Search results for: life time
21203 Life Course Events, Residential and Job Relocation and Commute Time in Australian Cities
Authors: Solmaz Jahed Shiran, Elizabeth Taylor, John Hearne
Abstract:Over the past decade a growing body of research, known as mobility biography approach has emerged that focuses on changes in travel behaviour over the life course of individuals. Mobility biographies suggest that changes in travel behaviour have a certain relation to important key events in life courses such as residential relocation, workplace changes, marriage and the birth of children. Taking this approach as the theoretical background, this study uses data from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics Survey in Australia (HILDA) to model a set of life course events and their interaction with the commute time. By analysing longitudinal data, it is possible to assign different key events during the life course to change a person’s travel behaviour. Changes in the journey-to-work travel time is used as an indication of travel behaviour change in this study. Results of a linear regression model for change in commute time show a significant influence from socio-demographic factors like income and age, the previous home-to-work commute time and remoteness of the residence. Residential relocation and job change have significant influences on commute time. Other life events such as birth of a child, marriage and divorce or separation have also a strong impact on commute time change. Overall, the research confirms previous studies of links between life course events and travel behaviour.
Keywords: life course events, residential mobility, travel behaviour, commute time, job changeProcedia PDF Downloads 125
21202 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor
Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee
Abstract:Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.
Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor testProcedia PDF Downloads 499
21201 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor
Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee
Abstract:This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.
Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motorProcedia PDF Downloads 554
21200 Empirical Acceleration Functions and Fuzzy Information
Authors: Muhammad Shafiq
Abstract:In accelerated life testing approaches life time data is obtained under various conditions which are considered more severe than usual condition. Classical techniques are based on obtained precise measurements, and used to model variation among the observations. In fact, there are two types of uncertainty in data: variation among the observations and the fuzziness. Analysis techniques, which do not consider fuzziness and are only based on precise life time observations, lead to pseudo results. This study was aimed to examine the behavior of empirical acceleration functions using fuzzy lifetimes data. The results showed an increased fuzziness in the transformed life times as compare to the input data.
Keywords: acceleration function, accelerated life testing, fuzzy number, non-precise dataProcedia PDF Downloads 188
21199 A Probabilistic Study on Time to Cover Cracking Due to Corrosion
Authors: Chun-Qing Li, Hassan Baji, Wei Yang
Abstract:Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures is a major problem worldwide. The volume expansion of corrosion products causes concrete cover cracking, which could lead to delamination of concrete cover. The time to cover cracking plays a key role to the assessment of serviceability of reinforced concrete structures subjected to corrosion. Many analytical, numerical, and empirical models have been developed to predict the time to cracking initiation due to corrosion. In this study, a numerical model based on finite element modeling of corrosion-induced cracking process is used. In order to predict the service life based on time to cover initiation, the numerical approach is coupled with a probabilistic procedure. In this procedure, all the influential factors affecting time to cover cracking are modeled as random variables. The results show that the time to cover cracking is highly variables. It is also shown that rust product expansion ratio and the size of more porous concrete zone around the rebar are the most influential factors in predicting service life of corrosion-affected structures.
Keywords: corrosion, crack width, probabilistic, service lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 137
21198 Energy Matrices of Partially Covered Photovoltaic Thermal Flat Plate Water Collectors
Authors: Shyam, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:Energy matrices of flate plate water collectors partially covered by PV module have been estimated in the present study. Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collector assembly is consisting of 5 water collectors having 2 m^2 area which are partially covered by photovoltaic module at its lower portion (inlet) and connected in series. The annual overall thermal energy and exergy are computed by using climatic data of New Delhi provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) Pune, India. The Energy payback time on overall thermal and exergy basis are found to be 1.6 years and 17.8 years respectively. For 25 years of life time of system the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency are estimated to be 15.8 and 0.04 respectively on overall thermal energy basis whereas for the same life time the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency on exergy basis are obtained as 1.4 and 0.001.
Keywords: overall thermal energy, exergy, energy payback time, PVT water collectorsProcedia PDF Downloads 322
21197 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis
Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan
Abstract:In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.
Keywords: masking, bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 493
21196 Service Life Prediction of Tunnel Structures Subjected to Water Seepage
Authors: Hassan Baji, Chun-Qing Li, Wei Yang
Abstract:Water seepage is one of the most common causes of damage in tunnel structures, which can cause direct and indirect e.g. reinforcement corrosion and calcium leaching damages. Estimation of water seepage or inflow is one of the main challenges in probabilistic assessment of tunnels. The methodology proposed in this study is an attempt for mathematically modeling the water seepage in tunnel structures and further predicting its service life. Using the time-dependent reliability, water seepage is formulated as a failure mode, which can be used for prediction of service life. Application of the formulated seepage failure mode to a case study tunnel is presented.
Keywords: water seepage, tunnels, time-dependent reliability, service lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 401
21195 Short Life Cycle Time Series Forecasting
Authors: Shalaka Kadam, Dinesh Apte, Sagar Mainkar
Abstract:The life cycle of products is becoming shorter and shorter due to increased competition in market, shorter product development time and increased product diversity. Short life cycles are normal in retail industry, style business, entertainment media, and telecom and semiconductor industry. The subject of accurate forecasting for demand of short lifecycle products is of special enthusiasm for many researchers and organizations. Due to short life cycle of products the amount of historical data that is available for forecasting is very minimal or even absent when new or modified products are launched in market. The companies dealing with such products want to increase the accuracy in demand forecasting so that they can utilize the full potential of the market at the same time do not oversupply. This provides the challenge to develop a forecasting model that can forecast accurately while handling large variations in data and consider the complex relationships between various parameters of data. Many statistical models have been proposed in literature for forecasting time series data. Traditional time series forecasting models do not work well for short life cycles due to lack of historical data. Also artificial neural networks (ANN) models are very time consuming to perform forecasting. We have studied the existing models that are used for forecasting and their limitations. This work proposes an effective and powerful forecasting approach for short life cycle time series forecasting. We have proposed an approach which takes into consideration different scenarios related to data availability for short lifecycle products. We then suggest a methodology which combines statistical analysis with structured judgement. Also the defined approach can be applied across domains. We then describe the method of creating a profile from analogous products. This profile can then be used for forecasting products with historical data of analogous products. We have designed an application which combines data, analytics and domain knowledge using point-and-click technology. The forecasting results generated are compared using MAPE, MSE and RMSE error scores. Conclusion: Based on the results it is observed that no one approach is sufficient for short life-cycle forecasting and we need to combine two or more approaches for achieving the desired accuracy.
Keywords: forecast, short life cycle product, structured judgement, time seriesProcedia PDF Downloads 280
21194 Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)
Authors: Adem Acır
Abstract:In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.
Keywords: Monte Carlo, minor actinides, nuclear waste, LIFE engineProcedia PDF Downloads 238
21193 Internet Use, Social Networks, Loneliness and Quality of Life among Adults Aged 50 and Older: Mediating and Moderating Effects
Authors: Rabia Khaliala, Adi Vitman-Schorr
Abstract:Background: The increase in longevity of people on one hand, and on the other hand the fact that the social networks in later life become increasingly narrower, highlight the importance of Internet use to enhance quality of life (QoL). However, whether Internet use increases or decreases social networks, loneliness and quality of life is not clear-cut. Purposes: To explore the direct and/or indirect effects of Internet use on QoL, and to examine whether ethnicity and time the elderly spent with family moderate the mediation effect of Internet use on quality of life throughout loneliness. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was carried out in 2016 by structured interviews with a convenience sample of 502 respondents aged 50 and older, living in northern Israel. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing mediation a model. Results: Use of the Internet was found to be positively associated with QoL. However, this relationship was mediated by loneliness, and moderated by the time the elderly spent with family members. In addition, respondents' ethnicity significantly moderated the mediation effect between Internet use and loneliness. Conclusions: Internet use can enhance QoL of older adults directly or indirectly by reducing loneliness. However, these effects are conditional on other variables. The indirect effect moderated by ethnicity, and the direct effect moderated by the time the elderly spend with their families. Researchers and practitioners should be aware of these interactions which can impact loneliness and quality of life of older persons differently.
Keywords: internet use, loneliness, quality of life, social contactsProcedia PDF Downloads 126
21192 Life in the Fermata
Authors: Liza Michaeli
Abstract:Fermata, from fermare, means to be on hold, conjoining contenere (contain), fissare (fasten), and rimanere (stay). It is a musical indication that a note should be (that is, calls to be) prolonged beyond the "normal duration" the note value would indicate. To be "held up" is to be held impractically in the lunga pausa, where the breath "is to be taken," taken in, but the release is impeded. In this pause of unspecified length, life is being prolonged against your discretion but given to you to inhabit. That is why the note value, the recognized "normative value," does not "accept" the significance of the prolongation. The value is interested in "saving time." The query at the heart of "Life in the fermata" will therefore be: is this life on hold, or rather, life holding. The paper shall meditate, via musical notation, on the significance of experience "inside": namely, the hold.
Keywords: fermata, experience, significance, the hold, prolongationProcedia PDF Downloads 112
21191 Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus)) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Penang Island, Malaysia
Authors: A. H. Maimusa, A. Abu Hassan, Nur Faeza A. Kassim
Abstract:In this study, we report on the main life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The raw life history data of the two species were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage and two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development times were 9.47 days (Ae. albopictus) and 8.76 days (Ae. aegypti). The adult pre-oviposition periods (APOP) was 1.61 day for Ae. albopictus and 2.02 for Ae. aegypti. The total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of Ae. albopictus is significantly longer (11.66 days) than (10.75 days) for Ae. aegypti. The mean intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.124 days (Ae. albopictus) and 1.151 days (Ae. aegypti) while the mean finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.13 day (Ae. albopictus) and (1.16 d) (Ae. aegypti). The net reproductive rates (Ro) were 8.10 and 10.75 for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean generation time (T) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, were 16.81 days and 15.77 days respectively. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature (r = -0.208, p > 0.05) and (r = -0.312, p > 0.05) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The life expectancy was 19.01 and 19.94 days for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage and ranged between 0.01 and 0.07%. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategist characterized by a high r, a large Ro, and short T. This kind of information is crucial in understanding mosquito population dynamics in disease transmission and control.
Keywords: Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, age-stage, life table, two-sexProcedia PDF Downloads 255
21190 Effects of Some Characteristics of Gynecological Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment on Women's Sexual Life Quality
Authors: Buse Bahitli, Samiye Mete
Abstract:The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of sexual life of women with diagnosed gynecological cancer and receive treatment. The study was a descriptive and cross-sectional type, and it was carried out with 276 women. Information Form and Sexual Quality of Life Scale-Female (SQOL) form was used in the study. The data was evaluated using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test. In the study, Sexual Quality of Life Scale-Female average score was 68.83 ± 21.17. The %43.1 of women was endometrial cancer, %30.8 was cervical cancer, %24.6 was ovarian cancer, and %1.4 was vulvar cancer. The average time to diagnosis of patients is 41.80 ± 47.64 months. There was no significant difference mean SQOL according to individual/sociodemographic characteristics like age, education. Gynecological cancer-related characteristics like gynaecological cancer type, treatment type, surgery type were found not to affect the mean score of SQOL. However, it was found that the difference was due to the higher SQOL score in the group with a diagnosis time of 25 months and over (X²KW= 6.356, p= 0.046). The reason of significant difference means SQOL according to diagnosis over time might be that women adapted to cancer diagnosis. While women with gynaecologic cancer are evaluating their sexual lives, it is necessary to evaluate them with good evaluation tools.
Keywords: gynecological cancers, sexuality, quality of sexual life, SQOLProcedia PDF Downloads 325
21189 On the End-of-Life Inventory Problem
Authors: Hans Frenk, Sonya Javadi, Semih Onur Sezer
Abstract:We consider the so-called end of life inventory problem for the supplier of a product in its final phase of the service life cycle. This phase starts when the production of the items stops and continues until the warranty of the last sold item expires. At the beginning of this phase, the supplier places a final order for spare parts to serve customers coming with defective items. At any time during the final phase, the supplier may also decide to switch to an alternative and more cost-effective policy. This alternative policy may be in the form of replacing a defective item with a substitutable product or offering discounts / rebates on new generation products. In this setup, the objective is to find a final order quantity and also a switching time which will minimize the total expected discounted cost. We study this problem under a general cost structure in a continuous-time framework where arrivals of defective items are given by a non-homogeneous Poisson process. We consider four formulations which differ by the nature of the switching time. These formulations are studied in detail and properties of the objective function are derived in each case. Using these properties, we provide exact algorithms for efficient numerical implementations. Numerical examples are provided illustrating the application of these algorithms. In these examples, we also compare the costs associated with these different formulations.
Keywords: End-of-life inventory control, martingales, optimization, service partsProcedia PDF Downloads 264
21188 Time Truncated Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Exponentiated Half Logistic Distribution
Authors: Srinivasa Rao Gadde
Abstract:In this article, we considered a group acceptance sampling plans for exponentiated half logistic distribution when the life-test is truncated at a pre-specified time. It is assumed that the index parameter of the exponentiated half logistic distribution is known. The design parameters such as the number of groups and the acceptance number are obtained by satisfying the producer’s and consumer’s risks at the specified quality levels in terms of medians and 10th percentiles under the assumption that the termination time and the number of items in each group are pre-fixed. Finally, an example is given to illustration the methodology.
Keywords: group acceptance sampling plan, operating characteristic, consumer and producer’s risks, truncated life-testProcedia PDF Downloads 271
21187 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors
Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono
Abstract:In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.
Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habitProcedia PDF Downloads 197
21186 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population
Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi
Abstract:Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.
Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly populationProcedia PDF Downloads 88
21185 Automated Prepaid Billing Subscription System
Authors: Adekunle K. O, Adeniyi A. E, Kolawole E
Abstract:One of the most dramatic trends in the communications market in recent years has been the growth of prepaid services. Today, prepaid no longer constitutes the low-revenue, basic-service segment. It is driven by a high margin, value-add service customers who view it as a convenient way of retaining control over their usage and communication spending while expecting high service levels. To service providers, prepaid services offer the advantage of reducing bad accounts while allowing them to predict usage and plan network resources. Yet, the real-time demands of prepaid services require a scalable, real-time platform to manage customers through their entire life cycle. It delivers integrated real-time rating, voucher management, recharge management, customer care and service provisioning for the generation of new prepaid services. It carries high scalability that can handle millions of prepaid customers in real-time through their entire life cycle.
Keywords: prepaid billing, voucher management, customers, automated, securityProcedia PDF Downloads 35
21184 Execution Time Optimization of Workflow Network with Activity Lead-Time
Authors: Xiaoping Qiu, Binci You, Yue Hu
Abstract:The executive time of the workflow network has an important effect on the efficiency of the business process. In this paper, the activity executive time is divided into the service time and the waiting time, then the lead time can be extracted from the waiting time. The executive time formulas of the three basic structures in the workflow network are deduced based on the activity lead time. Taken the process of e-commerce logistics as an example, insert appropriate lead time for key activities by using Petri net, and the executive time optimization model is built to minimize the waiting time with the time-cost constraints. Then the solution program-using VC++6.0 is compiled to get the optimal solution, which reduces the waiting time of key activities in the workflow, and verifies the role of lead time in the timeliness of e-commerce logistics.
Keywords: electronic business, execution time, lead time, optimization model, petri net, time workflow networkProcedia PDF Downloads 78
21183 Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement from Pulse Transit Time Techniques
Authors: Chien-Lin Wang, Cha-Ling Ko, Tainsong Chen
Abstract:Pulse Blood pressure (BP) is one of the vital signs, and is an index that helps determining the stability of life. In this respect, some spinal cord injury patients need to take the tilt table test. While doing the test, the posture changes abruptly, and may cause a patient’s BP to change abnormally. This may cause patients to feel discomfort, and even feel as though their life is threatened. Therefore, if a continuous non-invasive BP assessment system were built, it could help to alert health care professionals in the process of rehabilitation when the BP value is out of range. In our research, BP assessed by the pulse transit time technique was developed. In the system, we use a self-made photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor and filter circuit to detect two PPG signals and to calculate the time difference. The BP can immediately be assessed by the trend line. According to the results of this study, the relationship between the systolic BP and PTT has a highly negative linear correlation (R2=0.8). Further, we used the trend line to assess the value of the BP and compared it to a commercial sphygmomanometer (Omron MX3); the error rate of the system was found to be in the range of ±10%, which is within the permissible error range of a commercial sphygmomanometer. The continue blood pressure measurement from pulse transit time technique may have potential to become a convenience method for clinical rehabilitation.
Keywords: continous blood pressure measurement, PPG, time transit time, transit velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 280
21182 The Study of Thai Millennial Attitude toward End-of-Life Planning, Opportunity of Service Design Development
Authors: Mawong R., Bussracumpakorn C.
Abstract:Millions of young people around the world have been affected by COVID-19 to their psychological and social effects. Millennials’ stresses have been shaped by a few global issues, including climate change, political instability, and financial crisis. In particular, the spread of COVID-19 has become laying psychological and socioeconomic scars on them. When end-of-life planning turns into more widely discussed, the stigma and taboos around this issue are greatly lessened. End-of-life planning is defined as a future life plan, such as financial, legacy, funeral, and memorial planning. This plan would help millennials to discover the value and meaning of life. This study explores the attitudes of Thai Millennials toward end-of-life planning as a new normal awareness of life in order to initiate an innovative service concept to fit with their value and meaning. The study conducts an in-depth interview with 12 potential participants who have awareness or action on the plan. The framework of the customer journey map is used to analyze the responses to examine trigger points, barriers, beliefs, and expectations. The findings pointed to a service concept that is suggested for a new end-of-life planning service that is suited to Thai Millennials in 4 different groups, which are 1. Social -Conscious as a socially aware who to donate time and riches to make the world and society a better place, their end-of-life planning value is inspired by the social impact of giving something or some action that they will be able to do after life or during life which provides a variety of choice based on their preference to give to society, 2. Life Fulfillment who make a life goal for themselves and attempt to achieve it before the time comes to their value will be to inspire life value with a customized plan and provide guidance to suggest, 3. Prevention of the After-Death Effect who want to plan to avoid the effects of their death as patriarch, head of the family, and anchor of someone, so they want to have a plan that brings confidence and feel relief while they are still alive and they want to find some reliable service that they can leave the death will or asset, and 4. No Guilty Planning who plan for when they wish to be worry-free as a self-responsible they want to have the plan which is easy to understand and easy to access. The overall finding of the study is to understand the new service concept of end-of-life planning which to improve knowledge of significant life worth rather than death planning, encouraging people to reassess their lives in a positive way, leading to higher self-esteem and intrinsic motivation for this generation in this time of global crisis.
Keywords: design management, end-of-life planning, millennial generation, service design solutionProcedia PDF Downloads 109
21181 Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Canada: A Causal Modelling Approach
Authors: Rose Branch-Allen, John Jayachandran
Abstract:Background and purpose: Canada is a pluralistic, multicultural society with an ethno-cultural composition that has been shaped over time by immigrants and their descendants. Although Canada welcomes these immigrants, many will endure hardship and assimilation difficulties. Despite these life hurdles, surveys consistently disclose high life satisfaction for all Canadians. Most research studies on Life Satisfaction/ Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) have focused on one main determinant and a variety of social demographic variables to delineate the determinants of life satisfaction. However, very few research studies examine life satisfaction from a holistic approach. In addition, we need to understand the causal pathways leading to life satisfaction, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB. The aim this study was to utilize a holistic approach to construct a causal model and identify major determinants of life satisfaction. Data and measures: This study utilized data from the General Social Survey, with a sample size of 19, 597. The exogenous concepts included age, gender, marital status, household size, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, location, immigration status, religiosity, and neighborhood. The intervening concepts included health, social contact, leisure, enjoyment, work-family balance, quality time, domestic labor, and sense of belonging. The endogenous concept life satisfaction was measured by multiple indicators (Cronbach’s alpha = .83). Analysis: Several multiple regression models were run sequentially to estimate path coefficients for the causal model. Results: Overall, above average satisfaction with life was reported for respondents with specific socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. With regard to exogenous factors, respondents who were female, younger, married, from high socioeconomic status background, born in Canada, very religious, and demonstrated high level of neighborhood interaction had greater satisfaction with life. Similarly, intervening concepts suggested respondents had greater life satisfaction if they had better health, more social contact, less time on passive leisure activities and more time on active leisure activities, more time with family and friends, more enjoyment with volunteer activities, less time on domestic labor and a greater sense of belonging to the community. Conclusions and Implications: Our results suggest that a holistic approach is necessary for establishing determinants of life satisfaction, and that life satisfaction is not merely comprised of positive or negative affect rather understanding the causal process of life satisfaction. Even though, most of our findings are consistent with previous studies, a significant number of causal connections contradict some of the findings in literature today. We have provided possible explanation for these anomalies researchers encounter in studying life satisfaction and policy implications.
Keywords: causal model, holistic approach, life satisfaction, socio-demographic variables, subjective well-beingProcedia PDF Downloads 280
21180 Failure Inference and Optimization for Step Stress Model Based on Bivariate Wiener Model
Authors: Soudabeh Shemehsavar
Abstract:In this paper, we consider the situation under a life test, in which the failure time of the test units are not related deterministically to an observable stochastic time varying covariate. In such a case, the joint distribution of failure time and a marker value would be useful for modeling the step stress life test. The problem of accelerating such an experiment is considered as the main aim of this paper. We present a step stress accelerated model based on a bivariate Wiener process with one component as the latent (unobservable) degradation process, which determines the failure times and the other as a marker process, the degradation values of which are recorded at times of failure. Parametric inference based on the proposed model is discussed and the optimization procedure for obtaining the optimal time for changing the stress level is presented. The optimization criterion is to minimize the approximate variance of the maximum likelihood estimator of a percentile of the products’ lifetime distribution.
Keywords: bivariate normal, Fisher information matrix, inverse Gaussian distribution, Wiener processProcedia PDF Downloads 265
21179 A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution
Authors: A. D. Abdellatif, A. N. Ahmed, M. E. Abdelaziz
Abstract:The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.
Keywords: double sampling plan, single sampling plan, producer’s risk, consumer’s risk, exponentiated transmuted weibull distribution, time truncated experiment, single, double, Marshal-OlkinProcedia PDF Downloads 405
21178 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity
Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura
Abstract:The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.
Keywords: age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 155
21177 Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals
Authors: Zhongmin Wang, Wudong Fan, Hengshan Zhang, Yimin Zhou
Abstract:In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features have the different contributions to construct the health indicators, the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered. To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets. Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.
Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, convolution neural net-work, gated recurrent unit, health indicators, remaining useful lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 73
21176 Taylor’s Law and Relationship between Life Expectancy at Birth and Variance in Age at Death in Period Life Table
Authors: David A. Swanson, Lucky M. Tedrow
Abstract:Taylor’s Law is a widely observed empirical pattern that relates variances to means in sets of non-negative measurements via an approximate power function, which has found application to human mortality. This study adds to this research by showing that Taylor’s Law leads to a model that reasonably describes the relationship between life expectancy at birth (e0, which also is equal to mean age at death in a life table) and variance at age of death in seven World Bank regional life tables measured at two points in time, 1970 and 2000. Using as a benchmark a non-random sample of four Japanese female life tables covering the period from 1950 to 2004, the study finds that the simple linear model provides reasonably accurate estimates of variance in age at death in a life table from e0, where the latter range from 60.9 to 85.59 years. Employing 2017 life tables from the Human Mortality Database, the simple linear model is used to provide estimates of variance at age in death for six countries, three of which have high e0 values and three of which have lower e0 values. The paper provides a substantive interpretation of Taylor’s Law relative to e0 and concludes by arguing that reasonably accurate estimates of variance in age at death in a period life table can be calculated using this approach, which also can be used where e0 itself is estimated rather than generated through the construction of a life table, a useful feature of the model.
Keywords: empirical pattern, mean age at death in a life table, mean age of a stationary population, stationary populationProcedia PDF Downloads 182
21175 Life-Cycle Cost and Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems (PV/T) in Swedish Single-Family Houses
Authors: Arefeh Hesaraki
Abstract:The application of photovoltaic-thermal hybrids (PVT), which delivers both electricity and heat simultaneously from the same system, has become more popular during the past few years. This study addresses techno-economic and environmental impacts assessment of photovoltaic/thermal systems combined with a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) for three single-family houses located in Stockholm, Sweden. Three case studies were: (1) A renovated building built in 1936, (2) A renovated building built in 1973, and (3) A new building built-in 2013. Two simulation programs of SimaPro 9.1 and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.8 (IDA ICE) were applied to analyze environmental impacts and energy usage, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of the system was evaluated using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback time (DPBT) methods. In addition to cost payback time, the studied PVT system was evaluated using the energy payback time (EPBT) method. EPBT presents the time that is needed for the installed system to generate the same amount of energy which was utilized during the whole lifecycle (fabrication, installation, transportation, and end-of-life) of the system itself. Energy calculation by IDA ICE showed that a 5 m² PVT was sufficient to create a balance between the maximum heat production and the domestic hot water consumption during the summer months for all three case studies. The techno-economic analysis revealed that combining a 5 m² PVT with GSHP in the second case study possess the smallest DPBT and the highest NPV and IRR among the three case studies. It means that DPBTs (IRR) were 10.8 years (6%), 12.6 years (4%), and 13.8 years (3%) for the second, first, and the third case study, respectively. Moreover, environmental assessment of embodied energy during cradle- to- grave life cycle of the studied PVT, including fabrication, delivery of energy and raw materials, manufacture process, installation, transportation, operation phase, and end of life, revealed approximately two years of EPBT in all cases.
Keywords: life-cycle cost, life-cycle assessment, photovoltaic/thermal, IDA ICE, net present valueProcedia PDF Downloads 56
21174 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery
Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft
Abstract:Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.
Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanicsProcedia PDF Downloads 498