Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6429

Search results for: pregnancy rate

6429 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, Vijay Kumar, M. A. Mir, Rakesh Kumar

Abstract:

Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: life time, pregnancy rate, production, service period, standardization

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6428 Clinical Outcome after in Vitro Fertilization in Women Aged 40 Years and Above: Reasonable Cut-Off Age for Successful Pregnancy

Authors: Eun Jeong Yu, Inn Soo Kang, Tae Ki Yoon, Mi Kyoung Koong

Abstract:

Advanced female age is associated with higher cycle cancelation rates, lower clinical pregnancy rate, increased miscarriage and aneuploidy rates in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) cycles. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Cha Fertility Center, Seoul Station. All fresh non-donor IVF cycles performed in women aged 40 years and above from January 2016 to December 2016 were reviewed. Donor/recipient treatment, PGD/PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis/ Preimplantation Genetic Screening) were excluded from analysis. Of the 1,166 cycles from 753 women who completed ovulation induction, 1,047 were appropriate for the evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criterion. IVF cycles were categorized according to age and grouped into the following 1-year age groups: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and > 46. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 1.8 years. The median AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) level was 1.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The mean number of retrieved oocytes was 4.9 ± 4.3. The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women > 40 years significantly decreased with each year of advancing age (p < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate decreased from 21% at the age of 40 years to 0% at ages above 45 years. Live birth rate decreased from 12.3% to 0%, respectively. There were no clinical pregnancy outcomes among 95 patients aged above 45 years of age. The overall miscarriage rate was 40.7% (range, 36.7%-70%). The transfer of at least one good quality embryo was associated with about 4-9% increased chance of a clinical pregnancy rate. Therefore, IVF in old age women less than 46 had a reasonable chance for successful pregnancy outcomes especially when good quality embryo is transferred.

Keywords: advanced maternal age, in vitro fertilization, pregnancy rate, live birth rate

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6427 Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnants

Authors: Abdulnasir Hossen, Alaa Barhoum, Deepali Jaju, V. Gowri, L. Al-Kharusi, M. Hassan, K. Al-Hashmi

Abstract:

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder associated with increase in blood pressure and excess amount of protein in the urine. HRV analysis has been used by many researchers to identify preeclamptic pregnancy from normal pregnancy. A study in this regard to identify preeclamptic pregnancy in Oman from normal pregnant was conducted on 40 subjects (20 patients and 20 normal). The subjects were collected from two hospitals in Oman. A Fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectral analysis has shown that patients with preeclamptic pregnancy have a reduction in the power of the HF band and an increase in the power of the LF band of HRV compared with subjects with normal pregnancy. The accuracy of identification obtained was 80%.

Keywords: preelampsia, pregnancy hypertension, normal pregnant, FFT, spectral analysis, HRV

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6426 Comparison of hCG and GnRH in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of Non-Lactating Cycling Brood Mares

Authors: Sanan Raza, Muhammad Younus, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Tariq Abbas, Hamayun Khan, Amanullah Khan

Abstract:

Mares are considered to be seasonally polyestrous animals. The breeding season of mare ranges from March to May in Pakistan. However, fertility problems of mares have been trifling the horse breeders and stud owners since long, and it comes out that the fertility status of mares in Pakistan is relatively lower than the world average. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of hCG and GnRH in improving pregnancy rate of mares in a transition period of month March and April. A total of n=66 mares showing normal estrus cycles with age ranging 5-12 y, weighing between 400-600 kg, BCS 6 ± 0.5 (1-9) and lactation varied from first to 5th were included in the experiment. These mares were administered PGF2α (75 μg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 1 ml; i.m.) and divided into 3 groups. Mares of group 1 (n=22) were administered GnRH (100 μg; Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy; 4ml; im) while group 2 (n=22) mares were given hCG (5000 IU; IVF-C, LG Pharma; 1ml; iv). Likewise, mares of group 3 (n=22) were injected normal saline. Each treatment was given, when follicle attained the size of 35mm, keeping in view, the maturity of ovulating follicle at 35mm size and response to each treatment after routine ultrasound examination. All the mares of three groups were bred at 12 and 36 hours of treatment when the follicle reached the size of 35mm measured by ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on day 18th and 42nd mating. On day 18th, pregnancy rate was 81.8% for hCG followed by 54.5% for GnRH and 45.5% for control. On day 42nd, pregnancy rate was (47.4%) for hCG which is significantly high (p<0.05) followed by GnRH (31.6%) and control (21.1%). Additionally the pregnancy loss was (25%, 20% respectively) in control and GnRH treated groups; whereas, hCG treated group showed no pregnancy loss (0.00%). Since no embryonic loss has been observed with hCG treatment during current study. Also hCG treated mares were 7.87 times more likely to conceive than controls. There were two times more chances of pregnancy in hCG treated mares than GnRH treated mares Therefore, it is concluded that the use of hCG in breeding season can improve pregnancy rate at a significant level when compared with GnRH hormone.

Keywords: mares, ovulation, hCG, pregnancy rate

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6425 Comparative Assessment of hCG with Estrogen in Increasing Pregnancy Rate in Mixed Parity Buffaloes

Authors: Sanan Raza, Tariq Abbas, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Muhammad Younus, Hamayun Khan, Mujahid Zafar

Abstract:

Water Buffaloes contribute significantly in Asian agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two synchronization protocols in enhancing pregnancy rate in 105 mixed parity buffaloes particularly in summer season. Buffaloes are seasonal breeders showing more fertility from October to January in subtropical environment of Pakistan. In current study 105 lactating buffaloes of mixed parity were used having normal estrous cycle, age ranging 5-9 years, weighing between 400-650 kg, BCS 4 ± 0.5 (1-5) and lactation varied from first to 5th. Experimental animals were divided into three groups based on corpus leteummorphometry. Morphometry of C.L was done using rectal population and ultrasonography. All animals were injected 25mg of PGi.m. (Cloprostenol). In Group-1 (n=35) hCG was administered at follicular size of 10mm having scanned after detection of heat. Similarly Group-2 (n=35) received 25 mg EB i.m (Estradiol Benzoate) after confirmation of follicular size of 10mm with ultrasound. Likewise, buffaloes of Group-3 (n=35) were administered normal saline respectively using as control. All buffaloes of three groups were inseminated after 12h of hCG, EB, and normal saline administration respectively. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasound at 18th and 45th day post insemination. Pregnancy rates at 18th day were 38.2%, 34.5%, and 27.3% for G1, G2, and G3 respectively indicating that hCG and EB administered groups have no difference in results except control group having lower conception rate than both groups respectively. Similarly on 42nd day, these were 40.4%, 32.7% for G1 and G2 which are significantly higher than G3= 26.6 (control Group). Also, hCG and EB treated buffaloes have more probability of pregnancy than control group. Based on the findings of current study, it seems reasonable that the use of hCG and EB has been associated with improving pregnancy rates in non-breeding season of buffaloes.

Keywords: buffalo, hCG, EB, pregnancy rate, follicle, insemination

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6424 Policy to Improve in vitro Fertilization Outcome in Women with Poor Ovarian Response: Frozen Embryo Transfer (ET) of Accumulated Vitrified Embryos vs. Frozen ET of Accumulated Vitrified Embryos plus Fresh ET

Authors: Hwang Kwon

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the efficacy of embryo transfer (ET) of accumulated vitrified embryos and compare pregnancy outcomes between ET of thawed embryos following accumulation of vitrified embryos (frozen ET) and ET of fresh and thawed frozen embryos following accumulation of vitrified embryos (fresh ET + frozen ET). Study design: Patients were poor ovarian responders defined according to the Bologna criteria as well as a subgroup of women whose previous IVF-ET cycle through controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) yielded one or no embryos. Sixty-four frozen ETs were performed following accumulation of vitrified embryos (ACCE )(ACCE Frozen) and 51 fresh + frozen ETs were performed following accumulation of vitrified embryos (ACCE Fresh + Frozen). Positive βhCG rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and good quality embryos (%, ±SD) were compared between two groups. Results: There were more good quality embryos in the ACCE Fresh + Frozen group than in the ACCE Frozen group: 60±34.7 versus 42.9±28.9, respectively (p=0.03). Positive βhCG rate [18/64(28.2%) vs. 13/51(25.5%); p=0.75] and clinical pregnancy rate [12/64 (18.8%) vs. 11/51 (10.9%); p=0.71] were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Accumulation of vitrified embryos is an effective method in patients with poor ovarian response who fulfill the Bologna criteria. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable between the two groups.

Keywords: accumulation of embryos, frozen embryo transfer, poor responder, Bologna criteria

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6423 A Case Study of Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy with Subsequent Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

Authors: M. Elder, L. Beech, A. Mackie

Abstract:

Heterotopic pregnancy is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening condition in which there is simultaneous occurrence of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. It has an incidence of approximately 1:3900 pregnancies, occurring in only 1:30000 spontaneous pregnancies. This study presents a rare case of spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy in a 34-year-old primiparous woman who was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department following collapse at 20+1 weeks gestation after normal first trimester screening and morphology scan. She was hemodynamically unstable and fetal heart rate was 60bpm. Initial resuscitation included transfusion of 2 units packed red blood cells and 1g intravenous tranexamic acid. Bedside ultrasound revealed evidence of approximately 1000ml clot in the right upper quadrant. She underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and washout, which proceeded to a midline exploratory laparotomy. This revealed a 2.6L hemoperitoneum and query right ectopic pregnancy with calcified areas and clot, with no other cause of bleeding identified. Right salpingectomy was performed, and pathology later confirmed ectopic pregnancy. The intrauterine pregnancy had no complications, and she delivered a healthy full-term baby. This case demonstrates that ultrasound confirmation of intrauterine pregnancy does not exclude coexisting ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy should be considered in any pregnant woman presenting with abdominal pain or signs of hemorrhagic shock, as prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to minimize foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhagic shock, salpingectomy, spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy

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6422 Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

Authors: Sumi Manjipparambil Surendran, Subrata Majumdar

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Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.

Keywords: pregnancy, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, PAPP-A, fetal growth restriction, trimester

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6421 Effects of Punicalagin on Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in Virgin Rabbit Does

Authors: Nada A. El-Shahaw, Anas A.Salem, M. Kobeisy, Hoda M. Shabaan

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is collective term both oxygen radical, such superoxide (O₂•), hydroxyl(OH•), peroxyl (RO₂), and hydroperoxyl (HO₂•), and certain non-radical oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), hypochlorous acid (HOCL), and ozone (O₃), that can be convert easily to radical. The importance of antioxidants is shown here punicalagin. Punicalagin is preventing the harmful effect of (ROS) in all cells, specially gonadal cells. So, the aim of study was to investigate effects of punicalagin (PL) on maternal live body weight (MLBW), number of services/conception (NS), conception rate (CR), gestation length (GL), kindling rate (KR), total litter size (TLS), live litter size (LLS), kit weight (KW), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations at 1st and 2nd pregnancy of young does. A total of 28 healthy virgin does (6 months old) were divided into 2 equal groups. Group I, each doe, was injected IM with 100 ug PL twice/week pre-mating and one time 3 days post-mating. Group II, each doe was injected IM with sterilized water (control). Blood samples were taken at pre-mating, mating, post-mating, throughout pregnancy, and immediately post-kindling for assaying P4 and E2. All does were naturally mated with fertile bucks. Results revealed that PL displayed their significant impacts on MLBW, NS/conception, CR, GL, KR, TLS, LLS, KWs (birth and weaning), P4 and E2 concentrations either at 1ˢᵗ/2ⁿᵈ pregnancy or both of them. Conclusively, PL improved pregnancy outcomes of young do particularly at 2ⁿᵈ pregnancy and could be recommended in rabbit's farms.

Keywords: punicalagin, pregnancy, estradiol-17β, progesterone, does

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6420 Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in Women during the First Trimester of Pregnancy (Normal Pregnancy and Missed Miscarriage)

Authors: M. Yahia, N. Chaoui, A. Chaouch, Massinissa Yahia

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Our study was designed to determine the metabolic changes of some biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, Iron, uric acid, Urea and folic acid) and highlight their changes in 57 women of the region Batna, during the first trimester of pregnancy. This practical work was done with 27 women with missed miscarriage, compared with 30 control subjects of normal pregnant women. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference (P = 0.0006) between the two groups in serum iron (64.00 vs 93.54) and in the rate of folate (6.70 vs 9.22) (P <0.001) but no difference was found regarding the rate of Ca (9.69 vs 10.20), urea (0.19 vs 0.17), UA (33.96 vs 32.76), CH (1.283 vs 1.431), and TG (0.8852 vs 0.8290). The present study indicates that iron deficiency and folate are associated with missed miscarriage, but no direct pathophysiological link has been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which these deficits lead to a missed miscarriage.

Keywords: biochemical parameters, pregnant women, missed miscarriage, Algeria

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6419 Teenage Pregnancy: The Unmet Needs of Female Adolescents in Uganda

Authors: M. Weller Jones, J. Moffat, J. Taylor, J. Hartland, M. Natarajan

Abstract:

Background: Uganda’s teenage pregnancy rate remains a significant problem for female and maternal health in the country. Teenage pregnancy is linked to higher rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, including preterm labour, obstructed labour, vesicovaginal fistulae, infections, and maternal mental health morbidity. In 2015, the National Strategy to End Child Marriage and Teenage Pregnancy was launched in Uganda. Research is needed so that the interventions in this Strategy can be effectively applied at a local level. This study at Kitovu and Villa Maria Hospitals, two local community hospitals near Masaka, Uganda, aimed to measure change in the local teenage pregnancy rate over the past 5 years; and to explore the awareness and attitudes of teenagers and healthcare professionals towards 1) teenage pregnancy and, 2) the challenges female adolescents still currently face. Method: Teenage delivery rate, type of delivery, incidence of complications in labour and neonatal and maternal outcomes were collected from the labour ward admission books, at both hospitals, for a six month time period in 2011 and 2016. At Kitovu Hospital, qualitative data regarding the experience of, and attitudes towards teenage pregnancy was collected from interviews conducted with 12 maternity staff members and with eight female teenagers, aged 16-19, who were pregnant or post-partum. Results: The proportion of total births to teenage mothers fell from 14% in 2011 to 7% in 2016 (Kitovu), but it remains higher in rural locations (19%, Villa Maria). Beliefs about exacerbating factors included: poor access to contraception; misconceptions that contraception is damaging to women’s health; failing sex education in schools; and poor awareness of national campaigns to reduce teenage pregnancy. Staff felt that the best way to tackle teenage pregnancy was to improve sex education in schools and to sensitise families to these issues. Six of the eight teenagers wanted more frequent sex education and easier, cheap access to contraception. Only one teenager saw positive consequences stating that teenage pregnancy would ‘avoid operations later in life.’ Discussion: Teenage pregnancy is a recognised problem and strategies in the Masaka region should focus on improving sex education in schools and initiating an organisation that educates and supplies free contraception to teenagers.

Keywords: adolescents, attitudes, teenage pregnancy, Uganda

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6418 Renal Transplant, Pregnancy, and Complications: A Literature Review

Authors: Sara Iqbal

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Introduction:Renal transplant is increasingly one of the most popular transplants within the UK; with an aging population along with obesity epidemic we are witnessing increasing rates of diabetes – one of the commonest indications for renal transplant. However, the demand is far greater than supply. Many donors are provided by women of child-bearing age; however the long-term effects are still uncertain. Aim:Determine pregnancy outcomes and complications of women of child-bearing age following renal donation. Methods: A review of the current available literature was preformed using MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 2014. Search criteria included key terms such as pregnancy outcome post-renal donor, pregnancy outcomes and complications. Relevant articles were selected based on pure methodological medical research, after careful analysis, they were recorded within this review. Results: Out of 1141 women involved in transplant studies, 574 pregnancies reported having donated a single-renal donor prior to pregnancy. Of which a staggering miscarriage rate 32.4% (n=186) was reported, amongst this other complications included gestational hypertension of 10% (n=59) and gestational diabetes 2.3% (n=13). Other significantly noted complications included chronic hypertension, low-birth weights, and pregnancy-related death. Conclusions: After unilateral renal donor transplant, haemodynamics change along with pregnancy, predisposing women to developing several complications compared to pregnancies with no history any renal-donor transplant. Despite this, further investigation is required in order to accurately determine the safety of renal-donors in women of child-bearing age.

Keywords: renal transplant, pregnancy, complications, medical and health sciences

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6417 Designing a Pregnancy Interactive Information Design for a Mobile Application

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi

Abstract:

The importance of designing a pregnancy interactive information design for a mobile application is felt in order to assist pregnant women to get an easy access of highly credible pregnancy-related information on which often fail to be fulfilled, while it has been a very critical one. Thus, an observation of needs assessment for designing a pregnancy interactive information system design for a mobile application at iOS becomes current objective study. A comparative study of the top five pregnancy interactive information design available at the Apple Store conducted in order to fulfill it. Whilst, an observation of user experiences included for deeper analyzes. Moreover, a literature study conducted to support the arguments that being provided in the current study. The findings, surprisingly, also reveal the advantages of local wisdom in pregnancy that never been attached to those top five applications before.

Keywords: information system design, interactive design, local wisdom, pregnancy

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6416 Current Cosmetic Treatments in Pregnancy

Authors: Daniela F. Maluf, Fernanda Roters, Luma C. F. Silva

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The goal of this work is to report the main dermatological alterations occurring during pregnancy and actual cosmetic protocols available and recommended for safe use. Throughout pregnancy, woman's body undergoes many transformations such as hormonal changes and weight gain. These alterations can result in undesirable skin aspects that end up affecting the future mother's life. The main complaints of pregnant women involve melasma advent, varicose veins, edema, and natural skin aging. Even if most of the time is recommended to wait for the birth to use cosmetics, there are some alternatives to prevent and to treat these alterations during pregnancy. For all these cases, there is a need to update information about safety and efficacy of new actives and technologies in cosmetic products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review about the main skin alterations during pregnancy and actual recommended treatments, according to the current legislation.

Keywords: pregnancy, cosmetic, treatment, physiological changes

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6415 Factors Leading to Teenage Pregnancy in the Selected Villages of Mopani District, in Limpopo Province

Authors: Z. N. Salim, R. T. Lebese, M. S. Maputle

Abstract:

Background: The international community has been concerned about population growth for more than a century. Teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at high risk of HIV infection, and this is exacerbated by poverty, whereby many teenagers in Africa come from disadvantaged families/background, which leads them to engage in sexual activities at an early age for survival hence leading to increased rate of teenage pregnancy. Purpose: The study sought to explore, describe and to identify the factors that lead to teenage pregnancy in the selected villages in Mopani District. Design: The study was conducted using a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual approach. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used. Researcher collected the data with the assistance of research assistant. Participants were interviewed and information was captured on a tape recorder and analysed using open coding and thereafter collected into main themes, themes and sub-themes. The researcher conducted four focus groups, Participants aged between 10-19 years of age. Results: The finding of the study revealed that there are several factors that is contributing to teenagers falling pregnant. Personal, intuitional, and cultural were identified to be the factors leading to teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: factors, leading, pregnancy, teenage

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6414 Pregnancy and Women's Subjectivity Represented in Ali's Brick Lane, Cusk's Arlington Park, and Mcgregor's If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things

Authors: Nurul Imansari

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The study object in this research is 'pregnancy and women’s subjectivity represented in Ali’s Brick Lane, Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. Pregnancy is invested with both figurative and literal significance in the novels. Being a symbol of domesticity of the woman in the novels, pregnancy conveys the relationship of the women due to their role as a mother and wife in a family and their subjectivity as a woman. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent pregnancy affects the subjectivity of woman in Ali’s 'Brick Lane', Cusk’s 'Arlington Park', and McGregor’s 'If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. It also discusses on how pregnancy can be seen as a symbolic sense and the things that symbolise it. The study uses theoretical ideas of female subjectivity proposed by Julia Kristeva. She stated that in patriarchal culture, the meaning of a woman is always being reduced to the function of reproduction. She has emphasized a new discourse about pregnancy that recognizes the importance of maternal function in the development of subjectivity and in culture. The result shows that the three novels represent pregnancy as something which can affect women’s subjectivity but the way in representing the pregnancy are different from each other. Kristeva’s idea about pregnancy and women’s subjectivity can be applied in both Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things as the characters in the texts come from the same background as her. However, it can hardly be applied to Ali’s Brick Lane because this idea can justify the women to choose their own way and South Asian culture still bound to the strong patriarchal system.

Keywords: culture, pregnancy, subjectivity, women

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6413 Length of Pregnancy and Dental Caries Observation in Relation to BMI

Authors: Edit Xhajanka, Gresa Baboci, Irene Malagnino, Mimoza Canga, Vito Antonio Malagnino

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Purpose: This study aimed at identifying dental caries increment or reduction, based on factors such as smoking, the scaling of teeth, BMI before and during pregnancy, carbohydrates consumption in relation to childbirth. Material and method: In this observational study, the sample included a total of 98 pregnant women and their age class was 18-45 years old, with a median age of 31.5 years. The setting of the participants resides in Vlora –Albania. Moreover, 64.4% were from the city and 35.6% were from the nearby villages. The study was conducted in the time period January 2018 –June 2021. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the standard formula (kg/m²). Maternal pre, during and post-pregnancy BMI was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: Based on the data analysis, 44.4% of the sample declared that they did smoke before pregnancy and 55.6% not smoked during their pregnancy. As a result, no association was found between smoking and length of pregnancy P=0.95. There is also a strong relation (P=0.000) between the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and the number of teeth with caries during pregnancy. There is a significant relationship between the scaling of teeth and childbirth, P=0.05. BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to carbohydrates consumption have a significant correlation P=0.004 and P=0.002. The values of BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to childbirth have a strong correlation: P=0.043 and P=0.040, respectively. As a result, obesity was associated with preterm birth. The percentage of children born during 34-36 weeks of pregnancy was 69%, and children born during 32-34 weeks of pregnancy were 31%. CONCLUSION: There was a positive association between dental caries experience, BMI and carbohydrates consumption. Obesity in pregnancy is increasing worldwide; that is why this study suggests the importance of an appropriate weight before and during pregnancy.

Keywords: BMI, dental caries, pregnancy, scaling, smoking

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6412 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

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The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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6411 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro

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The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: adolescent, qualitative research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

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6410 Pregnancy Outcomes among Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Women: A Comparative Study

Authors: Karimeh Alnuaimi, Manal Kassab, Reem Ali, Khitam Mohammad, Kholoud Shattnawi

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Aim: To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. Background and introduction: The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Jordan. Pregnant refugee women are therefore facing many difficulties are known to increase the prevalence of poor reproductive health outcomes and antenatal complications. However, there is very little awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental Hospitals in the north of Jordan, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birth weight (< 2500 g), Apgar score and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks' gestational age). Results: Statistical analysis revealed that refugee mothers had a significant increase in the rate of cesarean section and the higher rate of anemia, a lower neonates’ weight, and Apgar scores when compared to their Jordanian counterparts. Discussion and Conclusion: Results were congruent with findings from other studies in the region and worldwide. Minimizing inequalities in pregnancy outcomes between Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. Implications for nursing and health policy: The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. The action is required by the policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary health care services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the need for antenatal care of this vulnerable population.

Keywords: pregnancy, Syrian refugee, Jordanian women, comparative study

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6409 Pregnancy Rate and Outcomes after Uterine Fibroid Embolization Single Centre Experience in the Middle East from the United Arab Emirates at Alain Hospital

Authors: Jamal Alkoteesh, Mohammed Zeki, Mouza Alnaqbi

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Objective: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes, complications and neonatal outcomes in women who had previously undergone uterine arterial embolization. Design: Retrospective study. In this study, most women opted for UFE as a fertility treatment after failure of myomectomy or in vitro fertilization, or because hysterectomy was the only suggested option. Background. Myomectomy is the standard approach in patients with fibroids desiring a future pregnancy. However, myomectomy may be difficult in cases of numerous interstitial and/or submucous fibroids.In these cases, UFE has the advantage of embolizing all fibroids in one procedure. This procedure is an accepted nonsurgical treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Study Methods: A retrospective study of 210 patients treated with UFE for symptomatic uterine fibroids between 2011-2016 was performed. UFE was performed using ((PVA; Embozen, Beadblock) (500-900 µm in diameter). Pregnancies were identified using screening questionnaires and the study database. Of the 210 patients who received UFE treatment, 35 women younger than the age of 40 wanted to conceive and had been unable. All women in our study were advised to wait six months or more after UFE before attempting to become pregnant, of which the reported time range before attempting to conceive was seven to 33 months (average 20 months). RESULTS: In a retrospective chart review of patients younger than the age of 40 (35 patients,18 patients reported 23 pregnancies, of which five were miscarriages. Two more pregnancies were complicated by premature labor. Of the 23 pregnancies, 16 were normal full-term pregnancies, 15 women had conceived once, and four had become pregnant twice. The remaining patients did not conceive. In the study, there was no reported intrauterine growth retardation in the prenatal period, fetal distress during labor, or problems related to uterine integrity. Two patients reported minor problems during pregnancy that were borderline oligohydramnios and low-lying placenta. In the cohort of women who did conceive, overall, 16 out of 18 births proceeded normally without any complications (86%). Eight women delivered by cesarean section, and 10 women had normal vaginal delivery. In this study of 210 women, UFE had a fertility rate of 47%. Our group of 23 pregnancies was small, but did confirm successful pregnancy after UFE. The 45.7% pregnancy rate in women below the age of 40 years old who completed a term pregnancy compares favorably with women who underwent myomectomy via other method. Of the women in the cohort who did conceive, subsequent birth proceeded normally (86%). Conclusion: Pregnancy after UFE is well-documented. The risks of infertility following embolization, premature menopause, and hysterectomy are small, as is the radiation exposure during embolization. Fertility rates appear similar to patients undergoing myomectomy.UFE should not be contraindicated in patients who want to conceive and they should be able to choose between surgical options and UFE.

Keywords: fibroid, pregnancy, therapeutic embolization, uterine artery

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6408 Low Molecular Weight Heparin during Pregnancy

Authors: Sihana Ahmeti Lika, Merita Dauti, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to analyze the prophylactic usage of low molecular weight heparine (LMWH) along pregnancy and the correlation between their usage and month/week of pregnancy, in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, at Clinical Hospital in Tetovo. A retrospective study was undertaken during 01 January–31 December 2012. Over of one year, the total number of patients was 4636. Among the 1447 (32.21%) pregnant women, 298 (20.59%) of them were prescribed LMWH. The majority of patients given LMWH, 119 (39.93%) were diagnosed hypercoagulable. The age group with the highest attendance was 25-35, 141 patients (47.32%). For 195 (65.44%) patients, this was their first pregnancy. Earliest stage of using LMWH was the second month of pregnancy 4 (1.34%) cases. The most common patients, were 70 women along the seventh month (23.49%), followed by 68 in the ninth month of pregnancy (22.81%). Women in the 28th gestational week, were found to be the most affected, a total of 55 (78.57%) were in that week. Clexane 2000 and Fraxiparine 0.3 were the most common for which low molecular weight heparine was prescribed. The number of patients which received Clexane 2000 was 84 (28.19%), followed by those with Fraxiparine 0.3 81 (27.18%). The administration of LMWH is associated with long hospitalization (median 14,6 days).

Keywords: hypercoagulable state, low moleculare weight heparine, month of pregnancy, pregnant women

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6407 The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Screening: A Challenge in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Daoud, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined as two or more pregnancy losses, is a serious clinical problem. Methylene-tetrahydro-folate-reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, commonly the variant C677T is recognized as an inherited thrombophilia which might affect embryonic development and pregnancy success and cause pregnancy complications as RPL. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism among 70 patients (35 couples) with more than 2 fetal losses. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T among Tunisian couples with RPL and to critically analyze the available literature on the importance of MTHFR polymorphism testing in the management of RPL. Result and comments: No C677T mutation was detected in the carriers of RPL. This result would be related to sample size and to different criteria (number of abortion), - The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and pregnancy complications has been reported but with controversial results. - A lack of evidence for MTHFR polymorphism testing previously recommended by ACMG (American College of Medical medicine). Our study highlights the importance of screening of MTHFR polymorphism since the real impact of such thrombotic molecular defect on the pregnancy outcome is evident. - Folic supplementation of these patients during pregnancy can prevent such complications and lead to a successful pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, C677T, recurrent pregnancy loss, genetic testing

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6406 Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes of Single versus Multiple Embryo Transfer in Gestational Surrogacy Arrangements: A Systematic Review

Authors: Jutharat Attawet, Alex Y. Wang, Cindy M. Farquhar, Elizabeth A. Sullivan

Abstract:

Background: Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes of multiple pregnancies resulting from multiple embryo transfers (ET) has become significant concerns. This is particularly relevant for gestational carriers since they usually do not have infertility issues. Single embryo transfer (SET) therefore has been encouraged to assist reproductive technology (ART) practice in order to reduce multiple pregnancies. Objectives: This systematic review aims to investigate the pregnancy and birth outcomes of SET and multiple ET in surrogacy arrangements. Search methods: This study is a systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from CINAHL, Medline, Embase, Scopus and ProQuest for studies from 1980 to 2017. Cross-references and national ART reports were also manual searchings. Articles without restriction of English language and study types were accessed. Carrier cycles involving in SET and multiple ET were identified in database searching. The main outcome measures including clinical pregnancy, live delivery and multiple deliveries per gestational carrier cycle were compared between SET and multiple ET. Mantel-Haenzel risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the numbers of outcome events in SET and multiple ET of each study were calculated suing RevMan5.3. Outcomes: The search returned 97 articles of which 5 met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 50% of carrier cycles were transferred a single embryo and 50% were transferred more than one embryo. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 39% for SET and 53% for multiple ET, which was not significantly different with RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67-1.03). The live delivery rate was 33% for SET and 57% for multiple ET which was not significantly different with RR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61-1.00). The multiple delivery rate per carrier was greater risks in the multiple ET carrier cycles (RR =0.4, 95% CI: 0.01-0.26). There were 104 sets of twins (including one set of twins selectively reduced from triplets to twins) and 1 set of triples in the multiple ET carrier cycle. In the SET carrier cycles, there were 2 sets of twins. Significance of the study: SET should be advocated among surrogate carriers to prevent multiple pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes for both carrier and baby. Surrogacy practice should be reviewed and surrogate carriers should be fully informed of the risk of adverse maternal and birth outcome of multiple pregnancies due to multiple embryo transfers.

Keywords: assisted reproduction, birth outcomes, carrier, gestational surrogacy, multiple embryo transfer, multiple pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, single embryo transfer, surrogate mother, systematic review

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6405 Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancy amongst Currently Married Pregnant Women in Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Asaolu, A. Bolorunduro

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Background: Unwanted, mistimed and unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue and the most common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy is a potential hazard for every sexually active woman as it most times ends in unsafe abortion. The study aimed at assessing the pre-conception contraceptive use, prevalence of unintended pregnancies and the non-contraceptive factors associated with unintended pregnancy amongst currently married women in Osun state. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study among randomly selected 341 currently married pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ilesa town of Osun state was conducted in 5 health facilities. A random selection of 5 of the 22 health facilities in the state was done. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and all completed questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS. Result: About two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (40%) who has never used an FP method reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first sex, substance use, total children ever born of children, religion, and extramarital affairs were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women who have higher parity are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy compared to women with lower parity (odds ratio, 0.25). Furthermore, those women who don’t engage in extra marital affairs were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.3) compared to those who do not. Contribution to knowledge: The predicted probability, using logistic regression, has shown that women who engage in extramarital affairs and women with high parity are more likely to have unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Behaviour change programs should aim to reduce unintended pregnancy by focusing mostly on identified factors so that the need for abortion is decreased and the overall well-being of the family is maintained and enhanced.

Keywords: unintended pregnancy, factors, pregnant women, Nigeria

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6404 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Prevention of Autism Before and During Pregnancy

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari

Abstract:

Objectives: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that has negative effects on verbal, mental and behavioral development. Studies have shown the role of a maternal dietary pattern before and during pregnancy. The relation of exerting of nutritional management programs in prevention of Autism has been approved. This review article has been made to investigate the role of nutritional management strategies before and during pregnancy in the prevention of Autism. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 67 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 20 article with criteria such as including maternal lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies and Autism prevention were selected. Results: Maternal dietary pattern and health before and during pregnancy have important roles in the incidence of Autism. Studies have suggested that high dietary fat intake and obesity can increase the risk of Autism in offspring. Maternal metabolic condition specially gestational diabetes (GDM) (p-value < 0.04) and folate deficiency (p-value = 0.04) is associated with risk of Autism. Studies have shown that folate intake in mothers with autistic children is less than mothers who have typically developing children (TYP) (p-value<0.01). As folate is an essential micronutrient for fetus mental development, consumption of average 600 mcg/day especially in P1 phase of pregnancy results in significant reduction in incidence of Autism (OR:1.53, 95%CI=0.42-0.92, p-value = 0.02). furthermore, essential fatty acid deficiency especially omega-3 fatty acid increases the rate of Autism and consumption of supplements and food sources of omega-3 can decrease the risk of Autism up to 34% (RR=1.53, 95%CI=1-2.32). Conclusion: regards to nutritional deficiency and maternal metabolic condition before and during pregnancy in prevalence of Autism, carrying out the appropriate nutritional strategies such as well-timed folate supplementation before pregnancy and healthy lifestyle adherence for prevention of metabolic syndrome (GDM) seems to help Autism prevention.

Keywords: autism, autism prevention, dietary inadequacy, maternal lifestyle

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6403 Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Women Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nicolas Galazis, Nikolina Docheva, Constantinos Simillis, Kypros Nicolaides

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Background: Obese women are at increased risk for many pregnancy complications, and bariatric surgery (BS) before pregnancy has shown to improve some of these. Objectives: To review the current literature and quantitatively assess the obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women who have undergone BS. Search Strategy: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies that reported on pregnancy outcomes after BS. Selection Criteria: Pregnancy outcome in firstly, women after BS compared to obese or BMI-matched women with no BS and secondly, women after BS compared to the same or different women before BS. Only observational studies were included. Data Collection and Analysis: Two investigators independently collected data on study characteristics and outcome measures of interest. These were analysed using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed and sensitivity analysis was performed to account for publication bias. Main Results: The entry criteria were fulfilled by 17 non-randomised cohort or case-control studies, including seven with high methodological quality scores. In the BS group, compared to controls, there was a lower incidence of preeclampsia (OR, 0.45, 95% CI, 0.25-0.80; p=0.007), GDM (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.40-0.56; P<0.001) and large neonates (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62; p<0.001) and a higher incidence of small neonates (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52-2.44; p<0.001), preterm birth (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58; p=0.006), admission for neonatal intensive care (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72; p=0.03) and maternal anaemia (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.56-7.44, p=0.002). Conclusions: BS as a whole improves some pregnancy outcomes. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding does not appear to increase the rate of small neonates that was seen with other BS procedures. Obese women of childbearing age undergoing BS need to be aware of these outcomes.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, birth weight

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6402 Efficacy of Preimplantation Genetic Screening in Women with a Spontaneous Abortion History with Eukaryotic or Aneuploidy Abortus

Authors: Jayeon Kim, Eunjung Yu, Taeki Yoon

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Most spontaneous miscarriage is believed to be a consequence of embryo aneuploidies. Transferring eukaryotic embryos selected by PGS is expected to decrease the miscarriage rate. Current PGS indications include advanced maternal age, recurrent pregnancy loss, repeated implantation failure. Recently, use of PGS for healthy women without above indications for the purpose of improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes is on the rise. However, it is still controversy about the beneficial effect of PGS in this population, especially, in women with a history of no more than 2 miscarriages or miscarriage of eukaryotic abortus. This study aimed to investigate if karyotyping result of abortus is a good indicator of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in subsequent IVF cycle in women with a history of spontaneous abortion. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed. Women who had spontaneous abortion(s) (less than 3) and dilatation and evacuation, and subsequent IVF from January 2016 to November 2016 were included. Their medical information was extracted from the charts. Clinical pregnancy was defined as presence of a gestational sac with fetal heart beat detected on ultrasound in week 7. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Total 234 women were included. 121 out of 234 (51.7%) underwent karyotyping of the abortus, and 113 did not have the abortus karyotyped. Embryo biopsy was performed on 3 or 5 days after oocyte retrieval, followed by embryo transfer (ET) on a fresh or frozen cycle. The biopsied materials were subjected to microarray comparative genomic hybridization. Clinical pregnancy rate per ET was compared between PGS and non-PGS group in each study group. Patients were grouped by two criteria: karyotype of the abortus from previous miscarriage (unknown fetal karyotype (n=89, Group 1), eukaryotic abortus (n=36, Group 2) or aneuploidy abortus (n=67, Group 3)), and pursuing PGS in subsequent IVF cycle (pursuing PGS (PGS group, n=105) or not pursuing PGS (non-PGS group, n=87)). The PGS group was significantly older and had higher number of retrieved oocytes and prior miscarriages compared to non-PGS group. There were no differences in BMI and AMH level between those two groups. In PGS group, the mean number of transferable embryos (eukaryotic embryo) was 1.3 ± 0.7, 1.5 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively (p = 0.049). In 42 cases, ET was cancelled because all embryos biopsied turned out to be abnormal. In all three groups (group 1, 2, and 3), clinical pregnancy rates were not statistically different between PGS and non-PGS group (Group 1: 48.8% vs. 52.2% (p=0.858), Group 2: 70% vs. 73.1% (p=0.730), Group 3: 42.3% vs. 46.7% (p=0.640), in PGS and non-PGS group, respectively). In both groups who had miscarriage with eukaryotic and aneuploidy abortus, the clinical pregnancy rate between IVF cycles with and without PGS was not different. When we compare miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy rate, there were no significant differences between PGS and non-PGS group in all three groups. Our results show that the routine application of PGS in women who had less than 3 miscarriages would not be beneficial, even in cases that previous miscarriage had been caused by fetal aneuploidy.

Keywords: preimplantation genetic diagnosis, miscarriage, kpryotyping, in vitro fertilization

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6401 Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of School Adolescents of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Aleme Mekuria, Samuel Mathewos

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Background: Teenage pregnancy has long been a worldwide social, economic and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Studies on adolescent sexuality and pregnancy are very limited in our country. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its determinants among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. Methods: Institution- based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 20-30 March 2014. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 578 students from four schools of the town. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire. The analysis was made using the software SPSS version 20.0 statistical packages. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of teenage pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town was 7.7%. Being grade11(AOR=4.6;95%CI:1.4,9.3) and grade12 student (AOR=5.8;95% CI:1.3,14.4), not knowing the correct time to take emergency contraceptives(AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.4,7.4), substance use(AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.8), living with either of biological parents (AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.1,8.7) and poor parent-daughter interaction (AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.7) were found to be significant predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. A significant number of adolescent female school students were at risk of facing the challenges of teenage pregnancy in the study area. School-based reproductive health education and strong parent-daughter relationships should be strengthened.

Keywords: adolescent, Arba minch, risk factors, school, southern Ethiopia, teenage pregnancy

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6400 The Knowledge and Experiences of Pregnant Women Regarding Physical Activity during Pregnancy

Authors: Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Izabela Walasik, Katarzyna Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Olga Płaza, Kinga Żebrowska

Abstract:

Introduction Adequate physical activity of a pregnant woman has been proven to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications. The knowledge of women regarding physical exercise in pregnancy is a part of conscious motherhood, while a lack of it may lead to not taking up any form of physical activity during pregnancy. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and experience of women regarding physical activity during their latest pregnancy. Material and methodology: An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 57 questions, was completed electronically in 2018 by women who gave birth at least once. The respondents were qualified as 'physically active during pregnancy' if they performed physical exercises such as regular walks, marching, jogging, working out at a gym, swimming, yoga, pilates, fitness, exercise-ball workouts or home gymnastics. Results: The study group consisted of 9345 women. 52% of them performed exercises during pregnancy. The main reasons for the lack of physical activity were: lack of interest in physical activity (45%), lack of energy (40%), lack of knowledge regarding proper exercise during pregnancy (34%), lack of time (27%) and medical contraindications (25%). Non-active respondents suffered from gestational hypertension (6,7% vs 9,2%; p<00,1) and gave birth prematurely (11% vs 15%; p < 001) to newborns with a lower birth weight significantly more often ( < 2500g vs > 2500g; p < 0,001). Physically active women reported suffering from pregnancy-related ailments such as fatigue, back pain or constipation significantly less often. 22% of all respondents were unable to identify reliable sources of information regarding exercise during pregnancy. A majority of the exercising women used the Internet to obtain gain information on physical activity during pregnancy (69,1%). 4% of women thought that exercising during pregnancy is forbidden, while 20% thought it is not allowed in the 3rd trimester. Physically active women had vaginal delivery more often (61% vs 55%; p < 0,05). Episiotomy was performed most often on non-active primiparous respondents (77,5% vs 71% active primiparous, p < 0,001). 13% of women felt discriminated due to their physical activity during pregnancy. 22% of respondents’ physical activity was not accepted by their environment. 39,1% of the women were told by others to stop physical exercise because it was bad for the baby’s health. Conclusion: The knowledge of Polish women regarding proper physical activity during pregnancy is insufficient, which may influence a lack of will to initiate such activity among pregnant women. Physical activity of a pregnant woman may have an impact on the course of pregnancy and birth.

Keywords: childbirth, discrimination, physical activity, pregnancy

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