Search results for: Lakhveer Singh
1018 Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Polialuminum Chloride to Treat Palm Oil Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation
Authors: M. Nasrullah, Siti Norsita, Lakhveer Singh, A. W. Zulrisam, Mimi Sakinah
Abstract:The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and hydrogen peroxide on COD removal by electrocoagulation. The current density was varied between 30-80 mA cm−2, polyaluminum chloride (1-3 g L-1) as coagulant aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. It has been shown that 86.67% of COD was removed by the iron electrode in 180 min while 81.11% of COD was removed by the aluminum electrode in 210 min which indicate that iron was more effective than aluminum. As much as 88.25% COD was removed by using 80 mA cm−2 as compared to 72.86% by using 30 mA cm−2 in 240 min. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The highest removal efficiency of 95.08% was achieved by adding 2% of H2O2 in addition of 3 g L−1 PAC. The general results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30-80 mAcm-2 depending on the concentration of H2O2 and coagulant aid.
Keywords: electrocaogulation, palm oil mill effluent, hydrogen peroxide, polialuminum chloride, chemical oxygen demandProcedia PDF Downloads 338
1017 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation
Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid
Abstract:This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.
Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 195
1016 The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim
Abstract:In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.
Keywords: bioydrogen, immobilization, polyethylene glycol, palm oil mill effluent, dark fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 273
1015 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater
Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim
Abstract:Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.
Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluentProcedia PDF Downloads 212
1014 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant
Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.
Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicalsProcedia PDF Downloads 227
1013 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides
Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney
Abstract:Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.
Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 204
1012 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces
Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh
Abstract:Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.
Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosionProcedia PDF Downloads 247
1011 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints
Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh
Abstract:Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.
Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 410
1010 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment
Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan
Abstract:The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.
Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOSProcedia PDF Downloads 382
1009 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective
Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh
Abstract:Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.
Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilanceProcedia PDF Downloads 297
1008 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS
Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu
Abstract:In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.
Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SSProcedia PDF Downloads 296
1007 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades
Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema
Abstract:A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.
Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wearProcedia PDF Downloads 328
1006 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel
Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini
Abstract:The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.
Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc weldingProcedia PDF Downloads 400
1005 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness
Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh
Abstract:The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.
Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric imagesProcedia PDF Downloads 421
1004 Experimental Investigation on Sustainable Machining of Hastelloy C-276 Utilizing Different Cooling Strategies
Authors: Balkar Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Sehijpal Singh
Abstract:The present research focused to improve the machinability of Hastelloy C-276 at different machining speeds such as 31, 55, and 79 m/min. The use of CO2 gas and Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) was applied as coolant and lubrication purposes to enhance the machinability of the superalloy. The output in the form of surface roughness (S.R) and heat generation was monitored under dry, MQL, and MQL-CO2-cooled conditions. The Design of the Experiment was prepared using MINITAB software utilizing Taguchi L-27 orthogonal arrays followed by ANOVA analysis for finding the impact of input variables on output responses. At different speeds and lubrication conditions, different behavioral patterns for Surface Roughness and the temperature was observed. ANOVA analysis depicted that the cooling environment impacted the S.R. majorly (50%) followed by cutting speed (29.84%), feed rate (5.09%), and least through depth of cut (4.95%). On the other side, the temperature was greatly influenced by cutting speed (69.12%), Cryo-MQL (8.09%), feed rate (7.59%), and depth of cut (6.20%). Experimental results revealed that Cryo-MQL cooling enhanced the Surface roughness by 12% compared to MQL condition.
Keywords: Hastelloy C-276, minimum quantity lubrication, olive oil, cryogenic Cooling (CO2)Procedia PDF Downloads 11
1003 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme
Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh
Abstract:In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image. Procedia PDF Downloads 370
1002 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys
Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu
Abstract:Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.
Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructureProcedia PDF Downloads 186
1001 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images
Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh
Abstract:Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.
Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery DetectionProcedia PDF Downloads 156
1000 High Temperature Behavior of a 75Cr3C2–25NiCr Coated T91 Boiler Steel in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler
Authors: Buta Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor Singh Sidhu
Abstract:In the present investigation, 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature corrosion resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under cyclic conditions in the platen superheater zone coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles each of 100 h duration followed by 1 h cooling at ambient temperature. The performance of the bare and coated specimens was assessed via metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation and the depth of internal corrosion attack. 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating deposited on T91 steel imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated steel. Inferior resistance of bare T91 steel is attributed to the formation of pores and loosely bounded oxide scale rich in Fe2O3.
Keywords: 75Cr3C2-25NiCr, HVOF process, boiler steel, coal fired boilersProcedia PDF Downloads 476
999 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations
Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh
Abstract:We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Keywords: Legendre Wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticityProcedia PDF Downloads 253
998 Application of Wavelet Based Approximation for the Solution of Partial Integro-Differential Equation Arising from Viscoelasticity
Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh
Abstract:This work contributes a numerical method based on Legendre wavelet approximation for the treatment of partial integro-differential equation (PIDE). Operational matrices of Legendre wavelets reduce the solution of PIDE into the system of algebraic equations. Some useful results concerning the computational order of convergence and error estimates associated to the suggested scheme are presented. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness and accuracy of proposed numerical method.
Keywords: legendre wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticityProcedia PDF Downloads 325
997 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels
Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur
Abstract:With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.
Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 33
996 Characteristics of Technology Infrastructure in Small Firms
Authors: Davinder Singh, Jaimal Singh Khamba, Tarun Nanda
Abstract:Growth of the Indian economy has accelerated to 8% and efforts are on to further propel it to 10%. Undoubtedly, all the segments of the economy, viz. agriculture, industry and services have to improve their contribution to the economy. Growth of Micro-small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is a sine qua non for the growth of industry, exports and other segments of the economy. Furthermore, promotion of entrepreneurship is also vital for sustenance and upward movement of the current growth trajectory of the economy. The MSME sector acts as a catalyst in upholding and encouraging the creation of the innovative spirit and entrepreneurship in the economy, thereby helping in laying the foundation for rapid industrial development. In this competitive world, they need to be able to confront the increasing competition from developed and emerging economies and to plug into the new market opportunities.
Keywords: characteristics, management, MSMEs, technology infrastructureProcedia PDF Downloads 444
995 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints
Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang
Abstract:Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.
Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationshipProcedia PDF Downloads 363
994 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites
Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal
Abstract:Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.
Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix compositesProcedia PDF Downloads 326
993 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology
Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh
Abstract:An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.
Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1Procedia PDF Downloads 529
992 Role of Machine Learning in Internet of Things Enabled Smart Cities
Authors: Amit Prakash Singh, Shyamli Singh, Chavi Srivastav
Abstract:This paper presents the idea of Internet of Thing (IoT) for the infrastructure of smart cities. Internet of Thing has been visualized as a communication prototype that incorporates myriad of digital services. The various component of the smart cities shall be implemented using microprocessor, microcontroller, sensors for network communication and protocols. IoT enabled systems have been devised to support the smart city vision, of which aim is to exploit the currently available precocious communication technologies to support the value-added services for function of the city. Due to volume, variety, and velocity of data, it requires analysis using Big Data concept. This paper presented the various techniques used to analyze big data using machine learning.
Keywords: IoT, smart city, embedded systems, sustainable environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 369
991 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment
Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh
Abstract:A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.
Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problemProcedia PDF Downloads 265
990 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh
Abstract:Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.
Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 245
989 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber
Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh
Abstract:We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.
Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 445