Search results for: polar vortex
409 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime
Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela
Abstract:Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.
Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortexProcedia PDF Downloads 367
408 Investigation of Polar Atmospheric Response to the Intense Geo-Space Activities
Authors: Jayanta K. Behera, Ashwini K. Sinha
Abstract:The study has pointed out the relationship of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) during high speed solar wind streams (HSS) to the ionization characteristics and subsequent NOx production in the polar atmosphere. Over the last few decades, it has been shown that production of NOx in the mesosphere region during the precipitation of charged particles (with energy range >30 KeV to 1 MeV) is directly related to the ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere, extending from mesosphere to upper stratosphere. This study has dealt with the analysis of the interplanetary parameters such as interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind velocity (Vs), charged particle density (Ns), convection field enhancement (Ec) during such HSS events and their link to the rate of production of NOx in the mesosphere. Moreover, the analysis will be used to validate or, to modify the current ion-chemistry models which describe the ionization rate and NOx production in the polar atmosphere due to EPP.
Keywords: energetic particle precipitation (EPP), NOx, ozone depletion, polar vortexProcedia PDF Downloads 392
407 Unsteady Characteristics Investigation on the Precessing Vortex Breakdown and Energy Separation in a Vortex Tube
Authors: Xiangji Guo, Bo Zhang
Abstract:In this paper, the phenomenon of vortex breakdown in a vortex tube was analyzed within the scope of unsteady character in swirl flows. A 3-D Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) closed by the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) was adopted to simulate the large-scale vortex structure in vortex tube, and the numerical model was verified by the steady results. The swirl number was calculated for the vortex tube and the flow field was classed as strong swirl flow. According to the results, a time-dependent spiral flow field gyrates around a central recirculation zone which is precessing around the axis of the tube, and manifests the flow structure is the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown. The vortex breakdown is crucial for the formation of the central recirculation zone (CRZ), a further discussion was about the affection on CRZ with the different external conditions of vortex tube, the study on the unsteady characters was expected to hope to design of vortex tube and analyze the energy separation effect.
Keywords: vortex tube, vortex breakdown, central recirculation zone, unsteady, energy separationProcedia PDF Downloads 251
406 Energy Separation Mechanism in Uni-Flow Vortex Tube Using Compressible Vortex Flow
Authors: Hiroshi Katanoda, Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof
Abstract:A theoretical investigation from the viewpoint of gas-dynamics and thermodynamics was carried out, in order to clarify the energy separation mechanism in a viscous compressible vortex, as a primary flow element in a uni-flow vortex tube. The mathematical solutions of tangential velocity, density and temperature in a viscous compressible vortical flow were used in this study. It is clear that a total temperature in the vortex core falls well below that distant from the vortex core in the radial direction, causing a region with higher total temperature, compared to the distant region, peripheral to the vortex core.
Keywords: energy separation mechanism, theoretical analysis, vortex tube, vortical flowProcedia PDF Downloads 325
405 LES Investigation of the Natural Vortex Length in a Small-Scale Gas Cyclone
Authors: Dzmitry Misiulia, Sergiy Antonyuk
Abstract:Small-scale cyclone separators are widely used in aerosol sampling. The flow field in a cyclone sampler is very complex, especially the vortex behavior. Most of the existing models for calculating cyclone efficiency use the same stable vortex structure while the vortex demonstrates dynamic variations rather than the steady-state picture. It can spontaneously ‘end’ at some point within the body of the separator. Natural vortex length is one of the most critical issues when designing and operating gas cyclones and is crucial to proper cyclone performance. The particle transport along the wall to the grid pot is not effective beyond this point. The flow field and vortex behavior inside the aerosol sampler have been investigated for a wide range of Reynolds numbers using Large Eddy Simulations. Two characteristics types of vortex behavior have been found with simulations. At low flow rates the vortex created in the cyclone dissipates in free space (without attaching to a surface) while at higher flow rates it attaches to the cyclone wall. The effects of the Reynolds number on the natural vortex length and the rotation frequency of the end of the vortex have been revealed.
Keywords: cyclone, flow field, natural vortex length, pressure dropProcedia PDF Downloads 88
404 Numerical Investigation of Two Turbulence Models for Predicting the Temperature Separation in Conical Vortex Tube
Authors: M. Guen
Abstract:A three-dimensional numerical study is used to analyze the behavior of the flow inside a vortex tube. The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a simple device which is capable of dividing compressed air from the inlet nozzle tangentially into two flow with different temperatures warm and cold. This phenomenon is known from literature by temperature separation. The K ω-SST and K-ε turbulence models are used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the tube. The vortex tube is an Exair 708 slpm (25 scfm) commercial tube. The cold and hot exits areas are 30.2 and 95 mm2 respectively. The vortex nozzle consists of 6 straight slots; the height and the width of each slot are 0.97 mm and 1.41 mm. The total area normal to the flow associated with six nozzles is therefore 8.15 mm 2. The present study focuses on a comparison between two turbulence models K ω-SST, K-ε by using a new configuration of vortex tube (Conical Vortex Tube). The performance curves of the temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction were calculated and compared with experimental and numerical study of other researchers.
Keywords: conical vortex tube, temperature separation, cold mass fraction, turbulenceProcedia PDF Downloads 174
403 Contributions at the Define of the Vortex Plane Cyclic Motion
Authors: Petre Stan, Marinica Stan
Abstract:In this paper, a new way to define the vortex plane cyclic motion is exposed, starting from the physical cause of reacting the vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in cylindrical coordinates for viscous fluids in laminar motion, and are integrated in case of a infinite long revolving cylinder which rotates around a pintle in a viscous fluid that occupies the entire space up to infinite. In this way, a revolving field of velocities in fluid is obtained, having the shape of a vortex in which the intensity is obtained objectively, being given by the physical phenomenon that generates this vortex.
Keywords: cylindrical coordinates, Navier-Stokes equations, viscous fluid, vortex planeProcedia PDF Downloads 62
402 Study of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere during Sudden Stratospheric Warming Episodes
Authors: Jinee Gogoi, Som K. Sharma, Kalyan Bhuyan
Abstract:The atmospheric layers are coupled to each other with the different dynamical, electrical, radiative and chemical processes. A large scale thermodynamical phenomenon in winter polar regions which affects the middle atmosphere vigorously is Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW). Two major SSW events were occurred during 1998-1999; one in December 1998 which is associated with vortex displacement and another in February- March 1999 associated with vortex splitting. Lidar study of these two major events from Mt. Abu (24.36⁰N, 72.45⁰E, ~1670 m amsl) has shown that though SSWs are mostly observed over high and mid latitudes, their effects can also be seen over India. We have studied ionospheric variations (primarily fₒF₂, h’F and hpF₂) over Ahmedabad (23.1⁰N, 72.58⁰E) during these events. Ionospheric disturbances have been found after four-five days of peak temperature. An increase (decrease) in critical frequency (fₒF₂) during morning (afternoon) has been noticed which may be in response to the updrift (down drift). Effects are stronger during displacement event (1998) than during the splitting event (1999). We have also studied some recent events occurred during 2006 (January), 2009 (January) and 2013 (January) using temperature data from Sounding of Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite. Though some modeling work supports the hypothesis that planetary waves are responsible for atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, there is still more significant works to do to understand how exactly the coupling can take place.
Keywords: sudden stratospheric warming (SSW), polar vortex, ionosphere, critical frequencyProcedia PDF Downloads 119
401 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings
Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya
Abstract:The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ringProcedia PDF Downloads 407
400 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Channel with Delta Winglet Vortex Generators at Different Reynolds Numbers
Authors: N. K. Singh
Abstract:In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a rectangular channel with triangular vortex generators is evaluated. The span wise averaged Nusselt number, mean temperature and total heat flux are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel at a blade angle of 30° for Reynolds numbers 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000. The use of vortex generators increases the span wise averaged Nusselt number compared to the case without vortex generators considerably. At a particular blade angle, increasing the Reynolds number results in an enhancement in the overall performance and span wise averaged Nusselt number was found to be greater at particular location for larger Reynolds number. The total heat flux from the bottom wall with vortex generators was found to be greater than that without vortex generators and the difference increases with increase in Reynolds number.
Keywords: heat transfer, channel with vortex generators, numerical simulation, effect of Reynolds number on heat transferProcedia PDF Downloads 259
399 Theoretical Calculation of Wingtip Devices for Agricultural Aircraft
Authors: Hashim Bashir
Abstract:The Vortex generated at the edges of the wing of an Aircraft are called the Wing Tip Vortex. The Wing Tip Vortices are associated with induced drag. The induced drag is responsible for nearly 50% of aircraft total drag and can be reduced through modifications to the wing tip. Some models displace wingtips vortices outwards diminishing the induced drag. Concerning agricultural aircrafts, wing tip vortex position is really important, while spreading products over a plantation. In this work, theoretical calculations were made in order to study the influence in aerodynamic characteristics and vortex position, over Sudanese agricultural aircraft, by the following types of wing tips: delta tip, winglet and down curved. The down curved tip was better for total drag reduction, but not good referring to vortex position. The delta tip gave moderate improvement on aerodynamic characteristic and on vortex position. The winglet had a better vortex position and lift increment, but caused an undesirable result referring to the wing root bending moment. However, winglet showed better development potential for agricultural aircraft.
Keywords: wing tip device, wing tip vortice, agricultural aircaft, wingletProcedia PDF Downloads 249
398 CFD Simulation of the Inlet Pressure Effects on the Cooling Capacity Enhancement for Vortex Tube with Couple Vortex Chambers
Authors: Nader Pourmahmoud, Amir Hassanzadeh
Abstract:This article investigates the effects of inlet pressure in a newly introduced vortex tube which has been equipped with an additional vortex chamber. A 3-D compressible turbulent flow computation has been carried out toward analysis of complex flow field in this apparatus. Numerical results of flows are derived by utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model for analyzing high rotating complex flow field. The present research has focused on cooling effect and given a characteristics curve for minimum cool temperature. In addition, the effect of inlet pressure for both chambers has been studied in details. To be presented numerical results show that the effect of inlet pressure in second chamber has more important role in improving the performance of the vortex tube than first one. By increasing the pressure in the second chamber, cold outlet temperature reaches a higher decrease. When both chambers are fed with high pressure fluid, best operation condition of vortex tube occurs. However, it is not possible to feed both chambers with high pressure due to the conditions of working environment.
Keywords: energy separation, inlet pressure, numerical simulation, vortex chamber, vortex tubeProcedia PDF Downloads 312
397 Utilizing Waste Heat from Thermal Power Plants to Generate Power by Modelling an Atmospheric Vortex Engine
Authors: Mohammed Nabeel Khan, C. Perisamy
Abstract:Convective vortices are normal highlights of air that ingest lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they dismiss higher-entropy-energy to space. By means of the thermodynamic proficiency, it has been anticipated that the force of convective vortices relies upon the profundity of the convective layer. The atmospheric vortex engine is proposed as a gadget for delivering mechanical energy by methods for artificially produced vortex. The task of the engine is in view of the certainties that the environment is warmed from the base and cooled from the top. By generation of the artificial vortex, it is planned to take out the physical solar updraft tower and decrease the capital of the solar chimney power plants. The study shows the essentials of the atmospheric vortex engine, furthermore, audits the cutting edge in subject. Moreover, the study talks about a thought on using the solar energy as heat source to work the framework. All in all, the framework is attainable and promising for electrical power production.
Keywords: AVE, atmospheric vortex engine, atmosphere, updraft, vortexProcedia PDF Downloads 94
396 Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Natural Refrigerant within a Vortex Tube
Authors: Mirza Popovac
Abstract:This paper investigates the application of the vortex tubes towards increasing the efficiency of high temperature heat pumps based on natural refrigerants, by recovering a part of the expansion work within the refrigerant cycle. To this purpose the 3D Navier-Stokes solver is used to perform a set of numerical simulations, investigating the vortex tube performance. Firstly, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for standard configurations of vortex tubes, and the obtained results are validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. Subsequently, different geometry specifications are analyzed, as well as the interplay between relevant heat pump operating conditions and the properties of natural refrigerants. Finally, the characteristic curve of performance will be derived for investigated vortex tubes specifications when used within high temperature heat pumps.
Keywords: heat pump, vortex tube, CFD, natural refrigerantProcedia PDF Downloads 83
395 A CFD Study of the Performance Characteristics of Vented Cylinders as Vortex Generators
Authors: R. Kishan, R. M. Sumant, S. Suhas, Arun Mahalingam
Abstract:This paper mainly researched on influence of vortex generator on lift coefficient and drag coefficient, when vortex generator is mounted on a flat plate. Vented cylinders were used as vortex generators which intensify vortex shedding in the wake of the vented cylinder as compared to base line circular cylinder which ensures more attached flow and increases lift force of the system. Firstly vented cylinders were analyzed in commercial CFD software which is compared with baseline cylinders for different angles of attack and further variation of lift and drag forces were studied by varying Reynolds number to account for influence of turbulence and boundary layer in the flow. Later vented cylinders were mounted on a flat plate and variation of lift and drag coefficients was studied by varying angles of attack and studying the dependence of Reynolds number and dimensions of vortex generator on the coefficients. Mesh grid sensitivity is studied to check the convergence of the results obtained It was found that usage of vented cylinders as vortex generators increased lift forces with small variation in drag forces by varying angle of attack.
Keywords: CFD analysis, drag coefficient, FVM, lift coefficient, modeling, Reynolds number, simulation, vortex generators, vortex sheddingProcedia PDF Downloads 366
394 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction
Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma
Abstract:Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.
Keywords: cholesterol, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids, solvent extractionProcedia PDF Downloads 439
393 Experimental Study on Temperature Splitting of a Counter-Flow Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube
Authors: Hany. A. Mohamed, M. Attalla, M. Salem, Hussein M. Mghrabie, E. Specht
Abstract:An experiment al investigation is made to determine the effects of the nozzle dimensions and the inlet pressure on the heating and cooling performance of the counter flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube when air used as a working fluid. The all results were taking under inlet pressures were adjusted from 200 kPa to 600 kPa with 100 kPa increments. The conventional tangential generator with number of nuzzle of 6 was used and inner diameter of 7.5 mm. During the experiments, a vortex tube is used with an L/D ratio varied from 10 to 30. Finally, it is observed that the effect of the nuzzle aspect ratio on the energy separation changes according to the value of L/D.
Keywords: Ranque-Hilsch, vortex tube, aspect ratio, energy separationProcedia PDF Downloads 448
392 Flow Control Optimisation Using Vortex Generators in Turbine Blade
Authors: J. Karthik, G. Vinayagamurthy
Abstract:Aerodynamic flow control is achieved by interaction of flowing medium with corresponding structure so that its natural flow state is disturbed to delay the transition point. This paper explains the aerodynamic effect and optimized design of Vortex Generators on the turbine blade to achieve maximum flow control. The airfoil is chosen from NREL [National Renewable Energy Laboratory] S-series airfoil as they are characterized with good lift characteristics and lower noise. Vortex generators typically chosen are Ogival, Rectangular, Triangular and Tapered Fin shapes attached near leading edge. Vortex generators are typically distributed from the primary to tip of the blade section. The design wind speed is taken as 6m/s and the computational analysis is executed. The blade surface is simulated using k- ɛ SST model and results are compared with X-FOIL results. The computational results are validated using Wind Tunnel Testing of the blade corresponding to the design speed. The effect of Vortex generators on the flow characteristics is studied from the results of analysis. By comparing the computational and test results of all shapes of Vortex generators; the optimized design is achieved for effective flow control corresponding to the blade.
Keywords: flow control, vortex generators, design optimisation, CFDProcedia PDF Downloads 334
391 Polar Bergman Polynomials on Domain with Corners
Authors: Laskri Yamina, Rehouma Abdel Hamid
Abstract:In this paper we present a new class named polar of monic orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported on G, where G is a bounded simply-connected domain in the complex planeℂ. We analyze some open questions and discuss some ideas properties related to solving asymptotic behavior of polar Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and asymptotic behavior of modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable and polar modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable. We show that uniform asymptotic of Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and by Pritsker's theorem imply uniform asymptotic for all their derivatives.
Keywords: Bergman orthogonal polynomials, polar rthogonal polynomials, asymptotic behavior, Faber polynomialsProcedia PDF Downloads 370
390 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics
Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman
Abstract:The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.
Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIVProcedia PDF Downloads 399
389 Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag Using Vortex Generators
Authors: Siddharth Ojha, Varun Dua
Abstract:Classified as one of the most important reasons of aerodynamic drag in the sedan automobiles is the fluid flow separation near the vehicle’s rear end. To retard the separation of flow, bump-shaped vortex generators are being tested for its implementation to the roof end of a sedan vehicle. Frequently used in the aircrafts to prevent the separation of fluid flow, vortex generators themselves produce drag, but they also substantially reduce drag by preventing flow separation at the downstream. The net effects of vortex generators can be calculated by summing the positive and negative impacts and effects. Since this effect depends on dimensions and geometry of vortex generators, those present on the vehicle roof are optimized for maximum efficiency and performance. The model was tested through ANSYS CFD analysis and modeling. The model was tested in the wind tunnel for observing it’s properties such as aerodynamic drag and flow separation and a major time lag was gained by employing vortex generators in the scaled model. Major conclusions which were recorded during the analysis were a substantial 24% reduction in the aerodynamic drag and 14% increase in the efficiency of the sedan automobile as the flow separation from the surface is delayed. This paper presents the results of optimization, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects occur and are regulated.
Keywords: aerodynamics, aerodynamic devices, body, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), flow visualizationProcedia PDF Downloads 155
388 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex
Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas
Abstract:The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.
Keywords: patterns, swirling, quasi-periodic, synchronizationProcedia PDF Downloads 182
387 Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance
Abstract:The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.
Keywords: convergent-divergent vortex finder, cyclone separator, discrete phase modeling, Reynolds stress modelProcedia PDF Downloads 109
386 Growth of Non-Polar a-Plane AlGaN Epilayer with High Crystalline Quality and Smooth Surface Morphology
Authors: Abbas Nasir, Xiong Zhang, Sohail Ahmad, Yiping Cui
Abstract:Non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayers of high structural quality have been grown on r-sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer with variable aluminium concentration was used to improve the structural quality of the non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayer. The characterisations were carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD and AFM results demonstrate that the Al-composition-graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer significantly improved the crystalline quality and the surface morphology of the top layer. A low root mean square roughness 1.52 nm is obtained from AFM, and relatively low background carrier concentration down to 3.9× cm-3 is obtained from Hall effect measurement.
Keywords: non-polar AlGaN epilayer, Al composition-graded AlGaN layer, root mean square, background carrier concentrationProcedia PDF Downloads 78
385 Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Channel with Delta Winglet Type Vortex Generators at Different Blade Angles
Authors: Nirmal Kant Singh, Anshuman Pratap Singh
Abstract:In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a channel with delta winglet type vortex generators is evaluated. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a rectangular channel with longitudinal triangular vortex generators (LVGs). The span wise averaged Nusselt number and mean temperature are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel. The effect of variation of blade angle (15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) is studied at a Reynolds number of 10000. The numerical results indicate that the application of LVGs effectively enhances heat transfer in the channel. The Nusselt number and mean outlet temperature were found to be greater using LVGs than in the channel without LVGs. It is observed that heat transfer increases with increase in blade angle at the same Reynolds number.
Keywords: heat transfer, rectangular channel, longitudinal vortex generators, effect of blade angleProcedia PDF Downloads 510
384 Prediction of Flow Around a NACA 0015 Profile
Authors: Boukhadia Karima
Abstract:The fluid mechanics is the study of fluid motion laws and their interaction with solid bodies, this project leads to illustrate this interaction with depth studies and approved by experiments on the wind tunnel TE44, ensuring the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of these tests on a NACA0015 profile. A symmetric NACA0015 was placed in a subsonic wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of the velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the scattered pressure profile in a free airflow and the aerodynamic forces acting on this profile. The addition of around-lateral edge to the wing tip was found to eliminate the secondary vortex near the wing tip, but had little effect on the downstream characteristics of the trailing vortex. The increase in wing lift near the tip because of the presence of the trailing vortex was evident in the surface pressure, but was not captured by circulation-box measurements. The circumferential velocity within the vortex was found to reach free-stream values and produce core rotational speeds. Near the wing, the trailing vortex is asymmetric and contains definite zones where the stream wise velocity both exceeds and falls behind the free-stream value. When referenced to the free stream velocity, the maximum vertical velocity of the vortex is directly dependent on α and is independent of Re. A numerical study was conducted through a CFD code called FLUENT 6.0, and the results are compared with experimental.
Keywords: CFD code, NACA Profile, detachment, angle of incidence, wind tunnelProcedia PDF Downloads 353
383 Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface
Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith
Abstract:This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.
Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNIProcedia PDF Downloads 493
382 On the Effects of External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder
Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman
Abstract:Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). In this work, we present the effects of the external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of the external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.
Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIVProcedia PDF Downloads 292
381 In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria
Authors: F. Belkhiri, A. Baghiani, S. Boumerfeg, N. Charef, S. Khennouf, L. Arrar
Abstract:The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.
Keywords: antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, Tamus communis L., polar fractionsProcedia PDF Downloads 497
380 Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA
Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith
Abstract:This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.
Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNIProcedia PDF Downloads 515