Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 417

Search results for: Reza Vakili

417 Buckling Analysis of 2D Frames Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method of buckling analysis frame considering the effect of the axial load. The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. In this method, stiffness matrix of the structure is considered to be constant. The most important advantage of such a method is that it obtains both upper and lower critical loads. The advanced of the present method is fast convergence, ability to use computer simulations, and ability to model structures with semi-rigid support conditions using linear and rotational spring.

Keywords: buckling, stability, frame, modified newmark method

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416 Stability of Composite Struts Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the behavior of elastic stability of reinforced and composite concrete struts with axial loads. The objective of this study is to verify the ability of the Modified Newmark Method to include geometric non-linearity in addition to non-linearity due to cracking, and also to show the advantage of the established method to reconsider an ignored minor parameter in mathematical modeling, such as the effect of the cracking by extra geometric bending moment Ny on cross-section properties. The purpose of this investigation is not to present some new results for the instability of reinforced or composite concrete columns. Therefore, no kinds of non-linearity involved in the problem are considered here. Only as mentioned, it is a part of the verification of the new established method to solve two kinds of non-linearity P- δ effect and cracking together simultaneously. However, the Modified Newmark Method can be used to solve non-linearity of materials and time-dependent behavior of concrete. However, since it is out of the scope of this article, it is not considered.

Keywords: stability, buckling, modified newmark method, reinforced

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
415 Investigating Elastica and Post Buckling Behavior Columns Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the finite displacement of Columns by applying the Modified Newmark Method. This research will be performed on Columns subjected to compressive axial load, therefore the non-linearity of the geometry is also considered. If the considered strut is perfect, the governing differential equation contains a branching point in the solution path. Investigation into the Elastica is a part of generalizing the developed method. It presents the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in treating non-linear differential equations Derived from elastic strut stability problems. These include not only an approximate polynomial solution for the Elastica problems, but can also recognize the branching point and the stable solution. However, this investigation deals with the post-buckling response of elastic and pin ended columns subjected to central or equally eccentric axial loads.

Keywords: columns, structural modeling, structures & structural stability, loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
414 Second Order Analysis of Frames Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method as a method of non-linear frame analysis by considering the effect of the axial load (second order analysis). The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. This part of the investigation is performed to generalize the established method for the assemblage structures such as frameworks. As explained, the governing differential equations are non-linear and cannot be formulated easily due to unknown axial load of the struts in the frame. By the assumption of constant axial load, the governing equations are changed to linear ones in most methods. Since the modeling and the solutions of the non-linear form of the governing equations are cumbersome, the linear form of the equations would be used in the established method. However, according to the ability of the method to reconsider the minor omitted parameters in modeling during the solution procedure, the axial load in the elements at each stage of the iteration can be computed and applied in the next stage. Therefore, the ability of the method to present an accurate approach to the solutions of non-linear equations will be demonstrated again in this paper.

Keywords: nonlinear, stability, buckling, modified newmark method

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
413 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili

Abstract:

The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: broiler, feed physical quality, hardness, processing parameters, PDI

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
412 Investigation of Flexural – Torsion Instability of Struts Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

Differential equations are of fundamental importance in engineering and applied mathematics, since many physical laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of such equations. The equilibrium state of structures consisting of one-dimensional elements can be described by an ordinary differential equation. The response of these kinds of structures under the loading, namely relationship between the displacement field and loading field, can be predicted by the solution of these differential equations and on satisfying the given boundary conditions. When the effect of change of geometry under loading is taken into account in modeling of equilibrium state, then these differential equations are partially integrable in quartered. They also exhibit instability characteristics when the structures are loaded compressively. The purpose of this paper is to represent the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in analyzing flexural-torsional instability of struts for both bifurcation and non-bifurcation structural systems. The results are shown to be very accurate with only a small number of iterations. The method is easily programmed, and has the advantages of simplicity and speeds of convergence and easily is extended to treat material and geometric nonlinearity including no prismatic members and linear and nonlinear spring restraints that would be encountered in frames. In this paper, these abilities of the method will be extended to the system of linear differential equations that govern strut flexural torsional stability.

Keywords: instability, torsion, flexural, buckling, modified newmark method stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
411 A Near Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study on Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

Authors: Reza Vakili, Xiaolei Fan, Alex Walton

Abstract:

The first near ambient pressure (NAP)-XPS study of CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into Zr-based UiO (UiO for Universitetet i Oslo) MOFs was carried out. For this purpose, the MOF-based Catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation ([email protected]) and linker design ([email protected]) methods along with [email protected]₂ as the control catalyst. Firstly, the as-synthesized catalysts were reduced in situ prior to the operando XPS analysis. The existence of Pt(II) species was proved in UiO-67 by observing Pt 4f core level peaks at a high binding energy of 72.6 ± 0.1 eV. However, by heating the [email protected] catalyst in situ to 200 °C under vacuum, the higher BE components disappear, leaving only the metallic Pt 4f doublet, confirming the formation of Pt NPs. The complete reduction of [email protected] is achieved at 250 °C and 1 mbar H₂. To understand the chemical state of Pt NPs in UiO-67 during catalytic turnover, we analyzed the Pt 4f region using operando NAP-XPS in the temperature-programmed measurements (100-260 °C) with reference to [email protected]₂ catalyst. CO conversion during NAP-XPS experiments with the stoichiometric mixture shows that [email protected] has a better CO turnover frequency (TOF, 0.066 s⁻¹ at 260 °C) than the other two (ca. 0.055 s⁻¹). Pt 4f peaks only show one chemical species present at all temperatures, but the core level BE shifts change as a function of reaction temperature, i.e., Pt 4f peak from 71.8 eV at T < 200 °C to 71.2 eV at T > 200 °C. As this higher BE state of 71.8 eV was not observed after in situ reductions of the catalysts and only once the CO/O₂ mixture was introduced, we attribute it to the surface saturation of Pt NPs with adsorbed CO. In general, the quantitative analysis of Pt 4f data from the operando NAP-XPS experiments shows that the surface chemistry of the Pt active phase in the two [email protected] catalysts is the same, comparable to that of [email protected]₂. The observed difference in the catalytic activity can be attributed to the particle sizes of Pt NPs, as well as the dispersion of active phase in the support, which are different in the three catalysts.

Keywords: CO oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, MOFs, Metal Organic Frameworks, NAP-XPS, Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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410 Neural Adaptive Controller for a Class of Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: Mohammad Reza Rahimi Khoygani, Reza Ghasemi

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In this paper, designing direct adaptive neural controller is applied for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) is used for the Neural network (NN). The adaptive neural controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are the merits of this paper. The promising performance of the proposed controllers investigates in simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive control, pendulum dynamical system, nonlinear control, adaptive neural controller, nonlinear dynamical, neural network, RBF, driven pendulum, position control

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
409 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
408 A Situational Awareness Map for Allocating Relief Resources after Earthquake Occurrence

Authors: Hamid Reza Ranjbar, Ali Reza Azmoude Ardalan, Hamid Dehghani, Mohammad Reza Sarajian

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Natural disasters are unexpected events which predicting them is difficult. Earthquake is one of the most devastating disasters among natural hazards with high rate of mortality and wide extent of damages. After the earthquake occurrence, managing the critical condition and allocating limited relief sources requiring a complete awareness of damaged area. The information for allocating relief teams should be precise and reliable as much as possible, and be presented in the appropriate time after the earthquake occurrence. This type of information was previously presented in the form of a damage map; conducting relief teams by using damage map mostly lead to waste of time for finding alive occupants under the rubble. In this research, a proposed standard for prioritizing damaged buildings in terms of requiring rescue and relief was presented. This standard prioritizes damaged buildings into four levels of priority including very high, high, moderate and low by considering key parameters such as type of land use, activity time, and inactivity time of each land use, time of earthquake occurrence and distinct index. The priority map by using the proposed standard could be a basis for guiding relief teams towards the areas with high relief priority.

Keywords: Damage map, GIS, priority map, USAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
407 Rethinking of Self-Monitoring and Self-Response Roles in Teaching Grammar Knowledge to Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Gholam Reza Parvizi, Ali Reza Kargar, Amir Arani

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In the present days, learning and teaching researchers have emphasized the role which teachers, tutors, and trainers’ constraint knowledge treat in resizing and trimming what they perform in educational atmosphere. Regarding English language as subject to teaching, although the prominence of instructor’s knowledge about grammar has also been stressed, but the lack of empirical insights into the relationship between teacher’ self-monitoring and self-response of grammar knowledge have been observed. With particular attention to the grammar this article indicates and discusses information obtained self- feedback and conversing teachers of a kind who backwash the issue. The result of the study indicates that enabling teachers to progress and maintain a logical and realistic awareness of their knowledge about grammar have to be prominent goal for teachers’ education and development programs.

Keywords: grammar knowledge, self-monitoring, self-response, teaching grammar, language teaching program

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406 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh

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Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
405 The Application of Computer and Technology in Language Teaching and Learning

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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Since computers were first introduced into educational facilities, foreign language educators have been faced with the problem of integrating high-tech multimedia techniques into a traditional text-based curriculum. As studies of language teaching have pointed out, ‘Language teaching tends in practice to be eclectic…. There are not only exceptionally many paths and educational means for arriving at a given educational goal, but there are also many types of educational materials which can be used to achieve that goal’. For language educators who are trying to incorporate technology into their curricula, the choices seem endless. Yet the quantity, as well as the limitations, of available computer programs does not guarantee that these programs can be successfully integrated into a curriculum.

Keywords: curriculum, language teaching, learning, multimedia, technology

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404 Political Cinema: Rewriting The Malaysian Political History Through Documentary Films

Authors: Raja Rodziah Binti Raja Zainal Hassan

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The development of Malaysian political cinema is rapidly taking shape in the local film industry. The paper focuses on the production of independent political documentary by two Malaysian filmmakers, Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza. Revolutionary cinema can be understood by utilizing the Third Cinema Theory in order to analyse the meaning and its impact on the audience. The issue surrounding the political cinema in Malaysia is the question of national identity. The implementation of racial or ethnic based politics has resulted in hostility within Malaysia’s multiracial society. Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza revisit the Malaysian political history through their films in order to understand the reasons behind the hostility and conflict.

Keywords: Political cinema, third cinema theory, revolutionary cinema, national identity, racial or ethnic politics

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
403 Simulation and Modeling of High Voltage Pulse Transformer

Authors: Zahra Emami, H. Reza Mesgarzade, A. Morad Ghorbami, S. Reza Motahari

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This paper presents a method for calculation of parasitic elements consisting of leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance in a high voltage pulse transformer. The parasitic elements of pulse transformers significantly influence the resulting pulse shape of a power modulator system. In order to prevent the effects on the pulse shape before constructing the transformer an electrical model is needed. The technique procedures for computing these elements are based on finite element analysis. The finite element model of pulse transformer is created using software "Ansys Maxwell 3D". Finally, the transformer parasitic elements is calculated and compared with the value obtained from the actual test and pulse modulator is simulated and results is compared with actual test of pulse modulator. The results obtained are very similar with the test values.

Keywords: pulse transformer, simulation, modeling, Maxwell 3D, modulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
402 Stability and Performance Improvement of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robot under Interaction Using the Impedance Control

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan, Mohammad Reza Haeri Yazdi

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In this paper, the stability and the performance of a two-degree-of-freedom robot under an interaction with a unknown environment has been investigated. The time when the robot returns to its initial position after an interaction and the primary resistance of the robot against the impact must be reduced. Thus, the applied torque on the motor will be reduced. The impedance control is an appropriate method for robot control in these conditions. The stability of the robot at interaction moment was transformed to be a robust stability problem. The dynamic of the unknown environment was modeled as a weight function and the stability of the robot under an interaction with the environment has been investigated using the robust control concept. To improve the performance of the system, a force controller has been designed which the normalized impedance after interaction has been reduced. The resistance of the robot has been considered as a normalized cost function and its value was 0.593. The results has showed reduction of resistance of the robot against impact and the reduction of convergence time by lower than one second.

Keywords: impedance control, control system, robots, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
401 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

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Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture

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400 Experimental Determination of Aluminum 7075-T6 Parameters Using Stabilized Cycle Tests to Predict Thermal Ratcheting

Authors: Armin Rahmatfam, Mohammad Zehsaz, Farid Vakili Tahami, Nasser Ghassembaglou

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In this paper the thermal ratcheting, kinematic hardening parameters C, γ, isotropic hardening parameters and also k, b, Q combined isotropic/kinematic hardening parameters have been obtained experimentally from the monotonic, strain controlled cyclic tests at room and elevated temperatures of 20°C, 100°C, and 400°C. These parameters are used in nonlinear combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model to predict better description of the loading and reloading cycles in the cyclic indentation as well as thermal ratcheting. For this purpose, three groups of specimens made of Aluminum 7075-T6 have been investigated. After each test and using stable hysteretic cycles, material parameters have been obtained for using in combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening models. Also the methodology of obtaining the correct kinematic/isotropic hardening parameters is presented.

Keywords: combined hardening model, kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, cyclic tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
399 Analytical Solution of Blassius Equation Using the Kourosh Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Shahnazari, Reza Kazemi, Ali Saberi

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Most of the engineering problems are in nonlinear forms. Nonlinear boundary layer problems defined in infinite intervals contain specific complexities, especially in boundary layer condition conformance. As an example of these nonlinear complex problems, the well-known Blasius equation can be mentioned, which itself is one of the classic boundary layer problems. No analytical solution has been proposed yet for the Blasius equation due to its complexity. In this paper, an analytical method, namely the Kourosh method, based on the singularity perturbation method and the Liao homotopy analysis is utilized to solve the Blasius problem. In this method, an inner solution is developed in the [0,1] interval to expedite the solution convergence. The magnitude of the f ˝(0), as an essential quantity for determining the physical parameters, is directly calculated from the solution of the boundary condition problem. The advantages of this solution are that it does not need any numerical solution, it has a closed form and that its validation is shown in the entire [0,∞] interval. Furthermore, all of the desirable parameters could be extracted through a series of simple analytical operations from the final solution. This solution also satisfies the continuity conditions, which is one of the main contributions of this paper in comparison with most of the other proposed analytical solutions available in the literature. Comparison with numerical solutions reveals that the proposed method is highly accurate and convenient for application.

Keywords: Blasius equation, boundary layer, Kourosh method, analytical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
398 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian

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Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
397 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

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The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
396 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

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Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
395 Detection of Important Biological Elements in Drug-Drug Interaction Occurrence

Authors: Reza Ferdousi, Reza Safdari, Yadollah Omidi

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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are main cause of the adverse drug reactions and nature of the functional and molecular complexity of drugs behavior in human body make them hard to prevent and treat. With the aid of new technologies derived from mathematical and computational science the DDIs problems can be addressed with minimum cost and efforts. Market basket analysis is known as powerful method to identify co-occurrence of thing to discover patterns and frequency of the elements. In this research, we used market basket analysis to identify important bio-elements in DDIs occurrence. For this, we collected all known DDIs from DrugBank. The obtained data were analyzed by market basket analysis method. We investigated all drug-enzyme, drug-carrier, drug-transporter and drug-target associations. To determine the importance of the extracted bio-elements, extracted rules were evaluated in terms of confidence and support. Market basket analysis of the over 45,000 known DDIs reveals more than 300 important rules that can be used to identify DDIs, CYP 450 family were the most frequent shared bio-elements. We applied extracted rules over 2,000,000 unknown drug pairs that lead to discovery of more than 200,000 potential DDIs. Analysis of the underlying reason behind the DDI phenomena can help to predict and prevent DDI occurrence. Ranking of the extracted rules based on strangeness of them can be a supportive tool to predict the outcome of an unknown DDI.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction, market basket analysis, rule discovery, important bio-elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
394 The Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Brown Iranian Propolis Extracts on Ruminal Nitrogen Ammonia Concentration in in Vitro

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Mahdi Paktinat

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The goal of this study is to determine the chemical compounds of brown Iranian propolis(BIP) extracts and to show flavonoids and phenol effects on nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) in in vitro. Experimental samples were including two diets with different concentrate: forage ratio (80:20 and 60:40) with eight treatments (1:Control diet 60:40 without BIP,2: 60:40 diet with 25% BIP, 3:60:40 diet with 50% BIP, 4: 60:40 diet with 75% BIP,5: Control diet 80:20 without BIP,6: 80:20 diet with 25% BIP,7: 80:20 diet with 50% BIP and 8: 80:20 diet with 75% BIP) and eight repeats. The trial was analyzed considering a completely randomized design by the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatment were compared by Tukey test. The results of this study showed that in food with 80:20 (concentrate: forage), adding BIP 25% did not statistically change NH3-N (p > 0.05) compared to the control treatment but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the effect of BIP 50% on NH3-N compared to the BIP 25% and the control. In diet with 60:40 (concentrate: forage), there was no significant difference between the effect of BIP 25% on NH3-N and the control, nor was there a significant difference between the effect of BIP 50% and 75%, while a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BIP 50% and 75% and the rest was observed. The propolis extract makes nitrogen ammonia decrease. This may help the nitrogen retain longer in ruminants.

Keywords: brown Iranian propolis, in vitro, nitrogen ammonia, ruminant

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393 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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392 The Formulation of R&D Strategy for Biofuel Technology: A Case Study of the Aviation Industry in Iran

Authors: Maryam Amiri, Ali Rajabzade, Gholam Reza Goudarzi, Reza Heidari

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Growth of technology and environmental changes are so fast and therefore, companies and industries have much tendency to do activities of R&D for active participation in the market and achievement to a competitive advantages. Aviation industry and its subdivisions have high level technology and play a special role in economic and social development of countries. So, in the aviation industry for getting new technologies and competing with other countries aviation industry, there is a requirement for capability in R&D. Considering of appropriate R&D strategy is supportive that day technologies of the world can be achieved. Biofuel technology is one of the newest technologies that has allocated discussion of the world in aviation industry to itself. The purpose of this research has been formulation of R&D strategy of biofuel technology in aviation industry of Iran. After reviewing of the theoretical foundations of the methods and R&D strategies, finally we classified R&D strategies in four main categories as follows: internal R&D, collaboration R&D, out sourcing R&D and in-house R&D. After a review of R&D strategies, a model for formulation of R&D strategy with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran was offered. With regard to the requirements and aracteristics of industry and technology in the model, we presented an integrated approach to R&D. Based on the techniques of decision making and analyzing of structured expert opinion, 4 R&D strategies for different scenarios and with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran were recommended. In this research, based on the common features of the implementation process of R&D, a logical classification of these methods are presented as R&D strategies. Then, R&D strategies and their characteristics was developed according to the experts. In the end, we introduced a model to consider the role of aviation industry and biofuel technology in R&D strategies. And lastly, for conditions and various scenarios of the aviation industry, we have formulated a specific R&D strategy.

Keywords: aviation industry, biofuel technology, R&D, R&D strategy

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391 Effect of Peppermint Essential Oil versus a Mixture of Formic and Propionic Acids on Corn Silage Volatile Fatty Acid Score

Authors: Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Hodjatpanah Montazeri, Alireza Vakili, Mansoor Tahmasbei

Abstract:

To compare peppermint essential oil versus a mixture of formic and propionic acids a study was conducted to their effects on volatile fatty acid proportion and VFA score of corn silage. Chopped whole crop corn (control) was treated with peppermint essential oil (240 mg kg-1 DM) or a mixture of formic and propionic acids (2:1) at 0.4% of fresh forage weight, and ensiled for 30 days. Then, silage extract was provided and the concentration of each VFA was determined using gas chromatography. The VFA score was calculated according to the patented formula proposed by Dairy One Scientific Committee. The score is calculated based on the positive impact of lactic and acetic acids versus the negative effect of butyric acid to achieve a single value for evaluating silage quality. The essential oil declined pH and increased the concentration of lactic and acetic acids in the silage extract. All corn silages evaluated in this study had a VFA score between 6 through 8. However, silage with peppermint essential oils had lower volatile fatty acids score than those of the other treatments. Both of applied additives caused a significant improvement in silage aerobic stability.

Keywords: peppermint, essential oil, corn silage, VFA (volatile fatty acids)

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390 Radial Distribution Network Reliability Improvement by Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Azim Khodadadi, Sahar Sadaat Vakili, Ebrahim Babaei

Abstract:

This study presents a numerical method to optimize the failure rate and repair time of a typical radial distribution system. Failure rate and repair time are effective parameters in customer and energy based indices of reliability. Decrease of these parameters improves reliability indices. Thus, system stability will be boost. The penalty functions indirectly reflect the cost of investment which spent to improve these indices. Constraints on customer and energy based indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS have been considered by using a new method which reduces optimization algorithm controlling parameters. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) used as main optimization technique and particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA) and differential evolution (DE) has been applied for further investigation. These algorithms have been implemented on a test system by MATLAB. Obtained results have been compared with each other. The optimized values of repair time and failure rate are much lower than current values which this achievement reduced investment cost and also ICA gives better answer than the other used algorithms.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, failure rate, repair time, radial distribution network

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389 Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Laminar Methane/Air Co-Flow Flames Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mehdi Ashjaee, Shahrokh Zandieh Vakili

Abstract:

In this paper, partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame was established on an axisymmetric coannular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame features and to develop a nonintrusive method for temperature measurement of methane/air partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry method. Different equivalence ratios and Reynolds numbers are considered. Flame generic visible appearance was also investigated and its various structures were studied. Three distinguished flame regimes were seen based on its appearance. A double flame structure can be seen for the equivalence ratio in the range of 1<Φ<2.1. By adding air to the mixture up to Φ=4 the flame has the characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. Finally for 4<Φ<∞ the flame mainly becomes non-premixed like and the luminous sooting region on its tip is the obvious feature of this type of flames. The Mach-Zehnder method is used to obtain temperature field of a transparent fluid by means of index of refraction. Temperature obtained from optical techniques was compared with that of obtained from thermocouples in order to validate the results. Good agreement was observed for these two methods.

Keywords: flame structure, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, partially premixed flame, temperature field

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388 The Impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on Iranian Female Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

Authors: Gholam Reza Parvizi, Hossein Azad, Ali Reza Kargar

Abstract:

This article investigated the impact of task-based language teaching (TBLT) on writing performance of the Iranian intermediate EFL learners. There were two groups of forty students of the intermediate female learners studying English in Jahad-e-Daneshgahi language institute, ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen. They participated in their regular classes in the institute and were assigned to two groups including an experimental group of task-based language teaching and a control group for the purpose of homogeneity, all students in two groups took an achievement test before the treatment. As a pre-test; students were assigned to write a task at the beginning of the course. One of the classes was conducted through talking a TBLT approach on their writing, while the other class followed regular patterns of teaching, namely traditional approach for TBLT group. There were some tasks chosen from learners’ textbook. The task selection was in accordance with learning standards for ESL and TOFEL writing sections. At the end of the treatment, a post-test was administered to both experimental group and the control group. Scoring was done on the basis of scoring scale of “expository writing quality scale”. The researcher used paired samples t-test to analyze the effect of TBLT teaching approach on the writing performance of the learners. The data analysis revealed that the subjects in TBLT group performed better on the writing performance post-test than the subjects in control group. The findings of the study also demonstrated that TBLT would enhance writing performance in the group of learners. Moreover, it was indicated that TBLT has been effective in teaching writing performance to Iranian EFL learners

Keywords: task-based language teaching, task, language teaching approach, writing proficiency, EFL learners

Procedia PDF Downloads 321