarbonate biocementation, and iron- or polysaccharide based bioclogging. The construction-related microbial biotechnologies have a lot of advantages over conventional construction materials and processes.

Keywords: ground improvement, biocementation, biogrouting, microorganisms

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19 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin

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Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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18 Effect of Nutrient Limitations in Phycocyanin Formation by Spirulina platensis

Authors: Hugo F. Lobaton

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The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is a prokaryotic photoautotrophic microorganism that is successfully cultivated for the commercialization as whole biomass due to its high protein content and promising valuable substance. For instance, phycocyanin has recently drawn the interest of the food and cosmetic industries due to its bright blue colour and its strong antioxidant capacities. The phycocyanin (PC) is the main protein-pigment in S. platensis (4% to 20%). In batches, the rate of overproduction of metabolites by cyanobacteria is limited or activated by the depletion of required substrates. The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic law that describes phycocyanin formation during batch cultivation. S. platensis was cultivated in 1 L bubble column photobioreactor with 30°C and 700 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Culture samples were daily collected from the bubble columns in sterile conditions. The biomass (g l⁻¹) was measured directly after a biomass lyophilisation process, and phycocyanin extractions and measurements were done according to a well-established protocol. A kinetic law for phycocyanin formation that includes nitrate and bicarbonate limitations was proposed and linked to the biomass core model. The set of differential equations were solved in MATLAB. Concerning to product formation, the experimental results show that phycocyanin mass fraction is degraded as results of the complete nitrate depletion and nitrate additions during the cultivation help to keep constant this molecule until new macro-element limitation appear. According to the model, bicarbonate is this limitation.

Keywords: phycocyanin, nitrate, bicarbonate, spirulina

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17 Distribution of Current Emerging Contaminants in South Africa Surface and Groundwater

Authors: Jou-An Chen, Julio Castillo, Errol Duncan Cason, Gabre Kemp, Leana Esterhuizen, Angel Valverde Portal, Esta Van Heerden

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Emerging contaminants (EC) such as pharmaceutical and personal care products have been accumulating for years in water bodies all over the world. However, very little is known about the occurrences, levels, and effects of ECs in South African water resources. This study provides an initial assessment of the distribution of eight ECs (Acetaminophen, Atrazine, Terbuthlyazine, Carbamazepine, Phenyton, Sulfmethoxazole, Nevirapine and Fluconozole) in fifteen water sources from the Free State and Easter Cape provinces of South Africa. Overall, the physiochemical conditions were different in surface and groundwater samples, with concentrations of several elements such as B, Ca, Mg, Na, NO3, and TDS been statistically higher in groundwater. In contrast, ECs levels, quantified at ng/mL using the LC/MS/ESI, were much lower in groundwater samples. The ECs with higher contamination levels were Carbamazepine, Sulfmethoxazole, Nevirapine, and Terbuthlyazine, while the most widespread were Sulfmethoxazole and Fluconozole, detected in all surface and groundwater samples. Fecal and E. coli tests indicated that surface water was more contaminated than groundwater. Microbial communities, assessed using NGS, were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, in both surface and groundwater. Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Cyanobacteria, were more dominant in surface water, while Verrucomicrobia were overrepresented in groundwater. In conclusion, ECs contamination is closely associated with human activities (human wastes). The microbial diversity identified can suggest possible biodegradation processes.

Keywords: emerging contaminants, EC, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, natural attenuation process

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16 Protective Role of Phycobiliproteins in ROS-Associated Physiological Anomalies

Authors: Ravi Raghav Sonani, Niraj Kumar Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Datta Madamwar

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Phycobiliproteins (PBPs) are light harvesting proteins showing very strong absorbance and fluorescence in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC) are majorly found PBPs in the cyanobacteria and red algae. In the present study, we have investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-averting capacity of purified PE and PC of cyanobacterial origin. Furthermore, the possibility - whether the ROS-averting potential of PBPs can be explored in the therapeutics of oxidative stress associated physiological anomalies including aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as model organism in this study. PE and PC treatment moderated normal aging and associated physiological functionalities like pharyngeal pumping and locomotion of C. elegans. Moreover, PE-treatment enhanced the stress (oxidative and heat) tolerance upon PE and PC treatment. Specifically, PE treatment was also noted to moderate the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic C. elegans CL4176. However, PC-treatment curtailed the polyQ aggregation mediated proteotoxicity in C. elegans AM141 (Huntington disease model) under stressed (paraquat stress) as well as normal conditions. The effectiveness of PE and PC in expanding the lifespan of mutant C. elegans knockout for some up- (daf 16) and down- (daf-2 and age-1) stream regulators of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) shows the independency of their effects from DAF-2–AGE-1–DAF-16 signalling pathway. In conclusion, the present report demonstrates the anti-aging and neuro-protective potential of cyanobacterial PE and PC.

Keywords: phycobiliproteins, aging, alzheimer, huntington, C. elegans

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15 The Role of Phycoremediation in the Sustainable Management of Aquatic Pollution

Authors: Raymond Ezenweani, Jeffrey Ogbebor

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The menace of aquatic pollution has become increasingly of great concern and the effects of this pollution as a result of anthropogenic activities cannot be over emphasized. Phycoremediation is the application of algal remediation technology in the removal of harmful products from the environment. Harmful products also known as pollutants are usually introduced into the environment through variety of processes such as industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, flooding, and acid rain. This work has to do with the capability of algae in the efficient removal of different pollutants, ranging from hydrocarbons, eutrophication, agricultural chemicals and wastes, heavy metals, foul smell from septic tanks or dumps through different processes such as bioconversion, biosorption, bioabsorption and biodecomposition. Algae are capable of bioconversion of environmentally persistent compounds to degradable compounds and also capable of putting harmful bacteria growth into check in waste water remediation. Numerous algal organisms such as Nannochloropsis spp, Chlorella spp, Tetraselmis spp, Shpaerocystics spp, cyanobacteria and different macroalgae have been tested by different researchers in laboratory scale and shown to have 100% efficiency in environmental remediation. Algae as a result of their photosynthetic capacity are also efficient in air cleansing and management of global warming by sequestering carbon iv oxide in air and converting it into organic carbon, thereby making food available for the other organisms in the higher trophic level of the aquatic food chain. Algae play major role in the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem by their virtue of being photosynthetic. They are the primary producers and their role in environmental sustainability is remarkable.

Keywords: Algae , Pollutant, ., Phycoremediation, Aquatic, Sustainability

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14 The Taxonomic and Functional Diversity in Edaphic Microbial Communities from Antarctic Dry Valleys

Authors: Sean T. S. Wei, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Annapoorna Maitrayee Ganeshram, Stephen B. Pointing

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McMurdo Dry Valleys are a largely ice-free polar desert protected by international treaty as an Antarctic special managed area. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soil with extensive rocky outcrops. Several environmental stresses: low temperature, lack of liquid water, UV exposure and oligotrophic substrates, restrict the major biotic component to microorganisms. The bacterial diversity and the putative physiological capacity of microbial communities of quartz rocks (hypoliths) and soil of a maritime-influenced Dry Valleys were interrogated by two metagenomic approaches: 454 pyro-sequencing and Geochp DNA microarray. The most abundant phylum in hypoliths was Cyanobacteria (46%), whereas in solils Actinobacteria (31%) were most abundant. The Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the only other phyla to comprise >10% of both communities. Carbon fixation was indicated by photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic pathways for both hypolith and soil communities. The fungi accounted for polymer carbon transformations, particularly for aromatic compounds. The complete nitrogen cycling was observed in both communities. The fungi in particular displayed pathways related to ammonification. Environmental stress response pathways were common among bacteria, whereas the nutrient stress response pathways were more widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi. The diversity of bacterialphage was also surveyed by Geochip. Data suggested that different substrates supported different viral families: Leviviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridiae were ubiquitous. However, Corticoviridae and Microviridae only occurred in wetter soils.

Keywords: Antarctica, hypolith, soil, dry valleys, geochip, functional diversity, stress response

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13 The Effect of Filter Cake Powder on Soil Stability Enhancement in Active Sand Dunes, In the Long and Short Term

Authors: Irit Rutman Halili, Tehila Zvulun, Natali Elgabsi, Revaya Cohen, Shlomo Sarig

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Active sand dunes (ASD) may cause significant damage to field crops and livelihood, and therefore, it is necessary to find a treatment that would enhance ADS soil stability. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) contain microorganisms on the soil surface. Metabolic polysaccharides secreted by biocrust cyanobacteria glue the soil particles into aggregates, thereby stabilizing the soil surface. Filter cake powder (FCP) is a waste by-product in the final stages of the production of sugar from sugarcane, and its disposal causes significant environmental pollution. FCP contains high concentrations of polysaccharides and has recently been shown to be soil stability enhancing agent in ASD. It has been reported that adding FCP to the ASD soil surface by dispersal significantly increases the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) nine weeks after a single treatment. However, it was not known whether a similar effect could be obtained by administering the FCP in liquid form by means of spraying. It has now been found that spraying a water solution of FCP onto the ASD soil surface significantly increased the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) three weeks after a single treatment. These results suggest that FCP spraying can be used as a short-term soil stability-enhancing agent for ASD, while administration by dispersal might be more efficient over the long term. Finally, an additional benefit of using FCP as a soil stabilizer, either by dispersal or by spraying, is the reduction in environmental pollution that would otherwise result from the disposal of FCP solid waste.

Keywords: active sand dunes, filter cake powder, biological soil crusts, penetration resistance of soil biocrust

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