Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: mutant

89 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin


Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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88 In silico Analysis of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: A. Nusrath Unissa, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna


Altered drug binding may be an important factor in isoniazid (INH) resistance, rather than major changes in the enzyme’s activity as a catalase or peroxidase (KatG). The identification of structural or functional defects in the mutant KatGs responsible for INH resistance remains as an area to be explored. In this connection, the differences in the binding affinity between wild-type (WT) and mutants of KatG were investigated, through the generation of three mutants of KatG, Ser315Thr [S315T], Ser315Asn [S315N], Ser315Arg [S315R] and a WT [S315]) with the help of software-MODELLER. The mutants were docked with INH using the software-GOLD. The affinity is lower for WT than mutant, suggesting the tight binding of INH with the mutant protein compared to WT type. These models provide the in silico evidence for the binding interaction of KatG with INH and implicate the basis for rationalization of INH resistance in naturally occurring KatG mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, KatG, INH resistance, mutants, modelling, docking

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87 Isolation of Nitrosoguanidine Induced NaCl Tolerant Mutant of Spirulina platensis with Improved Growth and Phycocyanin Production

Authors: Apurva Gupta, Surendra Singh


Spirulina spp., as a promising source of many commercially valuable products, is grown photo autotrophically in open ponds and raceways on a large scale. However, the economic exploitation in an open system seems to have been limited because of lack of multiple stress-tolerant strains. The present study aims to isolate a stable stress tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis with improved growth rate and enhanced potential to produce its commercially valuable bioactive compounds. N-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) at 250 μg/mL (concentration permitted 1% survival) was employed for chemical mutagenesis to generate random mutants and screened against NaCl. In a preliminary experiment, wild type S. platensis was treated with NaCl concentrations from 0.5-1.5 M to calculate its LC₅₀. Mutagenized colonies were then screened for tolerance at 0.8 M NaCl (LC₅₀), and the surviving colonies were designated as NaCl tolerant mutants of S. platensis. The mutant cells exhibited 1.5 times improved growth against NaCl stress as compared to the wild type strain in control conditions. This might be due to the ability of the mutant cells to protect its metabolic machinery against inhibitory effects of salt stress. Salt stress is known to adversely affect the rate of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria by causing degradation of the pigments. Interestingly, the mutant cells were able to protect its photosynthetic machinery and exhibited 4.23 and 1.72 times enhanced accumulation of Chl a and phycobiliproteins, respectively, which resulted in enhanced rate of photosynthesis (2.43 times) and respiration (1.38 times) against salt stress. Phycocyanin production in mutant cells was observed to enhance by 1.63 fold. Nitrogen metabolism plays a vital role in conferring halotolerance to cyanobacterial cells by influx of nitrate and efflux of Na+ ions from the cell. The NaCl tolerant mutant cells took up 2.29 times more nitrate as compared to the wild type and efficiently reduce it. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity in the mutant cells also improved by 2.45 and 2.31 times, respectively against salt stress. From these preliminary results, it could be deduced that enhanced nitrogen uptake and its efficient reduction might be a reason for adaptive and halotolerant behavior of the S. platensis mutant cells. Also, the NaCl tolerant mutant of S. platensis with significant improved growth and phycocyanin accumulation compared to the wild type can be commercially promising.

Keywords: chemical mutagenesis, NaCl tolerant mutant, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic machinery, phycocyanin

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86 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad


Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

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85 Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Raden Suhartono, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Patrianef Darwis, S. Dwi Anita, Luluk Yunaini, Kemas Dahlan


Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene shows association with various angiogenesis conditions including Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) disease. In this study, we performed this study to examine VEGF gene polymorphism associated with DFU. Methods: Case-control study of polymorphism of VEGF gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C, of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients without DFU. Forty-nine point 8 percent of total samples is male and 50,2% female with mean age 56,06 years. Distribution of the wild-type genotype VEGF +405 C>G wild type CC was found in 6,9% of respondents, the number of mutant heterozygote CG was 69,5% and mutant homozygote GG was 19,7%. Cumulatively, there were 6,9% wild-type and 85,2% mutant and 3,9% of total blood samples could not be detected on PCR-RFLP. Distribution of VEGF allele +405 C>G C alleles were 43% and G alleles were 57%. Distribution of genotype from VEGF gene -460 T>C is wild type TT 42,9%, mutant heterozygote TC 37,9% and mutant homozygote CC 13,3%. Cumulatively, there were 42,9% wild-type and 51% mutant type. Distribution of VEGF -460 T>C were 62% T allele and 38% C allele. Conclusion: In this study we found the distribution of alleles from VEGF +405 C>G is C 43% and G 57% and from VEGF -460 T>C; T 62% and C 38%. We propose that G allele in VEGF +405 C>G can act as a protective allele and on the other hands T allele in VEGF -460 T>C could be acted as a risk factor for DFU in diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, VEGF

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84 Unravelling of the TOR Signaling Pathway in Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Authors: Yee-Seul So, Guiseppe Ianiri, Alex Idnurm, Yong-Sun Bahn


Tor1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely conserved across eukaryotic species. Tor1 was first identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target of rapamycin (TOR). The TOR pathway has been implicated in regulating cellular responses to nutrients, proliferation, translation, transcription, autophagy, and ribosome biogenesis. Here we identified two homologues of S. cerevisiae Tor proteins, CNAG_06642 (Tor1) and CNAG_05220 (Tlk1, TOR-like kinase 1), in Cryptococcus neoformans causing a life-threatening fungal meningoencephalitis. Both Tor1 and Tlk1 have rapamycin-binding (RB) domains but Tlk1 has truncated RB form. To study the TOR-signaling pathway in the fungal pathogen, we attempt to construct the tor1Δ and tlk1Δ mutants and phenotypically analyze them. Although we failed to construct the tor1Δ mutant, we successfully construct the tlk1Δ mutant. The tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any discernable phenotypes, suggesting that Tlk1 is dispensable in C. neoformans. The essentiality of TOR1 is independently confirmed by constructing the TOR1 promoter replacement strain by using a copper transporter 4 (CTR4) promoter and the TOR1/tor1 heterozygous mutant in diploid C. neoformans strain background followed by sporulation analysis. To further analyze the function of Tor1, we construct TOR1 overexpression mutant using a constitutively active histone H3 in C. neoformans. We find that the Tor1 overexpression mutant is resistant to rapamycin but the tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any altered resistance to rapamycin, further confirming that Tor1, but not Tlk1, is critical for TOR signaling. Furthermore, we found that Tor1 is involved in response to diverse stresses, including genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, thermo-stress, antifungal drug treatment, and production of melanin. To identify any TOR-related transcription factors, we screened C. neoformans transcription factor library that we constructed in our previous study and identified several potential downstream factors of Tor1, including Atf1, Crg1 and Bzp3. In conclusion, the current study provides insight into the role of the TOR signaling pathway in human fungal pathogens as well as C. neoformans.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, serine/threonine kinase, target of rapamycin, transcription factor

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83 Association of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Patrianef Darwis, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Raden Suhartono, D. Suryandari, Luluk Yunaini, Tom Ch Adriani


Objective: Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is one of the complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) that can lead to disability and death. Inadequate vascularization condition will affect healing process of DFU. Therefore, we investigated the expression of polymorphism TGF- β1 in the relation of the occurrence of DFU in T2DM. Methods: We designed a case-control study to investigate the polymorphism TGF- β1 gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T in T2DM in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. We used PCR techniques and compared the results in a group of T2DM patients with DFU as the case study and without DFU as the control group. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients control without DFU. 49,8% is male and 50,2% female with mean age about 56 years. Distribution of wild-type genotype TGF-B1 1800469 C > T wild type CC was found in 44,8%, the number of mutant heterozygote CT was 10,8% and mutant homozygote is 11,3%. Distribution of TGF-B1 1982073 C>T wild type CC was 32,5%, mutant heterozygote is 38,9% and mutant homozygote 25,1%. Conclusion: Distribution of alleles from TGF-B1 1800469 C > T is C 75% and T 25% and from TGF-B1 1982073 C > T is C53,8% and T 46,2%. In the other word polymorphism TGF- β1 plays a role in the occurrence and healing process of the DFU in T2DM patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, TGF-β1

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82 CMPD: Cancer Mutant Proteome Database

Authors: Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Julie Lichieh Chu, Tin-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yang Lee, Ruei-Chi Gan, Hsuan Liu, Petrus Tang


Whole-exome sequencing focuses on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes based on a priori knowledge is the most cost-effective method to study the association between genetic alterations and disease. Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and proteomic techniques has provided an opportunity to integrate genomics and proteomics, allowing readily detectable mutated peptides corresponding to mutated genes. Since sequence database search is the most widely used method for protein identification using Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology, a mutant proteome database is required to better approximate the real protein pool to improve disease-associated mutated protein identification. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing studies were launched by National Cancer Institute (NCI), Broad Institute, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which provide not only a comprehensive report on the analysis of coding variants in diverse samples cell lines but a invaluable resource for extensive research community. No existing database is available for the collection of mutant protein sequences related to the identified variants in these studies. CMPD is designed to address this issue, serving as a bridge between genomic data and proteomic studies and focusing on protein sequence-altering variations originated from both germline and cancer-associated somatic variations.

Keywords: TCGA, cancer, mutant, proteome

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81 An Attenuated Quadruple Gene Mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Imparts Protection against Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Shubhita Mathur, Ritika Kar Bahal, Priyanka Chauhan, Anil K. Tyagi


Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine available for protection against tuberculosis confers highly variable protection ranging from 0%-80%. Thus, novel vaccine strains need to be evaluated for their potential as a vaccine against tuberculosis. We had previously constructed a triple gene mutant of M. tuberculosis (MtbΔmms), having deletions in genes encoding for phosphatases mptpA, mptpB, and sapM that are involved in host-pathogen interaction. Though vaccination with Mtb∆mms strain induced protection in the lungs of guinea pigs, the mutant strain was not able to control the hematogenous spread of the challenge strain to the spleens. Additionally, inoculation with Mtb∆mms resulted in some pathological damage to the spleens in the early phase of infection. In order to overcome the pathology caused by MtbΔmms in the spleens of guinea pigs and also to control the dissemination of the challenge strain, MtbΔmms was genetically modified by disrupting bioA gene to generate MtbΔmmsb strain. Further, in vivo attenuation of MtbΔmmsb was evaluated, and its protective efficacy was assessed against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge in guinea pigs. Our study demonstrates that Mtb∆mmsb mutant was highly attenuated for growth and virulence in guinea pigs. Vaccination with Mtb∆mmsb mutant generated significant protection in comparison to sham-immunized animals at 4 and 12 weeks post-infection in lungs and spleens of the infected animals. Our findings provide evidence that deletion of genes involved in signal transduction and biotin biosynthesis severely attenuates the pathogen and the single immunization with the auxotroph was able to provide significant protection as compared to sham-immunized animals. The protection imparted by Mtb∆mmsb fell short in comparison to the protection observed in BCG-immunized animals. This study nevertheless indicates the importance of attenuated multiple gene deletion mutants of M. tuberculosis in generating protection against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, MtbΔmmsb, bioA, guinea pigs

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80 Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice bri1 Mutant Leaves at Jointing-Booting Stage

Authors: Jiang Xu, Daoping Wang, Yinghong Pan


The jointing-booting stage is a critical period of both vegetative growth and reproductive growth in rice. Therefore, the proteomic analysis of the mutant Osbri1, whose corresponding gene OsBRI1 encodes the putative BRs receptor OsBRI1, at jointing-booting stage is very important for understanding the effects of BRs on vegetative and reproductive growth. In this study, the proteomes of leaves from an allelic mutant of the DWARF 61 (D61, OsBRI1) gene, Fn189 (dwarf54, d54) and its wild-type variety T65 (Taichung 65) at jointing-booting stage were analysed by using a Q Exactive plus orbitrap mass spectrometer, and more than 3,100 proteins were identified in each sample. Ontology analysis showed that these proteins distribute in various space of the cells, such as the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus, they functioned as structural components and/or catalytic enzymes and involved in many physiological processes. Moreover, quantitative analysis displayed that 266 proteins were differentially expressed in two samples, among them, 77 proteins decreased and 189 increased more than two times in Fn189 compared with T65, the proteins whose content decreased in Fn189 including b5-like Heme/Steroid binding domain containing protein, putative retrotransposon protein, putative glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, and higher content proteins such as mTERF, putative Oligopeptidase homologue, zinc knuckle protein, and so on. A former study founded that the transcription level of a mTERF was up-regulated in the leaves of maize seedling after EBR treatment. In our experiments, it was interesting that one mTERF protein increased, but another mTERF decreased in leaves of Fn189 at jointing-booting stage, which suggested that BRs may have differential regulation mechanisms on the expression of various mTERF proteins. The relationship between other differential proteins with BRs is still unclear, and the effects of BRs on rice protein contents and its regulation mechanisms still need further research.

Keywords: bri1 mutant, jointing-booting stage, proteomic analysis, rice

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79 Ethyl Methane Sulfonate-Induced Dunaliella salina KU11 Mutants Affected for Growth Rate, Cell Accumulation and Biomass

Authors: Vongsathorn Ngampuak, Yutachai Chookaew, Wipawee Dejtisakdi


Dunaliella salina has great potential as a system for generating commercially valuable products, including beta-carotene, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Our goal is to improve this potential by enhancing growth rate and other properties of D. salina under optimal growth conditions. We used ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) to generate random mutants in D. salina KU11, a strain classified in Thailand. In a preliminary experiment, we first treated D. salina cells with 0%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.44% and 1.66% EMS to generate a killing curve. After that, we randomly picked 30 candidates from approximately 300 isolated survivor colonies from the 1.44% EMS treatment (which permitted 30% survival) as an initial test of the mutant screen. Among the 30 survivor lines, we found that 2 strains (mutant #17 and #24) had significantly improved growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately up to 1.8 and 1.45 fold, respectively, 2 strains (mutant #6 and #23) had significantly decreased growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately down to 1.4 and 1.35 fold, respectively, while 26 of 30 lines had similar growth rates compared with the wild type control. We also analyzed cell size for each strain and found there was no significant difference comparing all mutants with the wild type. In addition, mutant #24 had shown an increase of biomass accumulation approximately 1.65 fold compared with the wild type strain on day 5 that was entering early stationary phase. From these preliminary results, it could be feasible to identify D. salina mutants with significant improved growth rate, cell accumulation and biomass production compared to the wild type for the further study; this makes it possible to improve this microorganism as a platform for biotechnology application.

Keywords: Dunaliella salina, ethyl methyl sulfonate, growth rate, biomass

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78 Synthesis of Novel Uracil Non-nucleosides Analogues of the Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Emivirine and TNK-651

Authors: Nasser R. El-Brollosy, Roberta Loddo


6-Benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil (Emivirine) and its corresponding 1-benzyloxymethyl analogue (TNK-651) showed high activity against HIV-1. The present study describes synthesis of novel emivirine analogues by reaction of chloromethyl ethyl ether with uracils having 5-ethyl / isopropyl and 6-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl) substituents. A series of new TNK-651 analogues substituted at N-1 with phenoxyethoxymethyl moiety was prepared on treatment of the corresponding uracils with bis(phenoxyethoxy) methane. The newly synthesized non-nucleosides were tested for biological activity against wild type HIV-1 IIIB as well as the resistant strains N119 (Y181C), A17 (K103N + Y181C), and the triple mutant EFVR (K103R + V179D + P225H) in MT-4 cells. Some of the tested compounds showed good activities. Among them 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyl-1-[2-(phenoxyethyl) oxymethyl]uracil which showed inhibitory potency higher than emivirine against both wild type HIV-1 and the tested mutant strains.

Keywords: Emivirine, HIV, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, uracils

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77 Joubert Syndrome: A Rare Genetic Disorder Reported in Kurdish Family

Authors: Aran Abd Al Rahman


Joubert syndrome regards as a congenital cerebellar ataxia caused by autosomal recessive carried on X chromosome. The disease diagnosed by brain imaging—the so-called molar tooth sign. Neurological signs were present from the neonatal period and include hypotonia progressing to ataxia, global developmental delay, ocular motor apraxia, and breathing dysregulation. These signs are variably associated with multiorgan involvement, mainly of the retina, kidneys, skeleton, and liver. 30 causative genes have been identified so far, all of which encode for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus, The purpose of our project was to detect the mutant gene (INPP5E gene) which cause Joubert syndrome. There were many methods used for diagnosis such as MRI and CT- scan and molecular diagnosis by doing ARMS PCR for detection of mutant gene that we were used in this research project. In this research for individual family which reported, the two children with parents, the two children were affected and were carrier.

Keywords: Joubert syndrome, genetic disease, Kurdistan region, Sulaimani

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76 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc


Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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75 Assessing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Permeability in PEA-15 Mutant Cat Brain using Magnetization Transfer (MT) Effect at 7T

Authors: Sultan Z. Mahmud, Emily C. Graff, Adil Bashir


Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) is a multifunctional adapter protein which is associated with the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Recently it has been discovered that PEA-15 is crucial in normal neurodevelopment of domestic cats, a gyrencephalic animal model, although the exact function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is unknown. This study investigates how PEA-15 affects the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in cat brain, which can cause abnormalities in tissue metabolite and energy supplies. Severe polymicrogyria and microcephaly have been observed in cats with a loss of function PEA-15 mutation, affecting the normal neurodevelopment of the cat. This suggests that the vital role of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is associated with gyrification. Neurodevelopment is a highly energy demanding process. The mammalian brain depends on glucose as its main energy source. PEA-15 plays a very important role in glucose uptake and utilization by interacting with phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Mitochondria also plays a critical role in bioenergetics and essential to supply adequate energy needed for neurodevelopment. Cerebral blood flow regulates adequate metabolite supply and recent findings also showed that blood plasma contains mitochondria as well. So the BBB can play a very important role in regulating metabolite and energy supply in the brain. In this study the blood-brain permeability in cat brain was measured using MRI magnetization transfer (MT) effect on the perfusion signal. Perfusion is the tissue mass normalized supply of blood to the capillary bed. Perfusion also accommodates the supply of oxygen and other metabolites to the tissue. A fraction of the arterial blood can diffuse to the tissue, which depends on the BBB permeability. This fraction is known as water extraction fraction (EF). MT is a process of saturating the macromolecules, which has an effect on the blood that has been diffused into the tissue while having minimal effect on intravascular blood water that has not been exchanged with the tissue. Measurement of perfusion signal with and without MT enables to estimate the microvascular blood flow, EF and permeability surface area product (PS) in the brain. All the experiments were performed with Siemens 7T Magnetom with 32 channel head coil. Three control cats and three PEA-15 mutant cats were used for the study. Average EF in white and gray matter was 0.9±0.1 and 0.86±0.15 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 85±15 mL/100g/min and 97±20 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 201±25 mL/100g/min and 225±35 mL/100g/min respectively for control cats. For PEA-15 mutant cats, average EF in white and gray matter was 0.81±0.15 and 0.77±0.2 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 140±25 mL/100g/min and 165±18 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 240±30 mL/100g/min and 259±21 mL/100g/min respectively. This results show that BBB is compromised in PEA-15 mutant cat brain, where EF is decreased and perfusion as well as PS are increased in the mutant cats compared to the control cats. This findings might further explain the function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment.

Keywords: BBB, cat brain, magnetization transfer, PEA-15

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74 The Effect of Program Type on Mutation Testing: Comparative Study

Authors: B. Falah, N. E. Abakouy


Due to its high computational cost, mutation testing has been neglected by researchers. Recently, many cost and mutants’ reduction techniques have been developed, improved, and experimented, but few of them has relied the possibility of reducing the cost of mutation testing on the program type of the application under test. This paper is a comparative study between four operators’ selection techniques (mutants sampling, class level operators, method level operators, and all operators’ selection) based on the program code type of each application under test. It aims at finding an alternative approach to reveal the effect of code type on mutation testing score. The result of our experiment shows that the program code type can affect the mutation score and that the programs using polymorphism are best suited to be tested with mutation testing.

Keywords: equivalent mutant, killed mutant, mutation score, mutation testing, program code type, software testing

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73 Hyper-Production of Lysine through Fermentation and Its Biological Evaluation on Broiler Chicks

Authors: Shagufta Gulraiz, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Mohsin Javed


Lysine required for poultry feed is imported in Pakistan to fulfil the desired dietary needs. Present study was designed to produce maximum lysine by utilizing cheap sources to save the foreign exchange. To achieve the goal of lysine production through fermentation, large scale production of lysine was carried out in 7.5 L stirred glass vessel fermenter with wild and mutant Brevibacterium flavum (B. flavum) using all pre-optimized conditions. The identification of produced lysine was carried out by TLC and amino acid analyzer. Toxicity evaluation of produced lysine was performed before feeding to broiler chicks. During biological trial concentrated fermented broth having 8% lysine was used in poultry rations as a source of Lysine for test birds. Fermenter scale studies showed that the maximum lysine (20.8 g/L) was produced at 250 rpm, 1.5 vvm aeration, 6.0% inoculum under controlled pH conditions after 56 h of fermentation with wild culture but mutant (BFENU2) gave maximum yield of lysine 36.3 g/L under optimized condition after 48 h. Amino acid profiling showed 1.826% Lysine in fermented broth by wild B. flavum and 2.644% by mutant strain (BFENU2). Toxicity evaluation report showed that the produced lysine is safe for consumption by broilers. Biological evaluation results showed that produced lysine was equally good as commercial lysine in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. A cheap and practical bioprocess of Lysine production was concluded, that can be exploited commercially in Pakistan to save foreign exchange.

Keywords: lysine, fermentation, broiler chicks, biological evaluation

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72 Effect of SCN5A Gene Mutation in Endocardial Cell

Authors: Helan Satish, M. Ramasubba Reddy


The simulation of an endocardial cell for gene mutation in the cardiac sodium ion channel NaV1.5, encoded by SCN5A gene, is discussed. The characterization of Brugada Syndrome by loss of function effect on SCN5A mutation due to L812Q mutant present in the DII-S4 transmembrane region of the NaV1.5 channel protein and its effect in an endocardial cell is studied. Ten Tusscher model of human ventricular action potential is modified to incorporate the changes contributed by L812Q mutant in the endocardial cells. Results show that BrS-associated SCN5A mutation causes reduction in the inward sodium current by modifications in the channel gating dynamics such as delayed activation, enhanced inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation in the endocardial cell. A decrease in the inward sodium current was also observed, which affects depolarization phase (Phase 0) that leads to reduction in the spike amplitude of the cardiac action potential.

Keywords: SCN5A gene mutation, sodium channel, Brugada syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, action potential

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71 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Trema orientalis: Effect of a Naturally-Occurring Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Mutant Allele

Authors: Yuda Purwana Roswanjaya, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts


The Trema genus represents a group of fast-growing tropical tree species within the Cannabaceae. Interestingly, five species nested in this lineage -known as Parasponia- can establish rhizobium nitrogen-fixing root nodules, similar to those found in legumes. Parasponia and legumes use a conserved genetic network to control root nodule formation, among which are genes also essential for mycorrhizal symbiosis (the so-called common symbiotic pathway). However, Trema species lost several genes that function exclusively in nodulation, suggesting a loss-of the nodulation trait in Trema. Strikingly, in a Trema orientalis population found in Malaysian Borneo we identified a truncated SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SYMRK) mutant allele lacking a large portion of the c-terminal kinase domain. In legumes this gene is essential for nodulation and mycorrhization. This raises the question whether Trema orientalis can still be mycorrhized. To answer this question, we established quantitative mycorrhization assay for Parasponia andersonii and Trema orientalis. Plants were grown in closed pots on half strength Hoagland medium containing 20 µM potassium phosphate in sterilized sand and inoculated with 125 spores of Rhizopagus irregularis (Agronutrion-DAOM197198). Mycorrhization efficiency was determined by analyzing the frequency of mycorrhiza (%F), the intensity of the mycorrhizal colonization (%M) and the arbuscule abundance (%A) in the root system. Trema orientalis RG33 can be mycorrhized, though with lower efficiency compared to Parasponia andersonii. From this we conclude that a functional SYMRK kinase domain is not essential for Trema orientalis mycorrhization. In ongoing experiments, we aim to investigate the role of SYMRK in Parasponia andersonii mycorrhization and nodulation. For this two Parasponia andersonii symrk CRISPR-Cas9 mutant alleles were created. One mimicking the TorSYMRKRG33 allele by deletion of exon 13-15, and a full Parasponia andersonii SYMRK knockout.

Keywords: endomycorrhization, Parasponia andersonii, symbiosis receptor kinase (SYMRK), Trema orientalis

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70 Optimization of Fermentation Parameters for Bioethanol Production from Waste Glycerol by Microwave Induced Mutant Escherichia coli EC-MW (ATCC 11105)

Authors: Refal Hussain, Saifuddin M. Nomanbhay


Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as bioethanol through microbial fermentation. Bioethanol is an important industrial chemical with emerging potential as a biofuel to replace vanishing fossil fuels. The yield of liquid fuel in this process was greatly influenced by various parameters viz, temperature, pH, glycerol concentration, organic concentration, and agitation speed were considered. The present study was undertaken to investigate optimum parameters for bioethanol production from raw glycerol by immobilized mutant Escherichia coli (E.coli) (ATCC11505) strain on chitosan cross linked glutaraldehyde optimized by Taguchi statistical method in shake flasks. The initial parameters were set each at four levels and the orthogonal array layout of L16 (45) conducted. The important controlling parameters for optimized the operational fermentation was temperature 38 °C, medium pH 6.5, initial glycerol concentration (250 g/l), and organic source concentration (5 g/l). Fermentation with optimized parameters was carried out in a custom fabricated shake flask. The predicted value of bioethanol production under optimized conditions was (118.13 g/l). Immobilized cells are mainly used for economic benefits of continuous production or repeated use in continuous as well as in batch mode.

Keywords: bioethanol, Escherichia coli, immobilization, optimization

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69 Evaluation of the Role of Bacteria-Derived Flavins as Plant Growth Promoting Molecules

Authors: Nivethika Ajeethan, Lord Abbey, Svetlana Yurge


Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin and the direct precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Flavins (FLs) are bioactive molecules that have a beneficial effect on plant growth and development. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 is an α-proteobacterium that forms agronomically important N₂-fixing symbiosis with Medicago plants and secretes a considerable amount of FLs (FL⁺ strain). This strain was also implicated in plant growth promotion in its association with non-legume host plants. However, the mechanism of this plant growth promotion is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development of tomato plants inoculated with S. meliloti 1021 and its mutant (FL⁻ strain) with limited ability to secrete FLs. Our preliminary experiments indicated that inoculation with FL⁺ strain significantly increased seedlings' root and shoot length and surface area compared to those of plants inoculated with FL⁻ strain. For example, the root lengths of 9-day old seedlings inoculated with FL⁺ strain were 35% longer than seedlings inoculated with the mutant. Proteomic approaches combined with the analysis of plant physiological responses such as growth and photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll content will be used to evaluate the host-plant response to bacteria-derived FLs.

Keywords: flavin, plant growth promotion, riboflavin, Sinorhizobium meliloti

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68 Heterologous Expression of Heat-Shock Protein Improves Butanol Yield in a High-Speedy Growing Clostridium acetobutylicum Mutant

Authors: Min-Shiuan Liou, Yi Shan Yang, Yang-Zhan Huang, Chia-Wen Hsieh


A high speed growing and butanol-tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum HOL1 mutant was screened throughout continuous adaption culture with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The HOL1 strain can grow well in 10 g/L butanol contained CGM medium and can produce about 12.8 g /L butanol during 24 hrs. The C. acetobutylicum HOL1 strain was able to produce 166 mM butanol with 21 mM acetone at pH 4.8, resulting in a butanol selectivity (a molar ratio of butanol to total solvents) of 0.79, which is much higher than that (0.6) of the wild-type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetate and butyrate accumulation were not observed during fermentation of the HOL1 strain. A hyper-butanol producing C. acetobutylicum HOL1 (pBPHS-3), which was created to overexpress the Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus originated specific heat-shock protein gene, hspX, from a clostridial phosphotransbutyrylase promoter, was studied for its potential to produce a high titer of butanol. Overexpression of hspX resulted in increased final butanol yield 47% and 30% higher than those of the the ATCC824 and the HOL1 strains, respectively. The remarkable high-speed growth and butanol tolerance of strain HOL1 (pBPHS-3) demonstrates that overexpression of heterogeneous stress protein-encoding gene, hspX, could help C. acetobutylicum to effectively produce a high concentration of butanol.

Keywords: Clostridium acetobutylicum, butanol, heat-shock protein, resistance

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67 Significance of Molecular Autophagic Pathway in Gaucher Disease Pathology

Authors: Ozlem Oral, Emre Taskin, Aysel Yuce, Serap Dokmeci, Devrim Gozuacik


Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved lysosome-dependent catabolic pathway, responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins, abnormal aggregates and damaged organelles which cannot be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Lysosomes degrade the substrates through the activity of lysosomal hydrolases and lysosomal membrane-bound proteins. Mutations in the coding region of these proteins cause malfunctional lysosomes, which contributes to the pathogenesis of lysosomal storage diseases. Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from the mutation of a lysosomal membrane-associated glycoprotein called glucocerebrosidase and its cofactor saposin C. The disease leads to intracellular accumulation of glucosylceramide and other glycolipids. Because of the essential role of lysosomes in autophagic degradation, Gaucher disease may directly be linked to this pathway. In this study, we investigated the expression of autophagy and/or lysosome-related genes and proteins in fibroblast cells isolated from patients with different mutations. We carried out confocal microscopy analysis and examined autophagic flux by utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of RFP and GFP in mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe. We also evaluated lysosomal pH by active lysosome staining and lysosomal enzyme activity. Beside lysosomes, we also performed proteasomal activity and cell death analysis in patient samples. Our data showed significant attenuation in the expression of key autophagy-related genes and accumulation of their proteins in mutant cells. We found decreased the ability of autophagosomes to fuse with lysosomes, associated with elevated lysosomal pH and reduced lysosomal enzyme activity. Proteasomal degradation and cell death analysis showed reduced proteolytic activity of the proteasome, which consequently leads to increased susceptibility to cell death. Our data indicate that the major degradation pathways are affected by multifunctional lysosomes in mutant patient cells and may underlie in the mechanism of clinical severity of Gaucher patients. (This project is supported by TUBITAK-3501-National Young Researchers Career Development Program, Project No: 112T130).

Keywords: autophagy, Gaucher's disease, glucocerebrosidase, mutant fibroblasts

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66 Role of Toll Like Receptor-2 in Female Genital Tuberculosis Disease Infection and Its Severity

Authors: Swati Gautam, Salman Akhtar, S. P. Jaiswar, Amita Jain


Background: FGTB is now a major global health problem mostly in developing countries including India. In humans, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.tb) is a causating agent of infection. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis due to asymptomatic presentation of FGTB disease. In macrophages Toll Like Receptor-2 (TLR-2) is one which mediated host’s immune response to M.tb. The expression of TLR-2 on macrophages is important to determine the fate of innate immune responses to M.tb. TLR-2 have two work. First its high expression on macrophages worsen the outer of infection and another side, it maintains M.tb to its dormant stage avoids activation of M.tb from latent phase. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of TLR-2 gene plays an important role in susceptibility to TB among different populations and subsequently, in the development of infertility. Methodology: This Case-Control study was done in the Department of Obs and Gynae and Department of Microbiology at King George’s Medical University, U.P, Lucknow, India. Total 300 subjects (150 Cases and 150 Controls) were enrolled in the study. All subjects were enrolled only after fulfilling the given inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: Age 20-35 years, menstrual-irregularities, positive on Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB), TB-PCR, (LJ/MGIT) culture in Endometrial Aspiration (EA). Exclusion criteria: Koch’s active, on ATT, PCOS, and Endometriosis fibroid women, positive on Gonococal and Chlamydia. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from cases and healthy control women (HCW) and genomic DNA extraction was carried out by salting-out method. Genotyping of TLR2 genetic variants (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) were performed by using single amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR technique. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1.2% agarose gel and visualized by gel-doc. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 16.3 software and computing odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Linkage Disequiliribium (LD) analysis was done by SNP stats online software. Results: In TLR-2 (Arg753Gln) polymorphism significant risk of FGTB observed with GG homozygous mutant genotype (OR=13, CI=0.71-237.7, p=0.05), AG heterozygous mutant genotype (OR=13.7, CI=0.76-248.06, p=0.03) however, G allele (OR=1.09, CI=0.78-1.52, p=0.67) individually was not associated with FGTB. In TLR-2 (Arg677Trp) polymorphism a significant risk of FGTB observed with TT homozygous mutant genotype (OR= 0.020, CI=0.001-0.341, p < 0.001), CT heterozygous mutant genotype (OR=0.53, CI=0.33-0.86, p=0.014) and T allele (OR=0.463, CI=0.32-0.66, p < 0.001). TT mutant genotype was only found in FGTB cases and frequency of CT heterozygous more in control group as compared to FGTB group. So, CT genotype worked as protective mutation for FGTB susceptibility group. In haplotype analysis of TLR-2 genetic variants, four possible combinations, i.e. (G-T, A-C, G-C, and A-T) were obtained. The frequency of haplotype A-C was significantly higher in FGTB cases (0.32). Control group did not show A-C haplotype and only found in FGTB cases. Conclusion: In conclusion, study showed a significant association with both genetic variants of TLR-2 of FGTB disease. Moreover, the presence of specific associated genotype/alleles suggest the possibility of disease severity and clinical approach aimed to prevent extensive damage by disease and also helpful for early detection of disease.


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65 A Novel Gene Encoding Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, SHG1, Is Indispensable for Seed Germination under Moderate Salt Stress

Authors: H. Sakamoto, J. Tochimoto, S. Kurosawa, M. Suzuki, S. Oguri


Salt stress adversely affects plant growth at various stages of development including seed germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth and finally reproduction. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to salt stress. Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated SHG1 (salt hypersensitive germination 1), whose disruption leads to reduced germination rate under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. The SGH1-disrupted Arabidopsis mutant died at the cotyledon stage when sown on salt-containing medium, although wild type plants could form true leaves under the same conditions. On the other hand, this mutant showed similar phenotypes to wild type plants when sown on medium without salt and transferred to salt-containing medium at the vegetative stage. These results suggested that SHG1 played indispensable role in the seed germination and seedling establishment under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 may be involved in the release of seed dormancy.

Keywords: germination, ankyrin repeat, arabidopsis, salt tolerance

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64 HIV-1 Nef Mediates Host Invasion by Differential Expression of Alpha-Enolase

Authors: Reshu Saxena, R. K. Tripathi


HIV-1 transmission and spread involves significant host-virus interaction. Potential targets for prevention of HIV-1 lies at the site of mucosal barriers. Thus a better understanding of how HIV-1 infects target cells at such sites and lead their invasion is required, with prime focus on the host determinants regulating HIV-1 spread. HIV-1 Nef is important for viral infectivity and pathogenicity. It promotes HIV-1 replication, facilitating immune evasion by interacting with various host factors and altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions. In this study nef was sequenced from HIV-1 patients, and showed specific mutations revealing sequence variability in nef. To explore the difference in Nef functionality based on sequence variability we have studied the effects of HIV-1 Nef in human SupT1 T cell line and (THP-1) monocyte-macrophage cell lines through proteomics approach. 2D-Gel Electrophoresis in control and Nef-transfected SupT1 cells demonstrated several differentially expressed proteins with significant modulation of alpha-enolase. Through further studies, effects of Nef on alpha-enolase regulation were found to be cell lineage-specific, being stimulatory in macrophages/monocytes, inhibitory in T cells and without effect in HEK-293 cells. Cell migration and invasion studies were employed to determine biological function affected by Nef mediated regulation of alpha-enolase. Cell invasion was enhanced in THP-1 cells but was inhibited in SupT1 cells by wildtype nef. In addition, the modulation of enolase and cell invasion remained unaffected by a unique nef variant. These results indicated that regulation of alpha-enolase expression and invasive property of host cells by Nef is sequence specific, suggesting involvement of a particular motif of Nef. To precisely determine this site, we designed a heptapeptide including the suggested alpha-enolase regulating sequence of nef and a nef mutant with deletion of this site. Macrophages/monocytes being the major cells affected by HIV-1 at mucosal barriers, were particularly investigated by the nef mutant and peptide. Both the nef mutant and heptapeptide led to inhibition of enhanced enolase expression and increased invasiveness in THP-1 cells. Together, these findings suggest a possible mechanism of host invasion by HIV-1 through Nef mediated regulation of alpha-enolase and identifies a potential therapeutic target for HIV-1 entry at mucosal barriers.

Keywords: HIV-1 Nef, nef variants, host-virus interaction, tissue invasion

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63 Exhaled Breath Condensate in Lung Cancer: A Non-Invasive Sample for Easier Mutations Detection by Next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Omar Youssef, Aija Knuuttila, Paivi Piirilä, Virinder Sarhadi, Sakari Knuutila


Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a unique sample that allows studying different genetic changes in lung carcinoma through a non-invasive way. With the aid of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, analysis of genetic mutations has been more efficient with increased sensitivity for detection of genetic variants. In order to investigate the possibility of applying this method for cancer diagnostics, mutations in EBC DNA from lung cancer patients and healthy individuals were studied by using NGS. The key aim is to assess the feasibility of using this approach to detect clinically important mutations in EBC. EBC was collected from 20 healthy individuals and 9 lung cancer patients (four lung adenocarcinomas, four 8 squamous cell carcinoma, and one case of mesothelioma). Mutations in hotpot regions of 22 genes were studied by using Ampliseq Colon and Lung cancer panel and sequenced on Ion PGM. Results demonstrated that all nine patients showed a total of 19 cosmic mutations in APC, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, SMAD4, and TP53. In controls, 15 individuals showed 35 cosmic mutations in BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR3, KRAS, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, and TP53. Additionally, 45 novel mutations not reported previously were also seen in patients’ samples, and 106 novel mutations were seen in controls’ specimens. KRAS exon 2 mutations G12D was identified in one control specimen with mutant allele fraction of 6.8%, while KRAS G13D mutation seen in one patient sample showed mutant allele fraction of 17%. These findings illustrate that hotspot mutations are present in DNA from EBC of both cancer patients and healthy controls. As some of the cosmic mutations were seen in controls too, no firm conclusion can be drawn on the clinical importance of cosmic mutations in patients. Mutations reported in controls could represent early neoplastic changes or normal homeostatic process of apoptosis occurring in lung tissue to get rid of mutant cells. At the same time, mutations detected in patients might represent a non-invasive easily accessible way for early cancer detection. Follow up of individuals with important cancer mutations is necessary to clarify the significance of these mutations in both healthy individuals and cancer patients.

Keywords: exhaled breath condensate, lung cancer, mutations, next generation sequencing

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62 Evaluation of Nitrogen Fixation Capabilities of Selected Pea Lines Grown under Different Environmental Conditions in Canadian Prairie

Authors: Chao Yang, Rosalind Bueckert, Jeff Schoenau, Axel Diederichsen, Hossein Zakeri, Tom Warkentin


Pea is a very popular pulse crop that widely grew in Western Canadian prairie. However, the N fixation capabilities of these pea lines were not well evaluated under local environmental conditions. In this study, 2 supernodulating mutants Frisson P64 Sym29, Frisson P88 Sym28 along with their wild parent Frisson, 1 hypernodulating mutant Rondo-nod3 (fix+) along with its wild parent Rondo, 1 non-nodulating mutant Frisson P56 (nod-) and 2 commercial pea cultivar CDC Meadow and CDC Dakota which are widely planted in Western Canada were selected in order to evaluate the capabilities of their BNF, biomass, and yield production in symbiosis with R. leguminosarumbv. viciae, Our results showed different environmental conditions and variation of pea lines could both significantly impact days to flowering (DTF), days to podding (DTP), biomass and yield of tested pea lines (P < 0.0001), suggesting consideration of environmental factors could be important when selecting pea cultivar for local farming under different soil zones in Western Canada. Significant interaction effects between environmental conditions and pea lines were found on pea N fixation as well (P = 0.001), suggesting changes in N fixation capability of the same pea cultivar when grown under different environmental conditions. Our results provide useful information for farming and better opportunity for selection of pea cultivars with higher N-fixing capacity during breeding programs in Western Canada.

Keywords: Canadian prairie, environmental condition, N fixation, pea cultivar

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61 The Role of Glutamine-Rich Region of Candida Albicans Tec1p in Mediating Morphological Transition and Invasive Growth

Authors: W. Abu Rayyan, A. Singh, A. M. Al-Jaafreh, W. Abu Dayyih, M. Bustami, S. Salem, N. Seder, K. Schröppel


Hyphal growth and the transcriptional regulation to the host environment are key issues during the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Tec1p is the C. albicans homolog of a TEA transcription factor family, which share a conserved DNA-binding TEA domain in their N-terminal. In order to define a structure-function relationship of the C. albicans Tec1p protein, we constructed several mutations on the N terminal, C terminal or in the TEA binding domain itself by homologous recombination technology. The modifications in the open reading frame of TEC1 were tested for reconstitution of the morphogenetic development of the tec1/tec1 mutant strain CaAS12. Mutation in the TEA consensus sequence did not confer transition to hyphae whereas the reconstitution of the full-length Tec1p has reconstituted hyphal development. A deletion in one of glutamine-rich regions either in the Tec1p N-terminal or the C-terminal in regions of 53-212 or 637–744 aa, respectively, did not restore morphological development in mutant CaAS12 strain. Whereas, the reconstitution with Tec1p mutants other than the glutamate-rich region has restored the morphogenetic switch. Additionally, the deletion of the glutamine-rich region has attenuated the invasive growth and the heat shock resistance of C. albicans. In conclusion, we show that a glutamine-rich region of Tec1p is essential for the hyphal development and mediating adaptation to the host environment of C. albicans.

Keywords: Candida albicans, morphogenetic development, TEA domain, hyphal formation, TEC1

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60 An Inverse Docking Approach for Identifying New Potential Anticancer Targets

Authors: Soujanya Pasumarthi


Inverse docking is a relatively new technique that has been used to identify potential receptor targets of small molecules. Our docking software package MDock is well suited for such an application as it is both computationally efficient, yet simultaneously shows adequate results in binding affinity predictions and enrichment tests. As a validation study, we present the first stage results of an inverse-docking study which seeks to identify potential direct targets of PRIMA-1. PRIMA-1 is well known for its ability to restore mutant p53's tumor suppressor function, leading to apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. For this reason, we believe that potential direct targets of PRIMA-1 identified in silico should be experimentally screened for their ability to inhibitcancer cell growth. The highest-ranked human protein of our PRIMA-1 docking results is oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), which is part of the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The results of two followup experiments which treat OSC as a possible anti-cancer target are promising. We show that both PRIMA-1 and Ro 48-8071, a known potent OSC inhibitor, significantly reduce theviability of BT-474 breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary cells. In addition, like PRIMA-1, we find that Ro 48-8071 results in increased binding of mutant p53 to DNA in BT- 474cells (which highly express p53). For the first time, Ro 48-8071 is shown as a potent agent in killing human breast cancer cells. The potential of OSC as a new target for developing anticancer therapies is worth further investigation.

Keywords: inverse docking, in silico screening, protein-ligand interactions, molecular docking

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