Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 383

Search results for: methanol

383 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi


A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: energy saving, methanol, gas turbine, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
382 Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalyst for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol

Authors: D. M. Reddy Prasad, Nur Sabrina Binti Rahmat, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, Maksudur Rahman Khan, D. Sathiyamoorthy


Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the environment is inevitable which is responsible for global warming. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel, such as methanol, methane etc. is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emission. In the present work, Bi2S3/CdS was synthesized as an effective visible light responsive photocatalyst for CO2 reduction into methanol. The Bi2S3/CdS photocatalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst has been investigated for methanol production as a function of time. Gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to analyze the product. The yield of methanol was found to increase with higher CdS concentration in Bi2S3/CdS and the maximum yield was obtained for 45 wt% of Bi2S3/CdS under visible light irradiation was 20 μmole/g. The result establishes that Bi2S3/CdS is favorable catalyst to reduce CO2 to methanol.

Keywords: photocatalyst, CO2 reduction, methanol, visible light, XRD, GC-FID

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381 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua


Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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380 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming

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379 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua


Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: hydrogen, methanol, alternative fuel, emissions, spark ignition engines

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378 Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol over Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M. S. Shaharun


Carbon dioxide is highly thermochemical stable molecules where it is very difficult to activate the molecule and achieve higher catalytic conversion into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds. In this paper, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were systematically prepared via impregnation technique with different Cu: Zn ratio for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and surface area determination was also performed. All catalysts were tested with respect to the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol in microactivity fixed-bed reactor at 250oC, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. The results demonstrate that the catalytic structure, activity, and methanol selectivity was strongly affected by the ratio between Cu: Zn, Where higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % was obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with Cu:Zn ratio of 7:3 wt. %. Comparing with the single catalyst, the synergetic between Cu and Zn provides additional active sites to adsorb more H2 and CO2 and accelerate the CO2 conversion, resulting in higher methanol production under mild reaction conditions.

Keywords: hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, Cu/ZnO-based catalyst, mesoporous silica (SBA-15), metal ratio

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377 Simulation and Optimization of an Annular Methanol Reformer

Authors: Shu-Bo Yang, Wei Wu, Yuan-Heng Liu


This research aims to design a heat-exchanger type of methanol reformer coupled with a preheating design in gPROMS® environment. The endothermic methanol steam reforming reaction (MSR) and the exothermic preferential oxidation reaction (PROX) occur in the inner tube and the outer tube of the reformer, respectively. The effective heat transfer manner between the inner and outer tubes is investigated. It is verified that the countercurrent-flow type reformer provides the higher hydrogen yield than the cocurrent-flow type. Since the hot spot temperature appears in the outer tube, an improved scheme is proposed to suppress the hot spot temperature by splitting the excess air flowing into two sites. Finally, an optimization algorithm for maximizing the hydrogen yield is employed to determine optimal operating conditions.

Keywords: methanol reformer, methanol steam reforming, optimization, simulation

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376 Preventive Effects of Silymarin in Retinal Intoxication with Methanol in Rat: Transmission Electron Microscope Study

Authors: A. Zarenezhad, A. Esfandiari, E. Zarenezhad, M. Mardkhoshnood


The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effect of silymarin against the methanol toxicity. Fifteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Control group, Experimental group I (received 4g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days), Experimental group II (received 4 g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days and received 250 mg/kg silymarin orally for three months). At the end of the experiment, the eyes were removed; retina was separated near the optic disc and studied by transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the retina in the experimental group I exhibited loss of outer segments and disorganization in inner segment. Increased extra cellular space, disappearance of outer limiting membrane and pyknotic nuclei were seen in this group. But normal outer segment, organized inner segment and normal outer limiting membrane were obvious after treatment with silymarin in experimental group II. These findings show that methanol causes damage in the photoreceptor layer of the rat retina and silymarin can protect the damage to retina against the methanol intoxication.

Keywords: ultra-structure, photoreceptor layer, methanol intoxication, silymarin, rat

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375 Experimental and Characterization Studies on Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

Authors: S. Muthuraja Soundrapandian, C.K. Subramaniam


A micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) of 1 cm2 active area with selective sensor materials to sense methanol for redox, has been developed. Among different Pt alloys, Pt-Sn/C was able to produce high current density and repeatability. Membrane Elecctrode Assembly (MEA) of anode catalyst Pt-Sn/C was prepared with nafion as active membrane and Pt black as cathode catalyst. The sensor’s maximum ability to detect the trace levels of methanol in ppm has been analyzed. A compact sensor set up has also been made and the characterization studies were carried out. The acceptable value of current density was derived by the cell and the results are able to fulfill the needs of DMFC technology for the practical applications.

Keywords: DMFC, sensor, MEA, Pt-Sn

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374 The Photocatalytic Approach for the Conversion of Polluted Seawater CO₂ into Renewable Source of Energy

Authors: Yasar N. Kavil, Yasser A. Shaban, Radwan K. Al Farawati, Mohamed I. Orif, Shahed U. M. Khanc


Photocatalytic way of reduction of CO₂ in polluted seawater into chemical fuel, methanol, was successfully gained over Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles under UV and natural sunlight. A homemade stirred batch annular reactor was used to carry out the photocatalytic reduction experiments. Photocatalysts with various Cu loadings (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt.%) were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure and were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV–Vis, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic production of methanol was promoted by the co-doping with C and Cu into TiO₂. This improvement was attributed to the modification of bandgap energy and the hindrance of the charges recombination. The polluted seawater showing the yield depended on its background hydrographic parameters. We assessed two types of polluted seawater system, the observed yield was 2910 and 990 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination under UV and natural sunlight respectively in system 1 and the corresponding yield in system 2 was 2250 and 910 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination. The production of methanol in the case of oxygen-depleted water was low, this is mainly attributed to the competition of methanogenic bacteria over methanol production. The results indicated that the methanol yield produced by Cu-C/TiO₂ was much higher than those of carbon-modified titanium oxide (C/TiO₂) and Degussa (P25-TiO₂). Under the current experimental condition, the optimum loading was achieved by the doping of 3 wt % of Cu. The highest methanol yield was obtained over 1 g L-1 of 3wt% Cu/C-TiO₂.

Keywords: CO₂ photoreduction, copper, Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂, methanol, seawater

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373 Analysis of Caffeic Acid from Myrica nagi Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Preeti Panthari, Harsha Kharkwal


Myrica nagi belongs to Myricaceae family. It is known for its therapeutic use since ancient times. The leaves were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with different solvents with increasing polarity. The n-butanol fraction of methanol extract was passed through celite, on separation through silica gel column chromatography yielded ten fractions. For the first time we report isolation of Caffeic acid from n-butanol fraction of Myrica nagi leaves in Chloroform: methanol (70:30) fraction. The mobile phase used for analysis in HPLC was Methanol: water (60:40) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min at wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time was 2.66 mins.

Keywords: Myrica nagi, column chromatography, retention time, caffeic acid

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372 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Standardization of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum sinaicum Hochst

Authors: Taghreed A. Ibrahim, Atef A. El-Hela, Hala M. El-Hefnawy


The chromatographic profile of methanol extract of Hypericum sinaicum was determined using HPLC-DAD. Apigenin was used as an external standard in the development and validation of the HPLC method. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be successfully applied for standardization of Hypericum sinaicum methanol extract.

Keywords: quality control, standardization, falvonoids, methanol extract

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371 Life Cycle Assessment Comparison between Methanol and Ethanol Feedstock for the Biodiesel from Soybean Oil

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul


As the limited availability of petroleum-based fuel has been a major concern, biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative fuels because it is renewable and it also has advantages over the conventional petroleum-base diesel. At Present, productions of biodiesel generally perform by transesterification of vegetable oils with low molecular weight alcohol, mainly methanol, using chemical catalysts. Methanol is petrochemical product that makes biodiesel producing from methanol to be not pure renewable energy source. Therefore, ethanol as a product produced by fermentation processes. It appears as a potential feed stock that makes biodiesel to be pure renewable alternative fuel. The research is conducted based on two biodiesel production processes by reacting soybean oils with methanol and ethanol. Life cycle assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the environmental impacts and to identify the process alternative. Nine mid-point impact categories are investigated. The results indicate that better performance on Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP) and Acidification Potential (AP) are observed in biodiesel production from methanol when compared with biodiesel production from ethanol due to less energy consumption during the production processes. Except for ADP and AP, using methanol as feed stock does not show any advantages over biodiesel from ethanol. The single score method is also included in this study in order to identify the best option between two processes of biodiesel production. The global normalization and weighting factor based on eco-taxes are used and it shows that producing biodiesel form ethanol has less environmental load compare to biodiesel from methanol.

Keywords: biodiesel, ethanol, life cycle assessment, methanol, soybean oil

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370 Civil Protection in Mass Methanol Poisoning in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková, Jiří Barta, Otakar J. Mika, Jan Hrdlička, Josef Kellner


The paper is focused on the method to solutions the crisis situation in the Czech Republic associated with the mass methanol poisoning. The emphasis is put on tasks of individual state bodies and of Integrated Rescue System during the handling of the crisis. The theoretical part describes poisonings, ways of intoxication, types of intoxicants and cases of mass poisoning by dangerous substances in the world. The practical part describes the development, causes and solutions of extraordinary event, mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic. The main emphasis was put on the crisis management of the Czech Republic in solving this situation.

Keywords: crisis management, poisoning, methanol, hazardous substances, extraordinary event

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369 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani


Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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368 Pervaporation of Dimethyl Carbonate / Methanol / Water Mixtures Using Zeolite Membranes

Authors: Jong-Ho Moon, Dong-Ho Lee, Hyunuk Kim, Young Cheol Park, Jong-Seop Lee, Jae-deok Jeon, Hyung-Keun Lee


A novel membrane reactor process for DMC synthesis from carbon dioxide has been developing in Korea Institute of Energy Research. The scheme of direct synthesis of DMC from CO₂ and Methanol is 'CO₂ + 2MeOH ↔ DMC + H₂O'. Among them, reactants are CO₂ and MeOH, product is DMC, and byproduct is H₂O (water). According to Le Chatelier’s principle, removing byproduct (water) can shift the reaction equilibrium to the right (DMC production). The main purpose of this process is removing water during the reaction. For efficient in situ water removal (dehydration) and DMC separation, zeolite 4A membranes with very small pore diameter and hydrophilicity were introduced. In this study, pervaporation performances of binary and ternary DMC / methanol / water mixtures were evaluated.

Keywords: dimehtyl carbonate, methanol, water, zeolite membrane, pervaporation

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367 Insect Inducible Methanol Production in Plants for Insect Resistance

Authors: Gourav Jain, Sameer Dixit, Surjeet Kumar Arya, Praveen C. Verma


Plant cell wall plays a major role in defence mechanism against biotic and abiotic stress as it constitutes the physical barrier between the microenvironment and internal component of the cell. It is a complex structure composed of mostly carbohydrates among which cellulose and hemicelluloses are most abundant that is embedded in a matrix of pectins and proteins. Multiple enzymes have been reported which plays a vital role in cell wall modification, Pectin Methylesterase (PME) is one of them which catalyses the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans component of pectin which releases acidic pectin and methanol. As emitted methanol is toxic to the insect pest, we use PME gene for the better methanol production. In the current study we showed overexpression of PME gene isolated from Withania somnifera under the insect inducible promoter causes enhancement of methanol production at the time of insect feeds to plants, and that provides better insect resistance property. We found that the 85-90% mortality causes by transgenic tobacco in both chewing (Spodoptera litura larvae and Helicoverpa armigera) and sap-sucking (Aphid, mealybug, and whitefly) pest. The methanol content and emission level were also enhanced by 10-15 folds at different inducible time point interval (15min, 30min, 45min, 60min) which would be analysed by Purpald/Alcohol Oxidase method.

Keywords: methanol, Pectin methylesterase, inducible promoters, Purpald/Alcohol oxidase

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366 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng


This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

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365 Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity of Rosemary´s (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Different Extracts on Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa Armigera Hubner

Authors: Monireh Movahedi


Considering undesirable effects of chemical insecticides on environment and human health, most studies focused on insecticidal effects of plant materials. Here, the insecticidal effects of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on larval stage of the cotton bollworm were studied. From each extract, six concentrations, including 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/ml were prepared and added on larval artificial diet. Moreover, solution of distilled water and tween 2% considered as check treatment. All experiments were done in laboratory temperature of 25±3 ºC, RH =50±10% and natural photoperiod during growing season. Each treatment had four replications and each replication carried out on 10 first instar larva with <24h age. Larval mortality was recorded 3 and 7 days after treat. Based on results, LC50 of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of R. officinalis were 2.78, 15.87 and 15.70 ml/mg, respectively. On the other hand, antifeedant effect of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan for R. officinalis estimated as 43.13%, 55.11% and 9.19%, respectively. All the obtained results revealed that methanol and ethylacetat extracts of R. officinalis are effective extracts for controlling the cotton bollworm population.

Keywords: Helocoverpa armigera, Rosemarinus officinalis, extract, methanol, ethylacetat, n-Hexan

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364 Perovskite-Type La1−xCaxAlO3 (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) as Active Anode Materials for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Solutions

Authors: M. Diafi, M. Omari, B. Gasmi


Perovskite-type La1−xCaxAlO3 were synthesized at 1000◦C by a co- precipitation method. The synthesized oxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the oxide powders were produced in the form of films on pretreated Ni-supports by an oxide-slurry painting technique their electrocatalytic activities towards methanol oxidation in alkaline solutions at 25°C using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and anodic Tafel polarization techniques. The oxide catalysts followed the rhombohedral hexagonal crystal geometry. The rate of electro-oxidation of methanol was found to increase with increasing substitution of La by Ca in the oxide matrix. The reaction indicated a Tafel slope of ~2.303RT/F, The electrochemical apparent activation energy (〖∆H〗_el^(°#)) was observed to decrease on increasing Ca content. The results point out the optimum electrode activity and stability of the Ca is x=0.6 of composition.

Keywords: electrocatalysis, oxygen evolution, perovskite-type La1−x Cax AlO3, methanol oxidation

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363 Exergy: An Effective Tool to Quantify Sustainable Development of Biodiesel Production

Authors: Mahmoud Karimi, Golmohammad Khoobbakht


This study focuses on the exergy flow analysis in the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources. The exergy analysis performed is based on the thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction and exergy efficiency to investigate the effects of variable parameters on renewability of transesterification. The experiment variables were methanol to WCO ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature in the transesterification reaction. The optimum condition with yield of 90.2% and exergy efficiency of 95.2% was obtained at methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of KOH, at 55 °C. In this condition, the total waste exergy was found to be 45.4 MJ for 1 kg biodiesel production. However high yield in the optimal condition resulted high exergy efficiency in the transesterification of WCO with methanol.

Keywords: biodiesel, exergy, thermodynamic analysis, transesterification, waste cooking oil

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362 The Comparison Study of Methanol and Water Extract of Chuanxiong Rhizoma: A Fingerprint Analysis

Authors: Li Chun Zhao, Zhi Chao Hu, Xi Qiang Liu, Man Lai Lee, Chak Shing Yeung, Man Fei Xu, Yuen Yee Kwan, Alan H. M. Ho, Nickie W. K. Chan, Bin Deng, Zhong Zhen Zhao, Min Xu


Background: Chuangxiong Rhizoma (Chuangxion, CX) is one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese medicine because of its wide therapeutic effects such as vasorelaxation and anti-inflammation. Aim: The purposes of this study are (1) to perform non-targeted / targeted analyses of CX methanol extract and water extract, and compare the present data with previously LC-MS or GC-MS fingerprints; (2) to examine the difference between CX methanol extract and water extract for preliminarily evaluating whether current compound markers of methanol extract from crude CX materials could be suitable for quality control of CX water extract. Method: CX methanol extract was prepared according to the Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. DG water extract was prepared by boiling with pure water for three times (one hour each). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS fingerprint analysis was performed by C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with Agilent 1290 Infinity system. Experimental data were analyzed by Agilent MassHunter Software. A database was established based on 13 published LC-MS and GC-MS CX fingerprint analyses. Total 18 targeted compounds in database were selected as markers to compare present data with previous data, and these markers also used to compare CX methanol extract and water extract. Result: (1) Non-targeted analysis indicated that there were 133 compounds identified in CX methanol extract, while 325 compounds in CX water extract that was more than double of CX methanol extract. (2) Targeted analysis further indicated that 9 in 18 targeted compounds were identified in CX methanol extract, while 12 in 18 targeted compounds in CX water extract that showed a lower lose-rate of water extract when compared with methanol extract. (3) By comparing CX methanol extract and water extract, Senkyunolide A (+1578%), Ferulic acid (+529%) and Senkyunolide H (+169%) were significantly higher in water extract when compared with methanol extract. (4) Other bioactive compounds such as Tetramethylpyrazine were only found in CX water extract. Conclusion: Many new compounds in both CX methanol and water extracts were found by using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS analysis when compared with previous published reports. A new standard reference including non-targeted compound profiling and targeted markers functioned especially for quality control of CX water extract (herbal decoction) should be established in future. (This project was supported by Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/14-15/109) & Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2014A030313414)).

Keywords: Chuanxiong rhizoma, fingerprint analysis, targeted analysis, quality control

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361 Optimization of Bio-Diesel Production from Rubber Seed Oils

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul


Rubber seed oil is an attractive alternative feedstock for biodiesel production because it is not related to food-chain plant. Rubber seed oil contains large amount of free fatty acids, which causes problem in biodiesel production. Free fatty acids can react with alkaline catalyst in biodiesel production. Acid esterification is used as pre-treatment to convert unwanted compound to desirable biodiesel. Phase separation of oil and methanol occurs at low ratio of methanol to oil and causes low reaction rate and conversion. Acid esterification requires large excess of methanol in order to increase the miscibility of methanol in oil and accordingly, it is a more expensive separation process. In this work, the kinetics of esterification of rubber seed oil with methanol is developed from available experimental results. Reactive distillation process was designed by using Aspen Plus program. The effects of operating parameters such as feed ratio, molar reflux ratio, feed temperature, and feed stage are investigated in order to find the optimum conditions. Results show that the reactive distillation process is proved to be better than conventional process. It consumes less feed methanol and less energy while yielding higher product purity than the conventional process. This work can be used as a guideline for further development to industrial scale of biodiesel production using reactive distillation.

Keywords: biodiesel, reactive distillation, rubber seed oil, transesterification

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360 Screening, Selection and Optimization of Extracellular Methanol and Ethanol Tolerant Lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5B4

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat


An extracellular methanol and ethanol tolerant lipase producing bacterial strain K5b4 was isolated from soil samples contaminated with hydrocarbon residues. It was identified by using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16srRNA technique as Acinetobacter species. The immobilized lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 retained more than 98% of its residual activity after incubation with pure methanol and ethanol for 24 hours. The highest hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in the presence of 75% (v/v) methanol in the assay solution. In contrary, the enzyme was able to maintain its original activity up to only 25% (v/v) ethanol whereas at elevated concentrations of 50 and 75% (v/v) the enzyme activity was reduced to 10 and 40%, respectively. Maximum lipase activity of 31.5 mU/mL was achieved after 48 hr cultivation when the optimized medium (pH 7.0) that composed of 1.0% (w/v) olive oil, 0.2% (w/v) glycerol, 0.15% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.05% (w/v) NaCl was inoculated with 0.4% (v/v) seed culture and incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm agitation speed. However, the presence of CaCl2 in the growth media did not show any inhibitory or stimulatory effect on the enzyme production as it compared to the control experiment. Meanwhile, the other mineral salts MgCl2, MnCl2, KCl and CoCl2 were negatively affected the production of lipase enzyme. The inhibition of lipase production from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 in presence of glucose suggesting that lipase gene expression is prone to catabolic repression.

Keywords: K5B4, methanol and ethanol, acinetobacter, morphological

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359 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins

Authors: Ying Weiyong


The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.

Keywords: core-shell, mesoporous silica, methanol to olefins, SSZ-13

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358 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani


Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

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357 Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: alkali treatment, HZSM-5, methanol-to-propylene, synthesis condition

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356 Determination of Benzatropine in Hair by GC/MS after Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)

Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Aiyshah M. Alshehri, Hind M. Alenzi


Benzatropine (benztropine) is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs. We report in this study, results of a procedure for the determination of benzatropine in hair using LLE, once with methanol and second with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), followed by filtration and then re-extraction with dichloromethane. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for this determination using selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection without derivatization. Linearity established over the concentration range 0.1-20.0 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. Recoveries were 52.2% and 21.1% using methanol and phosphate buffer extraction, respectively. Detection limits of benzatropine in hair were between 0.65 and 3.0 ng/mg hair, while the accuracy were 10.4% and 18.5% (RSD), respectively. We also applied this method to the analysis of soaked hair samples and demonstrated that the LLE using methanol meets the requirement for the analysis of benzatropine in hair.

Keywords: hair analysis, benzatropine, liquid-liquid extraction, GC/MS

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355 Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation to Methanol over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 Catalyst: Effect of Metal Loading

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M.-S. Shaharun


Utilization of CO2 as a carbon source to produce valuable chemicals is one of the important ways to reduce the global warming caused by increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. Supported metal catalysts are crucial for the production of clean and renewable fuels and chemicals from the stable CO2 molecules. The catalytic conversion of CO2 into methanol is recently under increased scrutiny as an opportunity to be used as a low-cost carbon source. Therefore, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were synthesized via impregnation technique with different total metal loading and tested in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The morphological and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and N2-adsorption. The CO2 hydrogenation reaction was performed in microactivity fixed-bed system at 250 °C, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. Experimental results showed that the catalytic structure and performance was strongly affected by the loading of the active site. Where, the catalytic activity, methanol selectivity as well as the space-time yield increased with increasing the metal loading until it reaches the maximum values at a metal loading of 15 wt% while further addition of metal inhibits the catalytic performance. The higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % were obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with total bimetallic loading of 15 wt%. The excellent performance of 15 wt% Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst is attributed to the presence of well disperses active sites with small particle size, higher Cu surface area, and lower catalytic reducibility.

Keywords: hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, metal loading, Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst

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354 Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4/TiO2 Photocatalyst for the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol under Visible Light

Authors: Md. Maksudur Rahman Khan, M. Rahim Uddin, Hamidah Abdullah, Kaykobad Md. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yousuf, Chin Kui Cheng, Huei Ruey Ong


A systematic study was conducted to explore the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into methanol on TiO2 loaded copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The phases and crystallite size of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it indicates CuFe2O4 as tetragonal phase incorporation with anatase TiO2 in CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The XRD results confirmed the formation of spinel type tetragonal CuFe2O4 phases along with predominantly anatase phase of TiO2 in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. UV-Vis absorption spectrum suggested the formation of the hetero-junction with relatively lower band gap than that of TiO2. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used to study the electron–hole (e/h+) recombination process. PL spectra analysis confirmed the slow-down of the recombination of electron–hole (e/h+) pairs in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The photocatalytic performance of CuFe2O4/TiO2 was evaluated based on the methanol yield with varying amount of TiO2 over CuFe2O4 (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) and changing light intensity. The mechanism of the photocatalysis was proposed based on the fact that the predominant species of CO2 in aqueous phase were dissolved CO2 and HCO3- at pH ~5.9. It was evident that the CuFe2O4 could harvest the electrons under visible light irradiation, which could further be injected to the conduction band of TiO2 to increase the life time of the electron and facilitating the reactions of CO2 to methanol. The developed catalyst showed good recycle ability up to four cycles where the loss of activity was ~25%. Methanol was observed as the main product over CuFe2O4, but loading with TiO2 remarkably increased the methanol yield. Methanol yield over CuFe2O4/TiO2 was found to be about three times higher (651 μmol/gcat L) than that of CuFe2O4 photocatalyst. This occurs because the energy of the band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the reaction products CO2/CH3OH.

Keywords: photocatalysis, CuFe2O4/TiO2, band-gap energy, methanol

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