Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9410

Search results for: energy ratio

9410 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu


The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
9409 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural


The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
9408 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine Cristina Barboza, Antonio Jaschke Machado


This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis, and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
9407 Architecture Performance-Related Design Based on Graphic Parameterization

Authors: Wenzhe Li, Xiaoyu Ying, Grace Ding


Architecture plane form is an important consideration in the design of green buildings due to its significant impact on energy performance. The most effective method to consider energy performance in the early design stages is parametric modelling. This paper presents a methodology to program plane forms using MATLAB language, generating 16 kinds of plane forms by changing four designed parameters. DesignBuilder (an energy consumption simulation software) was proposed to simulate the energy consumption of the generated planes. A regression mathematical model was established to study the relationship between the plane forms and their energy consumption. The main finding of the study suggested that there was a cubic function relationship between the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings and energy consumption, and there is also a cubic function relationship between the width-ratio and energy consumption. In the design, the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings should not be less than 2.5, and the width-ratio should not be less than 2.

Keywords: graphic parameterization, green building design, mathematical model, plane form

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9406 About the Number of Fundamental Physical Interactions

Authors: Andrey Angorsky


In the article an issue about the possible number of fundamental physical interactions is studied. The theory of similarity on the dimensionless quantity as the damping ratio serves as the instrument of analysis. The structure with the features of Higgs field comes out from non-commutative expression for this ratio. The experimentally checked up supposition about the nature of dark energy is spoken out.

Keywords: damping ratio, dark energy, dimensionless quantity, fundamental physical interactions, Higgs field, non-commutative expression

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9405 Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment

Authors: Mahidin, Yanna Syamsuddin, Samsul Rizal


In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.

Keywords: biomass, low-rank coal, bio-briquette, new and renewable energy, palm kernel shell

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9404 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
9403 Evaporative Air Coolers Optimization for Energy Consumption Reduction and Energy Efficiency Ratio Increment

Authors: Leila Torkaman, Nasser Ghassembaglou


Significant quota of Municipal Electrical Energy consumption is related to Decentralized Air Conditioning which is mostly provided by evaporative coolers. So the aim is to optimize design of air conditioners to increase their efficiencies. To achieve this goal, results of practical standardized tests for 40 evaporative coolers in different types collected and simultaneously results for same coolers based on one of EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) modeling styles are figured out. By comparing experimental results of different coolers standardized tests with modeling results, preciseness of used model is assessed and after comparing gained preciseness with international standards based on EER for cooling capacity, aeration and also electrical energy consumption, energy label from A (most effective) to G (less effective) is classified. finally needed methods to optimize energy consumption and cooler's classification are provided.

Keywords: cooler, EER, energy label, optimization

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9402 Experimental Study on Temperature Splitting of a Counter-Flow Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube

Authors: Hany. A. Mohamed, M. Attalla, M. Salem, Hussein M. Mghrabie, E. Specht


An experiment al investigation is made to determine the effects of the nozzle dimensions and the inlet pressure on the heating and cooling performance of the counter flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube when air used as a working fluid. The all results were taking under inlet pressures were adjusted from 200 kPa to 600 kPa with 100 kPa increments. The conventional tangential generator with number of nuzzle of 6 was used and inner diameter of 7.5 mm. During the experiments, a vortex tube is used with an L/D ratio varied from 10 to 30. Finally, it is observed that the effect of the nuzzle aspect ratio on the energy separation changes according to the value of L/D.

Keywords: Ranque-Hilsch, vortex tube, aspect ratio, energy separation

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9401 Optimising Urban Climate at Mesoscale: The Case of Floor-Area-Ratio Modelling and Energy Planning Integration

Authors: Ali Cheshmehzangi, Ayotunde Dawodu


In urban planning, Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of the site plays a major role in the multiplicity of performances, from humane living environments to energy performance. When one considers the astounding volume of new housing that is going to be constructed across the globe during the next few decades due to growing urbanisation (e.g. particularly in developing world), it is imperative that we have an empirically grounded grasp of which building configurations are more energy efficient. As a common planning metric, it would be helpful to know exactly how managing FAR connects with energy efficiency. Hence, this study puts together a set of modelling of various FARs for a typical residential compound and address the considerations of energy planning integration in the practice of building configuration and urban planning. Such decision makings at the planning and design stage enable us to provide pathways of optimising urban climate at mesoscale of the built environment, i.e. the neighbourhood or community level. In this study, a comparative study is conducted using Eco-Tect Software, using a case study in the City of Ningbo, China. Findings of the study contribute to identifying scenarios of various FAR use and energy planning at mesoscale. The final results contribute to studies in urban climate, from the perspectives of urban planning, energy planning, and urban modelling.

Keywords: China, energy planning, FAR, floor-area-ratio, mesoscale, urban climate, urban modelling

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9400 Analytical Solution of Specific Energy Equation in Exponential Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman


The specific energy equation has many applications in practical channels, such as exponential channels. In this paper, the governing equation of alternate depth ratio for exponential channels, in general, was investigated towards obtaining analytical solution for the alternate depth ratio in three exponential channel shapes, viz., rectangular, triangular, and parabolic channels. The alternate depth ratio for rectangular channels is quadratic; hence it is very simple to solve. While for parabolic and triangular channels, the alternate depth ratio is cubic and quartic equations, respectively, analytical solution for these equations may be achieved easily for a given Froud number. Different examples are solved to prove the efficiency of the proposed solution. Such analytical solution can be easily used in natural rivers and most of practical channels.

Keywords: alternate depth, analytical solution, specific energy, parabolic channel, rectangular channel, triangular channel, open channel flow

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9399 Parametric Analysis of Syn-gas Fueled SOFC with Internal Reforming

Authors: Sanjay Tushar Choudhary


This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is a high-temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and the air-recirculation ratio have been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities. It has been observed that a combination of a lower value of air-circulation ratio and higher values of fuel utilization efficiency gives a better overall thermodynamic performance.

Keywords: current density, SOFC, suel utilization factor, recirculation ratio

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9398 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez


This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

Procedia PDF Downloads 575
9397 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh


Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity, activation energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
9396 Gravitational Energy Storage by Using Concrete Stacks

Authors: Anusit Punsirichaiyakul, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


The paper aims to study the energy storage system in the form of gravity energy by the weight of concrete stacks. This technology has the potential to replace expensive battery storage. This paper is a trial plan in abandoned mines in Thailand. This is to start with construct concrete boxes to be stacked vertically or obliquely to form appropriate shapes and, therefore, to store the potential energy. The stored energy can be released or discharged back to the system by deploying the concrete stacks to the ground. This is to convert the potential energy stored in the concrete stacks to the kinetic energy of the concrete box movement. This design is incorporating mechanical transmission to reduce the height of the concrete stacks. This study also makes a comparison between the energy used to construct concrete stacks in various shapes and the energy to deploy all the concrete boxes to ground. This paper consists of 2 test systems. The first test is to stack the concrete in vertical shape. The concrete stack has a maximum height of 50 m with a gear ratio of 1:200. The concrete box weight is 115 tons/piece with a total stored energy of 1800 kWh. The oblique system has a height of 50 m with a similar gear ratio of 1:200. The weight of the concrete box is 90 tons/piece and has a total stored energy of 1440 kWh. Also, it has an overall efficiency of 65% and a lifetime of 50 years. This storage has higher storage densities compared to other systems.

Keywords: gravity, concrete stacks, vertical, oblique

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9395 Ratio Energy and Protein of Dietary Based on Rice Straw Ammoniated on Productivity of Male Simenthal Cattle

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Yetti Marlida, Elihasridas Elihasridas, Erpomen Erpomen, Andri Andri


Background: Livestock productivity is greatly influenced by the energy and protein balance in diet. This study aimed to determine the energy and protein balance of male Simenthal cattle diet with protein and energy levels. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) 2x3x3 factorial design. There are two factors namely A level of energy diet that is 65% and 70% TDN. Factor B is a protein level of diet used were 10, 12 and 14% and each treatment is repeated three times. The weight of Simenthal cattle used ranged between 240 - 300 kg. Diet consisted of ammoniated rice straw and concentrated with ratio 40:60. Concentrate consisted of palm kernel cake, rice brain, cassava, mineral, and urea. The variables measured were digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and fiber, dry matter intake, daily gain, feed efficiency and blood characteristic. Results: There was no interaction between protein and energy level of diet on the nutrients intake (DM intake, OM intake, CP intake), weight gain and efficiency (P < 0.01). There was an interaction between protein and energy level of diet on digestibility (DM, OM, CP and allantoin urine (P > 0.01) Nutrients intake decreases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet, while nutrient digestibility, Avarage daily gain and feed efficiency increases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet. Conclusions: The result can be concluded that the best treatment was A2B1 which is energy level 70% TDN and protein 10%, where are dry matter intake 7.66 kg/d, daily gain 1.25 kg/d, feed efficiency 16.12%, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility 64.08 and 69.42% respectively.

Keywords: energy and protein ratio, simenthal cattle, rice straw ammoniated, digestibility

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9394 The Effect of Mathematical Modeling of Damping on the Seismic Energy Demands

Authors: Selamawit Dires, Solomon Tesfamariam, Thomas Tannert


Modern earthquake engineering and design encompass performance-based design philosophy. The main objective in performance-based design is to achieve a system performing precisely to meet the design objectives so to reduce unintended seismic risks and associated losses. Energy-based earthquake-resistant design is one of the design methodologies that can be implemented in performance-based earthquake engineering. In energy-based design, the seismic demand is usually described as the ratio of the hysteretic to input energy. Once the hysteretic energy is known as a percentage of the input energy, it is distributed among energy-dissipating components of a structure. The hysteretic to input energy ratio is highly dependent on the inherent damping of a structural system. In numerical analysis, damping can be modeled as stiffness-proportional, mass-proportional, or a linear combination of stiffness and mass. In this study, the effect of mathematical modeling of damping on the estimation of seismic energy demands is investigated by considering elastic-perfectly-plastic single-degree-of-freedom systems representing short to long period structures. Furthermore, the seismicity of Vancouver, Canada, is used in the nonlinear time history analysis. According to the preliminary results, the input energy demand is not sensitive to the type of damping models deployed. Hence, consistent results are achieved regardless of the damping models utilized in the numerical analyses. On the other hand, the hysteretic to input energy ratios vary significantly for the different damping models.

Keywords: damping, energy-based seismic design, hysteretic energy, input energy

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9393 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling modes and hysteretic behaviors were found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation, and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: slit circular shear panel damper, hysteresis characteristics, slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis

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9392 The Effect of Geometrical Ratio and Nanoparticle Reinforcement on the Properties of Al-based Nanocomposite Hollow Sphere Structures

Authors: Mostafa Amirjan


In the present study, the properties of Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite hollow sphere structures were investigated. For this reason, the Al-based nanocomposite hollow spheres with different amounts of nano alumina reinforcement (0-10wt %) and different ratio of thickness to diameter (t/D: 0.06-0.3) were prepared via a powder metallurgy method. Then, the effect of mentioned parameters was studied on physical and quasi static mechanical properties of their related prepared structures (open/closed cell) such as density, hardness, strength and energy absorption. It was found that as the t/D ratio increases the relative density, compressive strength and energy absorption increase. The highest values of strength and energy absorption were obtained from the specimen with 5 wt. % of nanoparticle reinforcement, t/D of 0.3 (t=1 mm, D=400µm) as 22.88 MPa and 13.24 MJ/m3, respectively. The moderate specific strength of prepared composites in the present study showed the good consistency with the properties of others low carbon steel composite with similar structure.

Keywords: hollow sphere structure foam, nanocomposite, thickness and diameter (t/D ), powder metallurgy

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9391 Energy Use and Econometric Models of Soybean Production in Mazandaran Province of Iran

Authors: Majid AghaAlikhani, Mostafa Hojati, Saeid Satari-Yuzbashkandi


This paper studies energy use patterns and relationship between energy input and yield for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in Mazandaran province of Iran. In this study, data were collected by administering a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (29.29%) followed by diesel (23.42%) and electricity (22.80%). Our investigations showed that a total energy input of 23404.1 MJ.ha-1 was consumed for soybean production. The energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy values were estimated as 0.12 kg MJ-1, 8.03 MJ kg-1, and 49412.71 MJ.ha-1, respectively. The ratio of energy outputs to energy inputs was 3.11. Obtained results indicated that direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energies were (56.83%), (43.17%), (15.78%) and (84.22%), respectively. Three econometric models were also developed to estimate the impact of energy inputs on yield. The results of econometric models revealed that impact of chemical, fertilizer, and water on yield were significant at 1% probability level. Also, direct and non-renewable energies were found to be rather high. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of soybean production per ha was around 518.43$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. The energy use efficiency in soybean production was found as 3.11. This reveals that the inputs used in soybean production are used efficiently. However, due to higher rate of nitrogen fertilizer consumption, sustainable agriculture should be extended and extension staff could be proposed substitution of chemical fertilizer by biological fertilizer or green manure.

Keywords: Cobbe Douglas function, economical analysis, energy efficiency, energy use patterns, soybean

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9390 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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9389 A Key Parameter in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Design and Operation

Authors: Yongjian Gu


Ocean thermal energy is one of the ocean energy sources. It is a renewable, sustainable, and green energy source. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applies the ocean temperature gradient between the warmer surface seawater and the cooler deep seawater to run a heat engine and produce a useful power output. Unfortunately, the ocean temperature gradient is not big. Even in the tropical and equatorial regions, the surface water temperature can only reach up to 28oC and the deep water temperature can be as low as 4oC. The thermal efficiency of the OTEC plants, therefore, is low. In order to improve the plant thermal efficiency by using the limited ocean temperature gradient, some OTEC plants use the method of adding more equipment for better heat recovery, such as heat exchangers, pumps, etc. Obviously, the method will increase the plant's complexity and cost. The more important impact of the method is the additional equipment needs to consume power too, which may have an adverse effect on the plant net power output, in turn, the plant thermal efficiency. In the paper, the author first describes varied OTEC plants and the practice of using the method of adding more equipment for improving the plant's thermal efficiency. Then the author proposes a parameter, plant back works ratio ϕ, for measuring if the added equipment is appropriate for the plant thermal efficiency improvement. Finally, in the paper, the author presents examples to illustrate the application of the back work ratio ϕ as a key parameter in the OTEC plant design and operation.

Keywords: ocean thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), OTEC plant, plant back work ratio ϕ

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9388 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang


The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: aging, energy, honeybee, metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9387 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai


High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
9386 Energy Absorption of Circular Thin-Walled Tube with Curved-Crease Patterns under Axial Crushing

Authors: Grzegorz Dolzyk, Sungmoon Jung


Thin-walled tubes are commonly used as energy absorption devices for their excellent mechanical properties and high manufacturability. Techniques such as grooving and pre-folded origami shapes were introduced to circular and polygonal tubes to improve its energy absorption efficiency. This paper examines the energy absorption characteristics of circular tubes with pre-embedded curved-crease pattern. Set of numerical analyzes were conducted with different grooving patterns for tubes with various diameter (D) to thickness (t) ratio. It has been found that even very shallow grooving can positively affect thin wall tubes, leading to increased energy absorption and higher crushing load efficiency. The phenomenon is associated with nonsymmetric deformation that is usually observed for tubes with a high D/t ratio ( > 90). Grooving can redirect a natural mode of post-buckling deformation to a one with a higher number of lobes such that its beneficial and more stable. Also, the opposite effect can be achieved, and highly disrupted deformation can be a cause of reduced energy absorption capabilities. Curved-crease engraved patterns can be used to stabilize and change a form of hazardous post-buckling deformation.

Keywords: axial crushing, energy absorption, grooving, thin-wall structures

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9385 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

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9384 DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Abdar Ali, Rizwan Ullah, Zahid Ullah


This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels. Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage stresses is one of the main issues in the development of renewable energy systems. A procedure for three converters-conventional DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The selection among the converters for the given application is based on the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.

Keywords: flyback converter, interleaved boost, photovoltaic array, fuel cell, switch stress, voltage conversion ratio, renewable energy

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9383 Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: analytical solution, brink depth, end depth, flow measurement, free over fall, hydraulics, rectangular channel

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9382 Enhanced Methane Production from Waste Paper through Anaerobic Co-Digestion with Macroalgae

Authors: Cristina Rodriguez, Abed Alaswad, Zaki El-Hassan, Abdul G. Olabi


This study investigates the effect on methane production from the waste paper when co-digested with macroalgal biomass as a source of nitrogen. Both feedstocks were previously mechanically pretreated in order to reduce their particle size. Methane potential assays were carried out at laboratory scale in batch mode for 28 days. The study was planned according to two factors: the feedstock to inoculum (F/I) ratio and the waste paper to macroalgae (WP/MA) ratio. The F/I ratios checked were 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 and the WP/MA ratios were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. The highest methane yield (608 ml/g of volatile solids (VS)) was achieved at an F/I ratio of 0.2 and a WP/MA ratio of 50:50. The methane yield at a ratio WP/MA of 50:50 is higher than for single compound, while for ratios WP/MA of 25:75 and 75:25 the methane yield decreases compared to biomass mono-digestion. This behavior is observed for the three levels of F/I ratio being more noticeable at F/I ratio of 0.3. A synergistic effect was found for the WP/MA ratio of 50:50 and all F/I ratios and for WP/MA=50:50 and F/I=0.2. A maximum increase of methane yield of 49.58% was found for a co-digestion ratio of 50:50 and an F/I ratio of 0.4. It was concluded that methane production from waste paper improves significantly when co-digested with macroalgae biomass. The methane yields from co-digestion were also found higher that from macroalgae mono-digestion.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, biogas, macroalgae, waste paper

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9381 Prediction of Pounding between Two SDOF Systems by Using Link Element Based On Mathematic Relations and Suggestion of New Equation for Impact Damping Ratio

Authors: Seyed M. Khatami, H. Naderpour, R. Vahdani, R. C. Barros


Many previous studies have been carried out to calculate the impact force and the dissipated energy between two neighboring buildings during seismic excitation, when they collide with each other. Numerical studies are an important part of impact, which several researchers have tried to simulate the impact by using different formulas. Estimation of the impact force and the dissipated energy depends significantly on some parameters of impact. Mass of bodies, stiffness of spring, coefficient of restitution, damping ratio of dashpot and impact velocity are some known and unknown parameters to simulate the impact and measure dissipated energy during collision. Collision is usually shown by force-displacement hysteresis curve. The enclosed area of the hysteresis loop explains the dissipated energy during impact. In this paper, the effect of using different types of impact models is investigated in order to calculate the impact force. To increase the accuracy of impact model and to optimize the results of simulations, a new damping equation is assumed and is validated to get the best results of impact force and dissipated energy, which can show the accuracy of suggested equation of motion in comparison with other formulas. This relation is called "n-m". Based on mathematical relation, an initial value is selected for the mentioned coefficients and kinetic energy loss is calculated. After each simulation, kinetic energy loss and energy dissipation are compared with each other. If they are equal, selected parameters are true and, if not, the constant of parameters are modified and a new analysis is performed. Finally, two unknown parameters are suggested to estimate the impact force and calculate the dissipated energy.

Keywords: impact force, dissipated energy, kinetic energy loss, damping relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 435