Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 661

Search results for: hardness

661 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
660 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar


Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength and corrosion resistant. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
659 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun


In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

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658 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak


The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
657 Mechanical Properties of Ternary Metal Nitride Ti1-xTaxN Alloys from First-Principles

Authors: M. Benhamida, Kh. Bouamama, P. Djemia


We investigate by first-principles pseudo-potential calculations the composition dependence of lattice parameter, hardness and elastic properties of ternary disordered solid solutions Ti(1-x)Ta(x)N (1>=x>=0) with B1-rocksalt structure. Calculations use the coherent potential approximation with the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) and hardness formula for multicomponent covalent solid solution proposed. Bulk modulus B shows a nearly linear behaviour whereas not C44 and C’=(C11-C12)/2 that are not monotonous. Influences of vacancies on hardness of off-stoichiometric transition-metal nitrides TiN(1−x) and TaN(1−x) are also considered.

Keywords: transition metal nitride materials, elastic constants, hardness, EMTO

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656 Effect of Natural Binder on Pang-Rum Hardness

Authors: Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Khemjira Jarmkom, Warachate Khobjai, Surachai Techaoei


The aim of this study is to improve Pang-Rum (PR) hardness by adding natural binders. PR is one of Thai tradition aroma products. In the past, it was used for aesthetic propose on face and body with good odor. Nowadays, PR is not popular and going to be disappeared. Five natural materials, i.e. agar, rice flour, glutinous flour, corn starch, and tapioca starch were selected to use as binders. Binders were dissolved with boiled water into concentration 5% and 10% w/w except agar that was prepared 0.5% and 1% w/w. PR with and without binder were formulated. Physical properties, i.e. weight, shape, color, and hardness were evaluated. PR with 10% of corn starch solution had suitable hardness (14.2±0.9 kg) and the best appearance. In the future, it would be planned to study about odor and physical stability for decorated product development.

Keywords: aromatic water, hardness, natural binder, pang-rum

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
655 A Nanoindentation Study of Thin Film Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouther, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed


Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The micro structures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters which are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nano indentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 240 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: CrN, AlCrN coatings, hardness, nanoindentation

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654 Hardness and Microstructure of Rapidly Quenched Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Mehdi Ghatus


Two simple apparatus based on the hammer and anvil principle have been constructed and used to study the microstructure and micro-hardness characteristics of some AL-base alloys. Foils with thicknesses arranging from 20 µm up to 600 µm have been obtained. The cooling rate was estimated to be in the range 10^4 - 10^5 K/sec. Microstructure study of rapidly quenched Al-30% Si foils indicated that with decreasing the foil thickness the size of primary Si crystallites decreases in the whole investigated range (0.64-0.15 mm). However, the volume fraction of the primary Si crystals in the structure remained constant down to thickness the primary Si volume fraction started to decrease. Rapid quenching of Al- 14-16% Cu showed single phase cell structure. In foils up to 0.55 mm with decreasing the foil thickness the cell size decreases and micro-hardness increases particularly in foils below 0.3 mm in thickness. Isochronal annealing of theses foils show that the highly supersaturated Al-14-16% Cu solid solution decomposes readily at relatively low temperature and short time intervals. The maximum hardness is obtained after annealing at 100 °C for 30 minutes. However with decreasing the Cu content of the foils the precipitation process is largely delayed. Eight hours of annealing at 100 °C was not enough to achieve the maximum hardness in Al-4% Cu thin foils. The achieved hardness value was more than twice of the maximum hardness obtained in articles of similar composition but conventionally aged.

Keywords: aluminum, hardness, alloys, quenched aluminum

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
653 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: hot forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), microstructure, low alloy steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
652 Effect of Water Hardness and Free Residual Chlorine on Black Tea Brew

Authors: P. Murugesan, G. Venkateswaran, V. A. Shanmuga Selvan


Water used for brewing tea plays a major role in the quality of tea. Water with higher hardness gives very dark coloured brew. This study was conducted to determine the effect of water hardness and free residual chlorine on the quality of black tea liquor. Theaflavin (TF) and Thearubigin (TR) levels are lower in comparison with the tea brewed in distilled water. At the same time, there is an increase in High Polymerized Substance (HPS) and Total Liquor Colour (TLC). While water with higher hardness has a negative impact on tea brew, water with high concentration of free residual chlorine did not affect the quality of tea brew.

Keywords: Theaflavin, Thearubigin, high polymerised substance, total liquor colour, hardness, residual chlorine

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
651 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Farid Yuristiawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Detty Iryani, Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, surface hardness, Vickers hardness tester

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650 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: composite resin hybrid, tip distance, microhardness, light curing LED

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649 Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Salah Gariani, Islam Shyha, Fawad Inam, Dehong Huo


A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

Keywords: impinging supply system, micro-hardness, shoulder milling, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oil-based cutting fluid

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648 Radiation Hardness Materials Article Review

Authors: S. Abou El-Azm, U. Kruchonak, M. Gostkin, A. Guskov, A. Zhemchugov


Semiconductor detectors are widely used in nuclear physics and high-energy physics experiments. The application of semiconductor detectors could be limited by their ultimate radiation resistance. The increase of radiation defects concentration leads to significant degradation of the working parameters of semiconductor detectors. The investigation of radiation defects properties in order to enhance the radiation hardness of semiconductor detectors is an important task for the successful implementation of a number of nuclear physics experiments; we presented some information about radiation hardness materials like diamond, sapphire and CdTe. Also, the results of measurements I-V characteristics, charge collection efficiency and its dependence on the bias voltage for different doses of high resistivity (GaAs: Cr) and Si at LINAC-200 accelerator and reactor IBR-2 are presented.

Keywords: semiconductor detectors, radiation hardness, GaAs, Si, CCE, I-V, C-V

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
647 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: S. Ramesh, A. S. Sasiraaju, K. Sidhaarth, N. Sudhan Rajkumar, V. Manivel Muralidaran


This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: chromoly, gas metal arc weld (GMAW), hardness, multi pass weld, shielding gas composition

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646 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long


Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness

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645 Effect of Extrusion Parameters on the Rheological Properties of Ready-To-Eat Extrudates Developed from De-Oiled Rice Bran

Authors: Renu Sharma, D. C. Saxena, Tanuja Srivastava


Mechanical properties of ready-to-eat extrudates are perceived by the consumers as one of the quality criteria. Texture quality of any product has a strong influence on the sensory evaluation as well as on the acceptability of the product. The main texture characteristics influencing the product acceptability are crispness, elasticity, hardness and softness. In the present work, the authors investigated one of the most important textural characteristics of extrudates i.e. hardness. A five-level, four-factor central composite rotatable design was employed to investigate the effect of temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content and feed composition mainly rice bran content and their interactions, on the mechanical hardness of extrudates. Among these, feed moisture was found to be a prominent factor affecting the product hardness. It was found that with the increase of feed moisture content, the rice bran proportion leads to increase in hardness of extrudates whereas the increase of temperature leads to decrease of hardness of product. A good agreement between the predicted (26.49 N) and actual value (28.73N) of the response confirms the validation of response surface methodology (RSM)-model.

Keywords: deoiled rice bran, extrusion, rheological properties, RSM

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644 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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643 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han


In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
642 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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641 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness and near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.


In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor Hobson Talysurf tester, micro Vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.

Keywords: hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
640 Study of Electroless Co-P Deposits on Steel

Authors: K. Chouchane, R. Mehdaoui, A. Atmani, A. Merati


A Co-P layer was coated onto steel substrate using electroless plating method in alkaline media. Three temperatures were tested 70, 80 and 90 °C. Sodium hypophosphite was used as a reducer. The influence of addition of boric acid in the bath on deposits properties was studied. Different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and hardness measures were employed to characterize the morphology, composition and the structural properties of the resulting films. The corrosion properties of the prepared coatings were tested in 3% NaCl media, by means of current-potential curves, potential transients. The results showed that the thickness increase with increasing of bath temperature. The addition of boric acid don’t affect the thickness but has an influence on hardness. In fact, the hardness increases from 500 to 700Hv for the temperature of 90°C. The corrosion resistance is improved for all prepared layers.

Keywords: cobalt deposits, corrosion, electroless deposition, hardness

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639 Effect of SPS Parameters on the Densification of ZrB2-Based Composites

Authors: Z. Balak, M. Zakeri, M.R.Rahimipur, M. Azizieh


Spark Plasma Sintering is a new technique which was used for ultra high temperature ceramics such as ZrB2-based composites in recent years. Taguchi design was applied to explore effective parameters for achieving the highest hardness. Nine factors including SiC, Cf, MoSi2, HfB2 and ZrC content, milling time of Cf and SPS parameters such as temperature, time and pressure in four levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. In this study, only the effect of SPS conditions on densification and hardness were investigated. ZrB2-based composites were prepared by SPS in different temperatures (1600°C,1700°C, 1800°C, 1900°C), times (4min, 8 min, 12 min, 16min) and pressures (10MPa, 20MPa, 30MPa and 40MPa). The effect of SPS parameters on the densification and hardness were investigated. It was found, by increasing the temperature and time, from level 1 to 4, densification improved continuously. Also, the results shows hardness increases continuously by increasing temperature and time. Finally, it is concluded that temperature and time have more significant effect on densification and harness rather than pressure.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering (SPS), ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), densification, hardness

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638 Enhancement of Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Nitrided Low Alloy Tool Steel

Authors: Kalimi Trinadh, Corinne Nouveau, A. S. Khanna, Karanveer S. Aneja, K. Ram Mohan Rao


This study concerns improving the corrosion resistance of low alloy steel after plasma nitriding performed at variable time and temperature. Nitriding carried out in the temperature range of 450-550ᵒC for a various time period of 1-8 hrs. at 500Pa in a glow discharge plasma of H₂ and N₂ (80:20). The substrate was kept biased negatively at 250V. Following nitriding the X-ray diffraction studies shown that the phases formed were mainly γ′ (Fe₄N) and ε (Fe₂₋₃N). The ε (Fe₂₋₃N) phase found to be the dominating phase. Cross sections of the samples under scanning electron microscope point analyses revealed the presence of nitrogen in the surface region. For the assessment of corrosion resistance property, potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution. It has been shown that the plasma nitriding significantly improved the corrosion resistance when compared to the as-received steel. Furthermore, it has also been found that nitriding for 6h has more corrosion resistance than nitriding for the 8h duration. The hardness of the nitrided samples was measured by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The hardness of the nitrided steel was found to be improved much above the hardness of the steel in the as-received condition. It was found to be around two-fold of the initial hardness.

Keywords: corrosion, steel, plasma nitriding, X-ray diffraction

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637 Synthesis Using Sintering and Characterisation of FeCrCoNiZn Alloy Using SEM and Nanoindentation

Authors: Steadyman Chikumba, Vasudeva Vereedhi Rao


This paper reports on the synthesis of FeCrCoNiZn and its characterisation using SEM and nanoindentation. The high entropy alloy FeCrCoNiZn was fabricated using spark plasma sintering at a temperature of 1100ᵒC from powders mixed for 9 hours. The powders mixture was equimolar, and the resultant microstructure had a single crystalline structure when studied under SEM. Several nano Vickers hardness measurements were taken on a polished surface etched by Nital solution. The hardness ranged from 711 Vickers to a maximum of 1773.2. The alloy FeCrCoNiZn showed a nano hardness of 1070 Vickers and a modulus of elasticity of 460.4 MPa. The process managed to fabricate a very hard material that can find applications where wear resistance is desired.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, FeCrVNiZn, nanohardness, SEM

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636 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi


The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
635 Mechanical Properties of D2 Tool Steel Cryogenically Treated Using Controllable Cooling

Authors: A. Rabin, G. Mazor, I. Ladizhenski, R. Shneck, Z.


The hardness and hardenability of AISI D2 cold work tool steel with conventional quenching (CQ), deep cryogenic quenching (DCQ) and rapid deep cryogenic quenching heat treatments caused by temporary porous coating based on magnesium sulfate was investigated. Each of the cooling processes was examined from the perspective of the full process efficiency, heat flux in the austenite-martensite transformation range followed by characterization of the temporary porous layer made of magnesium sulfate using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), surface and core hardness and hardenability using Vickr’s hardness technique. The results show that the cooling rate (CR) at the austenite-martensite transformation range have a high influence on the hardness of the studied steel.

Keywords: AISI D2, controllable cooling, magnesium sulfate coating, rapid cryogenic heat treatment, temporary porous layer

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634 Influence of Water Hardness on Column Adsorption of Paracetamol by Biomass of Babassu Coconut Shell

Authors: O. M. Couto Junior, I. Matos, I. M. Fonseca, P. A. Arroyo, E. A. Silva, M. A. S. D. Barros


This study was the adsorption of paracetamol from aqueous solutions on fixed beds of activated carbon from babassy coconut shell. Several operation conditions on the shape of breakthrough curves were investigated and proposed model is successfully validated with the literature data and obtained experimental data. The initial paracetamol concentration increases from 20 to 50 mg.L-1, and the break point time decreases, tb, from 18.00 to 10.50 hours. The fraction of unused bed length, HUNB, at break-through point is obtained in the range of 1.62 to 2.81 for 20 to 50 mg.L-1 of initial paracetamol concentration. The presence of Ca+2 and Mg+2 are responsible for increasing the hardness of the water, affects significantly the adsorption kinetics, and lower removal efficiency by adsorption of paracetamol on activated carbons. The axial dispersion coefficients, DL, was constants for concentrated feed solution, but this parameter has different values for deionized and hardness water. The mass transfer coefficient, Ks, was increasing with concentrated feed solution.

Keywords: paracetamol, adsorption, water hardness, activated carbon.

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633 Carbide Structure and Fracture Toughness of High Speed Tool Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


M2 steels, the typical Co-free high speed steel (HSS) possessing hardness level of 63~65 HRc, are most widely used for cutting tools. On the other hand, Co-containing HSS’s, such as M35 and M42, show a higher hardness level of 65~67 HRc and used for high quality cutting tools. In the fabrication of HSS’s, it is very important to control cleanliness and eutectic carbide structure of the ingot and it is required to increase productivity at the same time. Production of HSS ingots includes a variety of processes such as casting, electro-slag remelting (ESR), forging, blooming, and wire rod rolling processes. In the present study, electro-slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process, an advanced ESR process combined by continuous casting, was successfully employed to fabricate HSS billets of M2, M35, and M42 steels. Distribution and structure of eutectic carbides of the billets were analysed and cleanliness, hardness, and composition profile of the billets were also evaluated.

Keywords: high speed tool steel, eutectic carbide, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness

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632 The Properties of Na2CO3 and Ti Hybrid Modified LM 6 Alloy Using Ladle Metallurgy

Authors: M. N. Ervina Efzan, H. J. Kong, C. K. Kok


The present work deals with a study on the influences of hybrid modifier on LM 6 added through ladle metallurgy. In this study, LM 6 served as the reference alloy while Na2CO3 and Ti powders were used as the hybrid modifier. The effects of hybrid modifier on the micro structural enhancement of LM 6 were investigated using optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed fragmented Si-rich needles and strength enhanced petal/ globular-like structures without obvious formation of soft primary α-Al and β-Fe-rich inter metallic compound (IMC) after the hybrid modification. Hardness test was conducted to examine the mechanical improvement of hybrid modified LM 6. 10% of hardness improvement was recorded in the hybrid modified LM 6 through ladle metallurgy.

Keywords: Al-Si, hybrid modifier, ladle metallurgy, hardness

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