Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 918

Search results for: synthetic resins

918 A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test

Authors: Ji Hun Choi, Seung Un Chae, Kyeong Suk Cho


Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.

Keywords: synthetic resins, fire test, full-scale test, heat release rate, smoke production rate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, urethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
917 Effect of Oil Shale Alkylresorcinols on Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Polycondensation Resins

Authors: Ana Jurkeviciute, Larisa Grigorieva, Ksenia Moskvinа


Oil shale alkylresorcinols are formed as a by-product in oil shale processing. They are unique raw material for chemical industry. Polycondensation resins obtaining is one of the worthwhile directions of oil shale alkylresorcinols use. These resins are widely applied in many branches of industry such as wood-working, metallurgic, tire, rubber products, construction etc. Possibility of resins obtaining using overall alkylresorcinols will allow to cheapen finished products on their base and to widen the range of resins offered on the market. Synthesis of polycondensation resins on the basis of alkylresorcinols was conducted by several methods in the process of investigations. In the formulations a part of resorcinol was replaced by fractions of oil shale alkylresorcinols containing different amount of 5-methylresorcinol (40-80 mass %). Some resins were modified by aromatic alkene at the stage of synthesis. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method both in an inert nitrogen environment and in an oxidative environment of air. TGA integral curves were obtained and processed in dynamic mode for interval of temperatures from 25 to 830 °C. Rate of temperature rise was 5°C/min, gas flow rate - 50 ml/min. Resins power for carbonization was evaluated by carbon residue. Physical-chemical parameters of the resins were determined. Content of resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol not reacted in the process of synthesis were determined by gas chromatography method.

Keywords: resorcinol, oil shale alkylresorcinols, aromatic alkene, polycondensation resins, modified resins

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
916 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, vanillin, bio-based, non-toxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
915 Polyampholytic Resins: Advances in Ion Exchanging Properties

Authors: N. P. G. N. Chandrasekara, R. M. Pashley


Ion exchange (IEX) resins are commonly available as cationic or anionic resins but not as polyampholytic resins. This is probably because sequential acid and base washing cannot produce complete regeneration of polyampholytic resins with chemically attached anionic and cationic groups in close proximity. The ‘Sirotherm’ process, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Melbourne, Australia was originally based on the use of a physical mixture of weakly basic (WB) and weakly acidic (WA) ion-exchange resin beads. These resins were regenerated thermally and they were capable of removing salts from an aqueous solution at higher temperatures compared to the salt sorbed at ambient temperatures with a significant reduction of the sorption capacity with increasing temperature. A new process for the efficient regeneration of mixed bead resins using ammonium bicarbonate with heat was studied recently and this chemical/thermal regeneration technique has the capability for completely regenerating polyampholytic resins. Even so, the low IEX capacities of polyampholytic resins restrict their commercial applications. Recently, we have established another novel process for increasing the IEX capacity of a typical polyampholytic resin. In this paper we will discuss the chemical/thermal regeneration of a polyampholytic (WA/WB) resin and a novel process for enhancing its ion exchange capacity, by increasing its internal pore area. We also show how effective this method is for completely recycled regeneration, with the potential of substantially reducing chemical waste.

Keywords: capacity, ion exchange, polyampholytic resin, regeneration

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914 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores


Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating

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913 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar


In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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912 The Performance and the Induced Rebar Corrosion of Acrylic Resins for Injection Systems in Concrete Structures

Authors: C. S. Paglia, E. Pesenti, A. Krattiger


Commercially available methacrylate and acrylamide-based acrylic resins for injection in concrete systems have been tested with respect to the sealing performance and the rebar corrosion. Among the different resins, a methacrylate-based type of acrylic resin significantly inhibited the rebar corrosion. This was mainly caused by the relatively high pH of the resin and the resin aqueous solution. This resin also exhibited a relatively high sealing performance, in particular after exposing the resin to durability tests. The corrosion inhibition behaviour and the sealing properties after the exposition to durability tests were maintained up to one year. The other resins either promoted the corrosion of the rebar and/or exhibited relatively low sealing properties.

Keywords: acrylic resin, sealing performance, rebar corrosion, materials

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911 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore


The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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910 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore


The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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909 Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Processing Using Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071 Resins: Batch Ion Exchange Modeling

Authors: Havva Tutar Kahraman, Erol Pehlivan


In recent years, environmental pollution by wastewater rises very critically. Effluents discharged from various industries cause this challenge. Different type of pollutants such as organic compounds, oxyanions, and heavy metal ions create this threat for human bodies and all other living things. However, heavy metals are considered one of the main pollutant groups of wastewater. Therefore, this case creates a great need to apply and enhance the water treatment technologies. Among adopted treatment technologies, adsorption process is one of the methods, which is gaining more and more attention because of its easy operations, the simplicity of design and versatility. Ion exchange process is one of the preferred methods for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It has found widespread application in water remediation technologies, during the past several decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from aqueous solutions. Cr(VI) is considered as a well-known highly toxic metal which modifies the DNA transcription process and causes important chromosomic aberrations. The treatment and removal of this heavy metal have received great attention to maintaining its allowed legal standards. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to investigate some aspects of the use of three anion exchange resins: Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of these three commercial resins in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The chromium solutions used in the experiments were synthetic solutions. The parameters that affect the adsorption, solution pH, adsorbent concentration, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were performed at room temperature. High adsorption rates of metal ions for the three resins were reported at the onset, and then plateau values were gradually reached within 60 min. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found as 3.0 for these three resins. The adsorption decreases with the increase in pH for three anion exchangers. The suitability of Freundlich, Langmuir and Scatchard models were investigated for Cr(VI)-resin equilibrium. Results, obtained in this study, demonstrate excellent comparability between three anion exchange resins indicating that Eichrom 1-X4 is more effective and showing highest adsorption capacity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Investigated anion exchange resins in this study can be used for the efficient removal of chromium from water and wastewater.

Keywords: adsorption, anion exchange resin, chromium, kinetics

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908 High Performance Ceramic-Based Phthalonitrile Micro and Nanocomposites

Authors: M. Derradji, W. B. Liu


The current work discusses the effects of adding various types of ceramic fillers on the curing behavior, thermal, mechanical, anticorrosion, and UV shielding properties of the bisphenol-A based phthalonitrile resins. The effects of different ceramic filler contents and sizes as well as their surface treatments are also discussed in terms of their impact on the morphology and mechanisms of enhancement. The synergistic effect obtained by these combinations extends the use of the phthalonitrile resins to more exigent applications such as aerospace and military. The presented results reveal the significant advantages that can be obtained from the preparation of hybrid materials based on phthalonitrile resins and open the way for further research in the field.

Keywords: mechanical properties, particle reinforced composites, polymer matrix composites (PMCs), thermal properties

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907 Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather

Authors: A. Mahshid Kakouei, B. Kumaran Suberamanin, C. Sabzali Musa Kahn, D. Mina Kakouei


This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.

Keywords: Zelkova carpinifolia, consolidation, synthetic resin, penetration depth, hardness

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906 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Hiroshi Nakayama, Yuji Ito


Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: ELISA, monoclonal antibody, sensor, synthetic cannabinoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
905 Study of Chemical and Physical - Mechanical Properties Lime Mortar with Addition of Natural Resins

Authors: I. Poot-Ocejo, H. Silva-Poot, J. C. Cruz, A. Yeladaqui-Tello


Mexico has remarkable archaeological remains mainly in the Maya area, which are critical to the preservation of our cultural heritage, so the authorities have an interest in preserving and restoring these vestiges of the most original way, by employing techniques traditional, which has advantages such as compatibility, durability, strength, uniformity and chemical composition. Recent studies have confirmed the addition of natural resins extracted from the bark of trees, of which Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) has been the most evaluated, besides being one of the most abundant species in the vicinity of the archaeological sites, like that Manilkara Zapota (Chicozapote). Therefore, the objective is to determine if these resins are capable of being employed in archaeological restoration. This study shows the results of the chemical composition and physical-mechanical behavior of mortar mixtures eight made with commercial lime and off by hand, calcium sand, resins added with Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) and Manilkara zapota (Chicozapote), where determined and quantified properties and chemical composition of the resins by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), the pH of the material was determined, indicating that both resins are acidic (3.78 and 4.02), and the addition rate maximum was obtained from resins in water by means of ultrasonic baths pulses, being in the case of 10% Manilkara zapota, because it contains up to 40% rubber and for 40% alicastrum Brosium contain less rubber. Through quantitative methodology, the compressive strength 96 specimens of 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm of mortar binding, 72 with partial substitution of water mixed with natural resins in proportions 5 to 10% in the case was evaluated of Manilkara Zapota, for Brosium alicastrum 20 and 40%, and 12 artificial resin and 12 without additive (mortars witnesses). 24 specimens likewise glued brick with mortar, for testing shear adhesion was found where, then the microstructure more conducive additions was determined by SEM analysis were prepared sweep. The test results indicate that the addition Manilkara zapota resin in the proportion of 10% 1.5% increase in compressive strength and 1% with respect to adhesion, compared to the control without addition mortar; In the case of Brosium alicastrum results show that compressive strengths and adhesion were insignificant compared to those made with registered by Manilkara zapota mixtures. Mortars containing the natural resins have improvements in physical properties and increase the mechanical strength and adhesion, compared to those who do not, in addition to the components are chemically compatible, therefore have considered that can be employed in Archaeological restoration.

Keywords: lime, mortar, natural resins, Manilkara zapota mixtures, Brosium alicastrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
904 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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903 Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds

Authors: Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Corneliu Hamciuc, Vicente Javier Forrat Perez


The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.

Keywords: epoxy resins, flame retardant properties, phosphorus-containing compounds, thermal stability

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902 Anti-Bubble Painting Booth for Wood Coating Resins

Authors: Abasali Masoumi, Amir Gholamian Bozorgi


To have the best quality in wood products such as tabletops and inlay-woods, applying two principles are required: aesthetic and protection against the destructive agent. Artists spent a lot of time creating a masterwork project and also for better demonstrating beautiful appearance and preserving it for hundred years. So they need good material and appropriate method to finish it. As usual, wood painters use polyester or epoxy resins. These finishes need a special skill to use and then give a fantastic paint film and clearness. If we let resins dry in exposure to environmental agents such as unstable temperature, dust and etc., no doubt it becomes cloudy, crack, blister and much wood dust and air bubbles in it. We have designed a special wood coating booth (IR-Patent No: 70429) for wood-coating resins (polyester and epoxy), and this booth provides an adjustable space to control factors that is necessary to have a good finish in the end. Anti-bubble painting booth has the ability to remove bubbles from resin, precludes the cracking process and causes the resin to be the best. With this booth drying time of resin is reduced from 24 hours to 6 hours by fixing the optimum temperature, and it is very good for saving time. This booth is environment-friendly and never lets the poisonous vapors and other VOC (Volatile organic components) enter to workplace atmosphere because they are very harmful to humans.

Keywords: wood coating, epoxy resin, polyester resin, wood finishes

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901 Analysis of Different Resins in Web-to-Flange Joints

Authors: W. F. Ribeiro, J. L. N. Góes


The industrial process adds to engineering wood products features absent in solid wood, with homogeneous structure and reduced defects, improved physical and mechanical properties, bio-deterioration, resistance and better dimensional stability, improving quality and increasing the reliability of structures wood. These features combined with using fast-growing trees, make them environmentally ecological products, ensuring a strong consumer market. The wood I-joists are manufactured by the industrial profiles bonding flange and web, an important aspect of the production of wooden I-beams is the adhesive joint that bonds the web to the flange. Adhesives can effectively transfer and distribute stresses, thereby increasing the strength and stiffness of the composite. The objective of this study is to evaluate different resins in a shear strain specimens with the aim of analyzing the most efficient resin and possibility of using national products, reducing the manufacturing cost. First was conducted a literature review, where established the geometry and materials generally used, then established and analyzed 8 national resins and produced six specimens for each.

Keywords: engineered wood products, structural resin, wood i-joist, Pinus taeda

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900 Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents

Authors: Azam Tabatabaee, Fereshteh Dastgoshadeh, Akram Tabatabaee


This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.

Keywords: adsorbents, heavy metals, commercial adsorbents, wastewater, by-products

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899 Producing and Mechanical Testing of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Foams Reinforced by Waste Phosphogypsum

Authors: Krasimira Georgieva, Yordan Denev


Many of thermosetting resins have application only in filled state, reinforced with different mineral fillers. The co-filling of polymers with mineral filler and gases creates a possibility for production of polymer composites materials with low density. This processing leads to forming of new materials – gas-filled plastics (polymer foams). The properties of these materials are determined mainly by the shape and size of internal structural elements (pores). The interactions on the phase boundaries have influence on the materials properties too. In the present work, the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins were reinforced by waste phosphogypsum. The waste phosphogypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a solid by-product in wet phosphoric acid production processes. The values of the interactions polymer-filler were increased by using two modifying agents: polyvinyl acetate for polymer matrix and sodium metasilicate for filler. Technological methods for gas-filling and recipes of urea-formaldehyde based materials with apparent density 20-120 kg/m3 were developed. The heat conductivity of the samples is between 0.024 and 0.029 W/moK. Tensile analyses were carried out at 10 and 50% deformation and show values 0.01-0.14 MPa and 0.01-0.09 MPa, respectively. The apparent density of obtained materials is between 20 and 92 kg/m3. The changes in the tensile properties and density of these materials according to sodium metasilicate content were studied too. The mechanism of phosphogypsum adsorption modification was studied using methods of FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure of the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins was described by results of electron scanning microscopy at three different magnification ratios – x50, x150 and x 500. The aim of present work is to study the possibility of the usage of phosphogypsum as mineral filler for urea-formaldehyde resins and development of a technology for the production of gas-filled reinforced polymer composite materials. The structure and the properties of obtained composite materials are suitable for thermal and sound insulation applications.

Keywords: urea formaldehyde resins, gas-filled thermostes, phosphogypsum, mechanical properties

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898 Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet

Authors: K. Boualem, T. Yahiaoui, A. Azzi


Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.

Keywords: active control, synthetic jet, NACA airfoil, CFD

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897 Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials

Authors: Steffen Happel


Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.

Keywords: elution, extraction chromatography, radiopharmacy, decontamination factors

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896 Nanotechnology for Flame Retardancy of Thermoset Resins

Authors: Ewa Kicko Walczak, Grazyna Rymarz


In recent years, nanotechnology has been successfully applied for flame retardancy of polymers, in particular for construction materials. The consumption of thermoset resins as a construction polymers materials is approximately over one million tone word wide. Excellent mechanical, relatively high heat and thermal stability of their type of polymers are proven for variety applications, e.g. transportation, electrical, electronic, building part industry. Above applications in addition to the strength and thermal properties also requires -referring to the legal regulation or recommendation - an adequate level of flammability of the materials. This publication present the evaluation was made of effectiveness of flame retardancy of halogen-free hybrid flame retardants(FR) as compounds nitric/phosphorus modifiers that act with nanofillers (nano carbons, organ modified montmorillonite, nano silica, microsphere) in relation to unsaturated polyester/epoxy resins and glass-reinforced on base this resins laminates(GRP) as a final products. The analysis of the fire properties provided proof of effective flame retardancy of the tested composites by defining oxygen indices values (LOI), with the use of thermogravimetric methods (TGA) and combustion head (CH). An analysis of the combustion process with Cone Calorimeter (CC) method included in the first place N/P units and nanofillers with the observed phenomenon of synergic action of compounds. The fine-plates, phase morphology and rheology of composites were assessed by SEM/ TEM analysis. Polymer-matrix glass reinforced laminates with modified resins meet LOI over 30%, reduced in a decrease by 70% HRR (according to CC analysis), positive description of the curves TGA and values CH; no adverse negative impact on mechanical properties. The main objective of our current project is to contribute to the general understanding of the flame retardants mechanism and to investigate the corresponding structure/properties relationships. We confirm that nanotechnology systems are successfully concept for commercialized forms for non-flammable GRP pipe, concrete composites, and flame retardant tunnels constructions.

Keywords: fire retardants, FR, halogen-free FR nanofillers, non-flammable pipe/concrete, thermoset resins

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895 The Impact of Initiators on Fast Drying Traffic Marking Paint

Authors: Maryam Taheri, Mehdi Jahanfar, Kenji Ogino


Fast drying traffic marking paint comprising a solvent-borne resin, a filler, a pigment and a solvent that is especially suitable for colder ambient (temperatures near freezing) applications, where waterborne traffic paint cannot be used. Acrylic resins based on methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, and styrene were synthesized in different solvents using organic peroxide initiators such as peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo. After polymerization, the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index= PDI (Mw/Mn), viscosity, total residual monomer and APHA color were evaluated and results of organic peroxide initiators (t- butyl and t-amyl derivatives) were also compared with the azo initiator. The Mw, PDI, viscosity, mass conversation and APHA color of resins with t-amyl derivatives of organic peroxide initiators are very proper. The results of the traffic marking paints test such as non-volatile matter, no- pick- up time, hiding power, resistance to wear and water resistance study that produced with these resins also confirm this.

Keywords: fast drying traffic marking paint, acrylic resin, organic peroxide initiator, peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo initiator

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894 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant


Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

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893 The Role of Synthetic Data in Aerial Object Detection

Authors: Ava Dodd, Jonathan Adams


The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of developing a machine learning application using synthetic data. The study is structured to develop the application for the purpose of deploying the computer vision model. The findings discuss the realities of attempting to develop a computer vision model for practical purpose, and detail the processes, tools, and techniques that were used to meet accuracy requirements. The research reveals that synthetic data represents another variable that can be adjusted to improve the performance of a computer vision model. Further, a suite of tools and tuning recommendations are provided.

Keywords: computer vision, machine learning, synthetic data, YOLOv4

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892 Acrylate-Based Photopolymer Resin Combined with Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil for 3D-Printing

Authors: Raphael Palucci Rosa, Giuseppe Rosace


Stereolithography (SLA) is one of the 3D-printing technologies that has been steadily growing in popularity for both industrial and personal applications due to its versatility, high accuracy, and low cost. Its printing process consists of using a light emitter to solidify photosensitive liquid resins layer-by-layer to produce solid objects. However, the majority of the resins used in SLA are derived from petroleum and characterized by toxicity, stability, and recalcitrance to degradation in natural environments. Aiming to develop an eco-friendly resin, in this work, different combinations of a standard commercial SLA resin (Peopoly UV professional) with a vegetable-based resin were investigated. To reach this goal, different mass concentrations (varying from 10 to 50 wt%) of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), a vegetable resin produced from soyabean oil, were mixed with a commercial acrylate-based resin. 1.0 wt% of Diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO) was used as photo-initiator, and the samples were printed using a Peopoly moai 130. The machine was set to operate at standard configurations when printing commercial resins. After the print was finished, the excess resin was drained off, and the samples were washed in isopropanol and water to remove any non-reacted resin. Finally, the samples were post-cured for 30 min in a UV chamber. FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the UV polymerization of the formulated resin with different AESO/Peopoly ratios. The signals from 1643.7 to 1616, which corresponds to the C=C stretching of the AESO acrylic acids and Peopoly acrylic groups, significantly decreases after the reaction. The signal decrease indicates the consumption of the double bonds during the radical polymerization. Furthermore, the slight change of the C-O-C signal from 1186.1 to 1159.9 decrease of the signals at 809.5 and 983.1, which corresponds to unsaturated double bonds, are both proofs of the successful polymerization. Mechanical analyses showed a decrease of 50.44% on tensile strength when adding 10 wt% of AESO, but it was still in the same range as other commercial resins. The elongation of break increased by 24% with 10 wt% of AESO and swelling analysis showed that samples with a higher concentration of AESO mixed absorbed less water than their counterparts. Furthermore, high-resolution prototypes were printed using both resins, and visual analysis did not show any significant difference between both products. In conclusion, the AESO resin was successful incorporated into a commercial resin without affecting its printability. The bio-based resin showed lower tensile strength than the Peopoly resin due to network loosening, but it was still in the range of other commercial resins. The hybrid resin also showed better flexibility and water resistance than Peopoly resin without affecting its resolution. Finally, the development of new types of SLA resins is essential to provide new sustainable alternatives to the commercial petroleum-based ones.

Keywords: 3D-printing, bio-based, resin, soybean, stereolithography

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891 Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater

Authors: Thanaa Abdel Moghny, Mohamed Keshawy, Mahmoud Fathy, Abdul-Raheim M. Abdul-Raheim, Khalid I. Kabel, Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy, Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed E. Awadallah


Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and   amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sorbent materials, waste water, waste polystyrene

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890 Microwave Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Nano-Binder from Renewable Resource and Their Application in Textile Printing

Authors: K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy


Due to limited fossil resource and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feed stocks in textile industry area will increase in the decades to come. This research highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins for high characterization and reactive properties, completely based on commercially available renewable resources (sunflower and/or soybean oil) were prepared and characterized. In this work, we present results on the synthesis of various alkyd resins according to the alcoholysis – polyesterification process under different preparation conditions using a microwave synthesis as energy source to determine suitable reaction conditions. Effects of polymerization parameters, such as catalyst ratio, reaction temperature and microwave power level have been studied. The prepared binder was characterized via FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), in addition to acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), water absorbance, weight loss, and glass transition temperature. The prepared binder showed high performance physico-mechanical properties. TEM analysis showed that the polymer latex nanoparticle within range of 20–200 nm. The study involved the application of the prepared alkyd resins as binder for pigment printing process onto cotton fabric by using a flat screen technique and the prints were dried and thermal cured. The optimum curing conditions were determined, color strength and fastness properties of pigment printed areas to light, washing, perspiration and crocking were evaluated. The rheological properties and apparent viscosity of prepared binders were measured in addition roughness of the prints was also determined.

Keywords: nano-binder, microwave heating, renewable resource, alkyd resins, sunflower oil, soybean oil

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889 Oxidation States of Trace Elements in Synthetic Corundum

Authors: Ontima Yamchuti, Waruntorn Kanitpanyacharoen, Chakkaphan Sutthirat, Wantana Klysuban, Penphitcha Amonpattarakit


Natural corundum occurs in various colors due to impurities or trace elements in its structure. Sapphire and ruby are essentially the same mineral, corundum, but valued differently due to their red and blue varieties, respectively. Color is one of the critical factors used to determine the value of natural and synthetic corundum. Despite the abundance of research on impurities in natural corundum, little is known about trace elements in synthetic corundum. This project thus aims to quantify trace elements and identify their oxidation states in synthetic corundum. A total of 15 corundum samples in red, blue, and yellow, synthesized by melt growth process, were first investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the composition. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) was used to identify the types of trace elements. Results confirm that all synthetic corundums contain crystalline Al₂O₃ and a wide variety type of trace element, particularly Cr, Fe, and Ti. In red, yellow, and blue corundums respectively. To further determine their oxidation states, synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrometry (XANES) was used to observe absorbing energy of each element. XANES results show that red synthetic corundum has Cr³⁺ as a major trace element (62%). The pre-edge absorption energy of Cr³⁺ is at 6001 eV. In addition, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ are dominant oxidation states of yellow synthetic corundum while Ti³⁺and Ti⁴⁺ are dominant oxidation states of blue synthetic corundum. the average absorption energy of Fe and Ti is 4980 eV and 7113 eV respectively. The presence of Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Cr³⁺, Ti³⁺, and Ti⁴⁺ in synthetic corundums in this study is governed by comparison absorption energy edge with standard transition. The results of oxidation states in this study conform with natural corundum. However yellow synthetic corundums show difference oxidation state of trace element compared with synthetic in electron spin resonance spectrometer method which found that Ni³⁺ is a dominant oxidation state.

Keywords: corundum, trace element, oxidation state, XANES technique

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