Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 622

Search results for: marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002)

622 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin

Abstract:

Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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621 Evaluating the Potential of a Fast Growing Indian Marine Cyanobacterium by Reconstructing and Analysis of a Genome Scale Metabolic Model

Authors: Ruchi Pathania, Ahmad Ahmad, Shireesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria is a promising microbe that can capture and convert atmospheric CO₂ and light into valuable industrial bio-products like biofuels, biodegradable plastics, etc. Among their most attractive traits are faster autotrophic growth, whole year cultivation using non-arable land, high photosynthetic activity, much greater biomass and productivity and easy for genetic manipulations. Cyanobacteria store carbon in the form of glycogen which can be hydrolyzed to release glucose and fermented to form bioethanol or other valuable products. Marine cyanobacterial species are especially attractive for countries with scarcity of freshwater. We recently identified a marine native cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. BDU 130192 which has good growth rate and high level of polyglucans accumulation compared to Synechococcus PCC 7002. In this study, firstly we sequenced the whole genome and the sequences were annotated using the RAST server. Genome scale metabolic model (GSMM) was reconstructed through COBRA toolbox. GSMM is a computational representation of the metabolic reactions and metabolites of the target strain. GSMMs construction through the application of Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), which uses external nutrient uptake rates and estimate steady state intracellular and extracellular reaction fluxes, including maximization of cell growth. The model, which we have named isyn942, includes 942 reactions and 913 metabolites having 831 metabolic, 78 transport and 33 exchange reactions. The phylogenetic tree obtained by BLAST search revealed that the strain was a close relative of Synechococcus PCC 7002. The flux balance analysis (FBA) was applied on the model iSyn942 to predict the theoretical yields (mol product produced/mol CO₂ consumed) for native and non-native products like acetone, butanol, etc. under phototrophic condition by applying metabolic engineering strategies. The reported strain can be a viable strain for biotechnological applications, and the model will be helpful to researchers interested in understanding the metabolism as well as to design metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of various bioproducts.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic model, metabolic engineering

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620 Distribution of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in Southeastern Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Roswati Md. Amin, Nurul Asmera Mudiman, Muhammad Faisal Abd. Rahman, Md-Suffian Idris, Noor Hazwani Mohd Azmi

Abstract:

Distribution of picophytoplankton from two genera, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus at the surface water (0.5m) were observed from coastal to offshore area of the southeastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, for a six day cruise in August 2014 during SouthWest monsoon. The picophytoplankton was divided into two different size fractions (0.7-2.7μm and <0.7 μm) by filtering through GF/D (2.7 μm) and GF/F (0.7 μm) filter papers and counted by using flow cytometer. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus contribute higher at 0.7-2.7μm size range (ca. 90% and 95%, respectively) compared to <0.7 μm (ca. 10% and 5%, respectively). Synechococcus (>52%) dominated the total picophytoplankton compared to Prochlorococcus (<26%) for both size fractions in southeastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Total density (<2.7 μm) of Synechococcus was ranging between 1.72 x104 and 12.57 x104 cells ml-1, while Prochlorococcus varied from 1.50 x104 to 8.62 x104. Both Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus abundance showed a decreasing trend from coastal to offshore.

Keywords: Peninsular Malaysia, prochlorococcus, South China Sea, synechococcus

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619 Human Error Analysis in the USA Marine Accidents Reports

Authors: J. Sánchez-Beaskoetxea

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The analysis of accidents, such as marine accidents, is one of the most useful instruments to avoid future accidents. In the case of marine accidents, from a simple collision of a small boat in a port to the wreck of a gigantic tanker ship, the study of the causes of the accidents is the basis of a great part of the marine international legislation. Some countries have official institutions who investigate all the accidents in which a ship with their flag is involved. In the case of the USA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for these researches. The NTSB, after a deep investigation into each accident, publishes a Marine Accident Report with the possible cause of the accident. This paper analyses all the Marine Accident Reports published by the NTBS and focuses its attention especially in the Human Errors that led to reported accidents. In this research, the different Human Errors made by crew members are cataloged in 10 different groups. After a complete analysis of all the reports, the statistical analysis on the Human Errors typology in marine accidents is presented in order to use it as a tool to avoid the same errors in the future.

Keywords: human error, marine accidents, ship crew, USA

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618 Mapping the Technological Interventions to the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025: Addressing the Marine Plastic Litter at the Marine Tourism Destinations in Indonesia

Authors: Kaisar Akhir, Azhar Slamet

Abstract:

This study aims to provide recommendations for addressing marine plastic litter at the ocean tourism destinations in Indonesia sustainably through technological interventions in the framework of the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. In Indonesia, marine tourism is a rapidly growing economic sector. However, marine tourism destinations are facing a global challenge called marine plastic litter. Marine plastic litter is a threat to those destinations since it has potential impacts on the reduction of marine environmental sustainability, the health of tourists and local communities as well as tourism business income. Since 2018, the Indonesian government has passed and promulgated the National Plan of Action on Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. This national action plan consists of three important key aspects of interventions (i.e., societal effort, technological application, and institutional coordination) and five strategies for addressing marine litter in Indonesia, in particular, to address 70% of marine plastic litter by 2025. The strategies include 1) National movement for raising awareness of stakeholders, 2) Land-based litter management, 3) Litter management at the sea and coasts, 4) Funding mechanism, institutional strengthening, monitoring, and law enforcement, and 5) Research and development. In this study, technological interventions around the world and in Indonesia are reviewed and analyzed on their relevance to the national action plan based on five criteria. As a result, there are twelve kinds of technological interventions recommended to be implemented for addressing marine plastic litter in the marine tourism destinations in Indonesia.

Keywords: marine litter management, marine plastic litter, national action plan, ocean sustainability, ocean tourism destination, technological interventions

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617 Horizon Scanning of Disruptive Technology Trends in Marine for 2030 Horizon

Authors: Jose Gonzalez, Fai Cheng, Ivy Fan

Abstract:

Shipping has a mature and ever expanding worldwide market. The future of the marine industry itself is not only irrevocably linked with the global economic, social, and political landscape; it is also subject to the technological developments in different fields. Some of them may have never been linked to the marine industry before. Companies in the marine sector are getting more dependent on technologies to achieve competitive advantage in an increasing open market. Technologies can be fused across different business functions and geopolitical influences. A successful marine business should be prepared to embrace such potential changes that lie ahead. The present paper intends to articulate long-term marine technology strategies from an industrial perspective. Methodology and current development are introduced. The paper will also provide insight into future technological trends demand for major commercial ship types. It may also assist different stakeholders in tailoring their long-term strategies to achieve a Sea Change and to uncap opportunity.

Keywords: commercial sector, marine, trends, technology

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616 Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana

Authors: Eric K. W. Aikins

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Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. The fishing industry dominated by artisanal marine fishing helps Ghana to meet its fish and protein requirements. Also, it provides employment for most coastal dwellers that depend on fishing as their main economic enterprise. Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are the limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.

Keywords: pair trawling, sargassum, spatio-economic development, sustainable marine fishing

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615 Gender Inequality on Marine Tourism Development in Small Island

Authors: Khodijah Ismail, Elfindri

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Tourism development have many environmental, economically and sociocultural benefits. Small islands have a lot of potential for marine tourism development. But, stereotype gender issues still dominate the social and cultural life of rural communities that have an impact on the gap in benefits of local development. The purpose of this study is to found development strategy concept of marine tourism in small islands gender-based. This study found in the marine tourism development of small islands not involved women, from planning to monitor marine tourism development in small islands. It's affects to the low of socio-economic of women in the coastal village and small islands. This condition is not advantage for sustainable development of marine tourism in small islands. Therefore, strengthening of livelihood assets by gender based through the marine tourism development in small islands is very important to attention, that women can contributed to household welfare, bargaining positioned in social culture was better and increase broad access to local government development policies. To realize it requires the full support of the government and relevant stakeholders through gender empowerment and strengthening of accessibility, connectivity, regulation, and design institution.

Keywords: gender inequality, marine tourism, development, tourism management

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614 System for Monitoring Marine Turtles Using Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

Authors: Luís Pina

Abstract:

The conservation of marine biodiversity keeps ecosystems in balance and ensures the sustainable use of resources. In this context, technological resources have been used for monitoring marine species to allow biologists to obtain data in real-time. There are different mobile applications developed for data collection for monitoring purposes, but these systems are designed to be utilized only on third-generation (3G) phones or smartphones with Internet access and in rural parts of the developing countries, Internet services and smartphones are scarce. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a system to monitor marine turtles using Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD), which users can access through basic mobile phones. The system aims to improve the data collection mechanism and enhance the effectiveness of current systems in monitoring sea turtles using any type of mobile device without Internet access. The system will be able to report information related to the biological activities of marine turtles. Also, it will be used as a platform to assist marine conservation entities to receive reports of illegal sales of sea turtles. The system can also be utilized as an educational tool for communities, providing knowledge and allowing the inclusion of communities in the process of monitoring marine turtles. Therefore, this work may contribute with information to decision-making and implementation of contingency plans for marine conservation programs.

Keywords: GSM, marine biology, marine turtles, unstructured supplementary service data (USSD)

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613 Secondary Metabolites from Turkish Marine-Derived Fungi Hypocrea nigricans

Authors: H. Heydari, B. Konuklugil, P. Proksch

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Marine-derived fungi can produce interesting bioactive secondary metabolites that can be considered the potential for drug development. Turkey is a country of a peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea at the north, the Aegean Sea at the west, and the Mediterranean Sea at the south. Despite the approximately 8400 km of coastline, studies on marine secondary metabolites and their biological activity are limited. In our ongoing search for new natural products with different bioactivities produced by the marine-derived fungi, we have investigated secondary metabolites of Turkish collection of the marine sea slug (Peltodoris atromaculata) associated fungi Hypocrea nigricans collected from Seferihisar in the Egean sea. According to the author’s best knowledge, no study was found on this fungal species in terms of secondary metabolites. Isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Hypocrea nigricans were (isodihydroauroglaucin,tetrahydroauroglaucin and dihydroauroglaucin. The structures of the compounds were established based on an NMR and MS analysis. Structural elucidation of another isolated secondary metabolite/s continues.

Keywords: Hypocrea nigricans, isolation, marine fungi, secondary metabolites

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612 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart

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This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin finite element method, large amplitude, variational method

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611 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

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Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

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610 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty

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Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

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609 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul

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This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

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608 Bioprospecting of Marine Actinobacteria: The Leading Way for Industrially Important Enzymes and Bioactive Natural Products

Authors: Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, William Aalbersberg

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It is well accepted by last 35 years of research and on-going programmes that marine environment harbours abundant and unique biodiversity, which is currently playing as an important source in bioprospecting. It has become apparent that marine microorganisms are lead in the biodiscovery. Among marine organisms, actinobacteria are a target phylum for discovering novel antibiotics against increasing the multi-drug resistant human pathogens because of these taxa representing for novel genera and species. Marine actinomycetes are a proven source of new antibiotic leads and novel enzymes with important industrial applications. A total of 183 streptomycete and 25 non-streptomycete strains were isolated from different marine samples collected from north-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. Among them, 111 isolates displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens and 151 exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Importantly, most of them produced various extracellular enzymes and 58 of them produced exopolysaccharides. Totally eight small bioactive compounds and a thermostable alkaline protease have been purified from a selected strain, Streptomyces fungicidicus. Besides, our on-going studies on non-streptomycete strains (rare actinomycetes) are most likely promising resource for new and unique compounds against current emerging drug-resistant pathogens. We have just recognised the chemical diversity in marine microorganisms. Therefore it is worthwhile to continue the exploration of marine microorganisms for new drug leads, novel enzymes and other bioprospecting research.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, industrial enzymes, marine actinobacteria, microbial metabolites, marine natural products

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607 Inhibition of Sea Urchin and Starfish Embryonic Development by Hexane Extracts from Five Philippine Marine Sponges

Authors: Chona Gelani, Mylene Uy, Keisuke Yasuda, Emi Ohta, Shinji Ohta

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The marine environment is undoubtedly a rich source of diverse organisms that possess bioactive secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities. Marine sponges have since been contributing a wide array of compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical importance. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing and advancing marine natural products research. It aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane extract (H) from the Philippine marine sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata (Rg), Callyspongia sp. (Calsp), Callyspongia aerizusa (Ca), Carteriospongia sp. (Carsp), and Cinachyrella sp. (Cisp) using the eggs of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of the marine sponge hexane extract was determined through its inhibition of starfish and sea urchin embryonic development. After 24 hours, CarspH and RgH inhibited early gastrulation of sea urchin at a minimum concentration of 15.63 and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. CalspH inhibited the early gastrulation of both sea urchin and starfish at 125 μg/mL, whereas CaH halted the morula of sea urchin and early gastrulation of starfish at 250 μg/mL. CispH exhibited relatively weak inhibitory activity on starfish embryogenesis but inhibited the early gastrulation of sea urchin at 250 μg/mL. The results obtained from this study were used as basis for the separation, isolation and purification of the component(s) of the hexane extracts from the five Philippine marine sponges.

Keywords: embryonic development, marine sponge cytotoxicity, Philippine marine sponges, sea urchin and starfish embryogenesis

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606 Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Fungi from Indian Marine Environments: A Possible Alternative for New Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin Microbial Infections

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

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Millions of people worldwide are affected by infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) represent a significant category of infectious disease. Unexpectedly, many pathogens have developed resistance towards current antibiotics and over the time this problem has become more and more serious. All these new problems necessitate the continuous search for novel and alternative antibiotics and antifungals. The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine fungi for their antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. A total of 40 marine samples were collected from west coast and Andaman Island of India and 35 morphologically different marine fungi were isolated using natural sea water medium. Among 35 marine fungi, eight isolates exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain 'D5' was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1 mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process. The results of diversity and antimicrobial activity have increased the scope of finding industrially important marine fungi from Indian marine environments and these organisms could be vital sources for the discovery of pharmaceutically useful molecules.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, antibiotic, marine fungi, skin infections

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605 Optimizing Availability of Marine Knowledge Repository with Cloud-Based Framework

Authors: Ahmad S. Mohd Noor, Emma A. Sirajudin, Nur F. Mat Zain

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Reliability is an important property for knowledge repository system. National Marine Bioinformatics System or NABTICS is a marine knowledge repository portal aimed to provide a baseline for marine biodiversity and a tool for researchers and developers. It is intended to be a large and growing online database and also a metadata system for inputs of research analysis. The trends of present large distributed systems such as Cloud computing are the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. The goal of this research is to make NABTICS a system of greater availability by integrating it with Cloud based Neighbor Replication and Failure Recovery (NRFR). This can be achieved by implementation of NABTICS into distributed environment. As a result, the user can experience minimum downtime while using the system should the server is having a failure. Consequently the online database application is said to be highly available.

Keywords: cloud, availability, distributed system, marine repository, database replication

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604 Assessment of the Root Causes of Marine Debris Problem in Lagos State

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

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The continuously growing quantity of very slow degrading litter deliberately discarded into the coastal waters around Lagos as marine debris is obvious. What is not known is how to tackle this problem to reduce its prevalence and impact on the environment, economy and community. To identify ways of tackling the marine debris problem two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to assess the root causes, the threat posed by marine debris in the coastal waters around Lagos and the efficacy of current instruments, programmes and initiatives that address marine debris in the study areas. The following methods were used: (1) Self-completed questionnaires for households and businesses within the study areas; (2) Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders; (3) Observational studies of waste management from collection to disposal and waste management facilities for waste originating from land and maritime sources; (4) Beach surveys and marine debris surveys on shorelines and ports; and (5) Fishing for marine debris. Results of this study identified the following root causes: (1) Indiscriminate human activities and behaviors, and lack of awareness on the part of the main stakeholders and the public of the potential consequences of their actions; (2) Poor solid waste management practices; (3) Lack of strict legal frameworks addressing waste and marine debris problem; and (4) Disposal of non-degradable wastes into domestic sewer system and open streets drains. To effectively tackle marine debris problem in the study areas, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the above mentioned root causes needs to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: marine debris problem, Lagos state, litter, coastal waters

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603 A Study on Development Strategies of Marine Leisure Tourism Using AHP

Authors: Da-Hye Jang, Woo-Jeong Cho

Abstract:

Marine leisure tourism contributes greatly to the national economy in which the sea is located nearby and many countries are using marine tourism to create value added. The interest and investment of government and local governments on marine leisure tourism growing as a major trend of marine tourism is steadily increasing. But indiscriminate investment in marine leisure tourism such as duplicated business wastes limited resources. In other words, government and local governments need to select and concentrate on the goal they pursue by drawing priority on maritime leisure tourism policies. The purpose of this study is to analyze development strategies on supplier for marine leisure tourism and thus provide a comprehensive and rational framework for developing marine leisure tourism. In order to achieve the purpose, this study is to analyze priorities for each evaluation criterion of marine leisure tourism development policies using Analytic Hierarchy Process. In this study, a questionnaire was used as the survey tool and was developed based on the previous studies, government report, regional report, related thesis and literature for marine leisure tourism. The questionnaire was constructed by verifying the validity of contents from the expert group related to marine leisure tourism after conducting the first and second preliminary surveys. The AHP survey was conducted to experts (university professors, researchers, field specialists and related public officials) from April 6, 2018 to April 30, 2018 by visiting in person or e-mail. This study distributed 123 questionnaires and 68 valid questionnaires were used for data analysis. As a result, 4 factors with 12 detail strategies were analyzed using Excel. Extracted factors of development strategies of marine leisure tourism are consist of 4 factors such as infrastructure, popularization, law & system improvement and advancement. In conclusion, the results of the pairwise comparison of the four major factor on the first class were infrastructure, popularization, law & system improvement and advancement in order. Second, marine water front space maintenance had higher priority than marina facilities expansion and the establishment of marine leisure education center. Third, marine leisure safety·culture improvement had higher priority than strengthening experience·education program and the upkeep and open promotion event. Fourth, specialization·cluster of marine leisure tourism had higher priority than business support system of marine leisure tourism. Fifth, the revision of water-related leisure activities safety act had higher priority than an enactment of marine tourism promotion act and the foster of marina service industry. Finally, marine water front space maintenance was the most important development plan to boost marine leisure tourism.

Keywords: marine leisure tourism, marine leisure, marine tourism, analytic hierarchy process

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602 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo

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The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

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601 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh

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This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: marine sediments, river sediments, physico chemical characterizations, environmental characterizations

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600 A Comparative Study of Black Carbon Emission Characteristics from Marine Diesel Engines Using Light Absorption Method

Authors: Dongguk Im, Gunfeel Moon, Younwoo Nam, Kangwoo Chun

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Recognition of the needs about protecting environment throughout worldwide is widespread. In the shipping industry, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been regulating pollutants emitted from ships by MARPOL 73/78. Recently, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO, at its 68th session, approved the definition of Black Carbon (BC) specified by the following physical properties (light absorption, refractory, insolubility and morphology). The committee also agreed to the need for a protocol for any voluntary measurement studies to identify the most appropriate measurement methods. Filter Smoke Number (FSN) based on light absorption is categorized as one of the IMO relevant BC measurement methods. EUROMOT provided a FSN measurement data (measured by smoke meter) of 31 different engines (low, medium and high speed marine engines) of member companies at the 3rd International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) workshop on marine BC. From the comparison of FSN, the results indicated that BC emission from low speed marine diesel engines was ranged from 0.009 to 0.179 FSN and it from medium and high speed marine diesel engine was ranged 0.012 to 3.2 FSN. In consideration of measured the low FSN from low speed engine, an experimental study was conducted using both a low speed marine diesel engine (2 stroke, power of 7,400 kW at 129 rpm) and a high speed marine diesel engine (4 stroke, power of 403 kW at 1,800 rpm) under E3 test cycle. The results revealed that FSN was ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 and 1.09 to 1.35 for low and high speed engines, respectively. The measurement equipment (smoke meter) ranges from 0 to 10 FSN. Considering measurement range of it, FSN values from low speed engines are near the detection limit (0.002 FSN or ~0.02 mg/m3). From these results, it seems to be modulated the measurement range of the measurement equipment (smoke meter) for enhancing measurement accuracy of marine BC and evaluation on performance of BC abatement technologies.

Keywords: black carbon, filter smoke number, international maritime organization, marine diesel engine (two and four stroke), particulate matter

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599 Radioactive Contamination by ¹³⁷Cs in Marine Sediments Taken up from Cuba's North and South Coast

Authors: Marisé García Batlle, Juan Manuel Navarrete Tejero

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In aquatic ecosystems, the main indicators of pollution are contaminated sediments, which are the primary repository of radionuclides and chemicals elements in the marine environment. Radioactive Contamination Factor (RCF) has been proposed as a suitable unit to measure the magnitude of radioactive contamination at global scale, caused mainly by more than 2,000 nuclear explosions tests performed during the 1945-65 period. It is obtained as percentage of contaminant radioactivity (¹³⁷Cs) compared to natural radioactivity (⁴⁰K), both expressed in Bq/g of marine sediments conditioned in Marinelli containers and detected in both NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. So, in this paper samples of marine sediments were taken up along the occidental Cuban coasts and analyzed by gamma spectrometry for the determination of gamma-emitting radioisotopes with energies between 60 and 2000 keV. The results proved that the proposed method is simple and suitable to evaluated radioactive contamination. Also, the RCF values provide an appropriate indicator to predict which pollution levels in the future will be and if the rate will go down as disintegrates the ¹³⁷Cs present when only 2,4 half-lives have passed away.

Keywords: Cuba, gamma spectrometry, marine sediments, radioactive pollution

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598 Genetic Instabilities in Marine Bivalve Following Benzo(α)pyrene Exposure: Utilization of Combined Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Comet Assay

Authors: Mengjie Qu, Yi Wang, Jiawei Ding, Siyu Chen, Yanan Di

Abstract:

Marine ecosystem is facing intensified multiple stresses caused by environmental contaminants from human activities. Xenobiotics, such as benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) have been discharged into marine environment and cause hazardous impacts on both marine organisms and human beings. As a filter-feeder, marine mussels, Mytilus spp., has been extensively used to monitor the marine environment. However, their genomic alterations induced by such xenobiotics are still kept unknown. In the present study, gills, as the first defense barrier in mussels, were selected to evaluate the genetic instability alterations induced by the exposure to BaP both in vivo and in vitro. Both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and comet assay were applied as the rapid tools to assess the environmental stresses due to their low money- and time-consumption. All mussels were identified to be the single species of Mytilus coruscus before used in BaP exposure at the concentration of 56 μg/l for 1 & 3 days (in vivo exposure) or 1 & 3 hours (in vitro). Both RAPD and comet assay results were showed significantly increased genomic instability with time-specific altering pattern. After the recovery period in 'in vivo' exposure, the genomic status was as same as control condition. However, the relative higher genomic instabilities were still observed in gill cells after the recovery from in vitro exposure condition. Different repair mechanisms or signaling pathway might be involved in the isolated gill cells in the comparison with intact tissues. The study provides the robust and rapid techniques to exam the genomic stability in marine organisms in response to marine environmental changes and provide basic information for further mechanism research in stress responses in marine organisms.

Keywords: genotoxic impacts, in vivo/vitro exposure, marine mussels, RAPD and comet assay

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597 Marine Environmental Peace-Building Initiatives: Factors of Success and Failure

Authors: Yael Teff-Seker

Abstract:

More often than not, ecosystems do not follow anthropogenic political borders. Thus, transboundary environmental protection or rehabilitation initiatives can be beneficial and at times even vital for supporting healthy ecosystems. Marine areas demand unique considerations and challenges for such initiatives, as maritime borders tend to be less defined, less fortified and less visible. In areas of recent conflict, cross-border environmental initiatives can also improve relations between states and promote peace-building efforts, in addition to their environmental benefits. The current study reviews the current literature on transboundary marine environmental protection initiatives that take place in these areas and focuses on joint initiatives in Israel-Jordan and Croatia-Slovenia. In addition to factors described in the literature such as funding and third-party involvement, findings suggest that the peripheral location of marine environmental initiatives can be beneficial for the success of such initiatives, as well as facilitating border crossing and the extent to which such initiatives advance other governmental goals. A sense of urgency, environmental or other, has also been found to be highly relevant to project success.

Keywords: environmental cooperation, environmental peacebuilding, marine environment, environmental conflict, environmental management

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596 Operational Challenges of Marine Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Structures Coupled with Piezoelectric Transducers

Authors: H. Ucar, U. Aridogan

Abstract:

Composite structures become intriguing for the design of aerospace, automotive and marine applications due to weight reduction, corrosion resistance and radar signature reduction demands and requirements. Studies on piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PZT) for diagnostics and health monitoring have gained attention for their sensing capabilities, however PZT structures are prone to fail in case of heavy operational loads. In this paper, we develop a piezo-based Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite finite element (FE) model, validate with experimental setup, and identify the applicability and limitations of PZTs for a marine application. A case study is conducted to assess the piezo-based sensing capabilities in a representative marine composite structure. A FE model of the composite structure combined with PZT patches is developed, afterwards the response and functionality are investigated according to the sea conditions. Results of this study clearly indicate the blockers and critical aspects towards industrialization and wide-range use of PZTs for marine composite applications.

Keywords: FRP composite, operational challenges, piezoelectric transducers, FE modeling

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595 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance

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594 Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller

Authors: K. Boumediene, S. E. Belhenniche

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.

Keywords: propeller flow, CFD simulation, RANS, hydrodynamic performance

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593 Community Assemblages of Reef Fishes in Marine Sanctuary and Non-Marine Sanctuary Areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Homer Hermes De Dios, Dewoowoogen Baclayon

Abstract:

The community assemblages of reef fishes was conducted in ten marine sanctuaries and ten non-marine sanctuary areas in Sogod Bay, Southern Leyte, Philippines from 2014-2015. A total of 223 species belonging to 39 families of reef fishes in Sogod Bay were recorded. Family Pomacentridae (e.g. damsel fishes) has the highest number of species (42), followed by Labridae or wrasses (27), Chaetodonthidae or butterfly fish (22), Scaridae or parrotfishes (17), and Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes) and Pomacanthidae (angelfishes) both with 10 species. Two of the recorded fish species were included in the IUCN Red List, wherein one is near threatened (Chlorurus bowersi) and the other is endangered species (Cheilinus undulatus). The mean total fish biomass (target + indicator + major or other fish) in MPA was significantly higher (13,468 g/500m2 or equivalent to 26.94 mt/km2) than Non-MPA with 7,408 g/500m2 or 15,216mt/km2 in Non-MPA. The mean total fish biomass in MPAs in Sogod Bay can be categorized as high (21-40 mt/km2) with minimal fishing and medium or slightly moderately fished (11-20 mt/km2) in Non-MPAs. The mean (±SE) biomass of target fishes was significantly higher in MPA than Non-MPA and differ significantly across two depths. The target fish biomass was significantly higher in Limasawa Marine Sanctuary (13,569 g/500m2) followed by Lungsodaan Marine Sanctuary in Padre Burgos (11,884 g/500m2) and the lowest was found in San Isidro (735 g/500m2). The mean total fish density (target + indicator + major or other fish) did not differ between Marine Protected area (607.912 fishes/500m2 or 1215.824 fishes/1000m2) and 525.937 fishes/500m2 in non-Marine Protected Area and can be categorized as moderate (667-2267mt/km2). The mean density of target fishes was significantly (p=0.022) higher in deeper areas (12-15m) than in shallow areas but did not differ significantly between MPAs and Non-MPA. No significant difference of the biomass and density for indicator and other fishes in MPAs and Non-MPAs.

Keywords: abundance, density, species richness, target fish, coral reef management

Procedia PDF Downloads 173