Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: Seung Un Chae

172 Preliminary Study of Human Reliability of Control in Case of Fire Based on the Decision Processes and Stress Model of Human in a Fire

Authors: Seung-Un Chae, Heung-Yul Kim, Sa-Kil Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of preliminary study on human control performance in case of fire. The relationship between human control and human decision is studied in decision processes and stress model of human in a fire. Human behavior aspects involved in the decision process during a fire incident. The decision processes appear that six of individual perceptual processes: recognition, validation, definition, evaluation, commitment, and reassessment. Then, human may be stressed in order to get an optimal decision for their activity. This paper explores problems in human control processes and stresses in a catastrophic situation. Thus, the future approach will be concerned to reduce stresses and ambiguous irrelevant information.

Keywords: human reliability, decision processes, stress model, fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
171 PSRR Enhanced LDO Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit

Authors: Min-ju Kwon, Chae-won Kim, Jeong-yun Seo, Hee-guk Chae, Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR (Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2 dB at 1k Hz, -45.85 dB at 1 MHz and -45 dB at 10 MHz. the other performance of the proposed LDO was maintained at the same level of the conventional LDO regulator.

Keywords: LDO regulator, noise sensing circuit, current reference, pass transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
170 Evaluation of the Fire Propagation Characteristics of Thermoplastics

Authors: Ji-Hun Choi, Kyoung-Suk Cho, Seung-Un Chae

Abstract:

Consisting of organic compounds, plastic ignites easily and burns fast. In addition, a large amount of toxic gas is produced while it is burning. When plastic is heated, its volume decreases because its surface is melted. The decomposition of its molecular bond generates combustible liquid of low viscosity, which accelerates plastic combustion and spreads the flames. Radiant heat produced in the process propagates the fire to increase the risk of human and property damages. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify chemical, thermal and combustion characteristics of thermoplastic plastics using the fire propagation apparatus based on experimental criteria of ISO 12136 and ASTM E 2058. By the experiment result, as the ignition time increased, the thermal response parameter (TRP) decreased and as the TRP increased, the slope decreased. In other words, the large the TRP was, the longer the time taken for heating and ignition of the material was. It was identified that the fire propagation speed dropped accordingly.

Keywords: fire propagation apparatus (FPA), ISO 12136, thermal response parameter (TRP), fire propagation index (FPI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
169 Viscoelastic Cell Concentration in a High Aspect Ratio Microchannel Using a Non-Powered Air Compressor

Authors: Jeonghun Nam, Seonggil Kim, Hyunjoo Choi, Chae Seung Lim

Abstract:

Quantification and analysis of rare cells are challenging in clinical applications and cell biology due to its extremely small number in blood. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic microfluidic device for continuous cell concentration without sheath flows. Due to the viscoelastic effect on suspending cells, cells with the blockage ratio higher than 0.1 could be tightly focused at the center of the microchannel. The blockage ratio was defined as the particle diameter divided by the channel width. Finally, cells were concentrated through the center outlet and the additional suspending medium was removed to the side outlets. Since viscoelastic focusing is insensitive to the flow rate higher than 10 μl/min, the non-powered hand pump sprayer could be used with no accurate control of the flow rate, which is suitable for clinical settings in resource-limited developing countries. Using multiple concentration processes, high-throughput concentration of white blood cells in lysed blood sample was achieved by ~ 300-fold.

Keywords: cell concentration, high-throughput, non-powered, viscoelastic fluid

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168 Viscoelastic Separation and Concentration of Candida Using a Low Aspect Ratio Microchannel

Authors: Seonggil Kim, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim

Abstract:

Rapid diagnosis of fungal infections is critical for rapid antifungal therapy. However, it is difficult to detect extremely low concentration fungi in blood sample. To address the limitation, separation and concentration of fungi in blood sample are required to enhance the sensitivity of PCR analysis. In this study, we demonstrated a sheathless separation and concentration of fungi, candida cells using a viscoelastic fluid. To validate the performance of the device, microparticle mixture (2 and 13 μm) was used, and those particles were successfully separated based on the size difference at high flow rate of 100 μl/min. For the final application, successful separation of the Candida cells from the white blood cells (WBCs) was achieved. Based on the viscoelastic lateral migration toward the equilibrium position, Candida cells were separated and concentrated by center focusing, while WBCs were removed by patterning into two streams between the channel center and the sidewalls. By flow cytometric analysis, the separation efficiency and the purity were evaluated as ~99% and ~ 97%, respectively. From the results, the device can be the powerful tool for detecting extremely rare disease-related cells.

Keywords: candida cells, concentration, separation, viscoelastic fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
167 Evaluation of Shock Sensitivity of Nano-Scaled 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazacyclohexane Using Small Scale Gap Test

Authors: Kang-In Lee, Woo-Jin Lee, Keun-Deuk Lee, Ju-Seung Chae

Abstract:

In this study, small scale gap test (SSGT) was performed to measure shock sensitivity of nano-scaled 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) samples. The shock sensitivity of energetic materials is usually evaluated by the method of large-scale gap test (LSGT) that has a higher reliability than other methods. But LSGT has the disadvantage that it takes a high cost and time by using a large amount of explosive. In this experiment, nano-scaled RDX samples were prepared by spray crystallization in two different drying methods. In addition, 30μm RDX sample produced by precipitation crystallization and 5μm RDX sample produced by fluid energy mill process were tested to compare shock sensitivity. The study of shock sensitivity measured by small-scale gap test shows that small sized RDX particles have greater insensitivity. As a result, we infer SSGT method has higher reliability compared to the literature as measurement of shock sensitivity of energetic materials.

Keywords: nano-scaled RDX, SSGT(small scale gap test), shock sensitivity, RDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
166 Lamb Wave-Based Blood Coagulation Measurement System Using Citrated Plasma

Authors: Hyunjoo Choi, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim

Abstract:

Acoustomicrofluidics has gained much attention due to the advantages, such as noninvasiveness and easy integration with other miniaturized systems, for clinical and biological applications. However, a limitation of acoustomicrofluidics is the complicated and costly fabrication process of electrodes. In this study, we propose a low-cost and lithography-free device using Lamb wave for blood analysis. Using a Lamb wave, calcium ion-removed blood plasma and coagulation reagents can be rapidly mixed for blood coagulation test. Due to the coagulation process, the viscosity of the sample increases and the viscosity change can be monitored by internal acoustic streaming of microparticles suspended in the sample droplet. When the acoustic streaming of particles stops by the viscosity increase is defined as the coagulation time. With the addition of calcium ion at 0-25 mM, the coagulation time was measured and compared with the conventional index for blood coagulation analysis, prothrombin time, which showed highly correlated with the correlation coefficient as 0.94. Therefore, our simple and cost-effective Lamb wave-based blood analysis device has the powerful potential to be utilized in clinical settings.

Keywords: acoustomicrofluidics, blood analysis, coagulation, lamb wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
165 A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test

Authors: Ji Hun Choi, Seung Un Chae, Kyeong Suk Cho

Abstract:

Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.

Keywords: synthetic resins, fire test, full-scale test, heat release rate, smoke production rate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, urethane

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164 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim

Abstract:

In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: distribution, renewable, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

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163 The Effect of Foot Progression Angle on Human Lower Extremity

Authors: Sungpil Ha, Ju Yong Kang, Sangbaek Park, Seung-Ju Lee, Soo-Won Chae

Abstract:

The growing number of obese patients in aging societies has led to an increase in the number of patients with knee medial osteoarthritis (OA). Artificial joint insertion is the most common treatment for knee medial OA. Surgery is effective for patients with serious arthritic symptoms, but it is costly and dangerous. It is also inappropriate way to prevent a disease as an early stage. Therefore Non-operative treatments such as toe-in gait are proposed recently. Toe-in gait is one of non-surgical interventions, which restrain the progression of arthritis and relieves pain by reducing knee adduction moment (KAM) to facilitate lateral distribution of load on to knee medial cartilage. Numerous studies have measured KAM in various foot progression angle (FPA), and KAM data could be obtained by motion analysis. However, variations in stress at knee cartilage could not be directly observed or evaluated by these experiments of measuring KAM. Therefore, this study applied motion analysis to major gait points (1st peak, mid –stance, 2nd peak) with regard to FPA, and to evaluate the effects of FPA on the human lower extremity, the finite element (FE) method was employed. Three types of gait analysis (toe-in, toe-out, baseline gait) were performed with markers placed at the lower extremity. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were obtained by the force plates. The forces associated with the major muscles were computed using GRF and marker trajectory data. MRI data provided by the Visible Human Project were used to develop a human lower extremity FE model. FE analyses for three types of gait simulations were performed based on the calculated muscle force and GRF. We observed the maximum stress point during toe-in gait was lower than the other types, by comparing the results of FE analyses at the 1st peak across gait types. This is the same as the trend exhibited by KAM, measured through motion analysis in other papers. This indicates that the progression of knee medial OA could be suppressed by adopting toe-in gait. This study integrated motion analysis with FE analysis. One advantage of this method is that re-modeling is not required even with changes in posture. Therefore another type of gait simulation or various motions of lower extremity can be easily analyzed using this method.

Keywords: finite element analysis, gait analysis, human model, motion capture

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162 A Study on Human Musculoskeletal Model for Cycle Fitting: Comparison with EMG

Authors: Yoon- Ho Shin, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Joo-Hack Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

It is difficult to study the effect of various variables on cycle fitting through actual experiment. To overcome such difficulty, the forward dynamics of a musculoskeletal model was applied to cycle fitting in this study. The measured EMG data were compared with the muscle activities of the musculoskeletal model through forward dynamics. EMG data were measured from five cyclists who do not have musculoskeletal diseases during three minutes pedaling with a constant load (150 W) and cadence (90 RPM). The muscles used for the analysis were the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Bicep Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Medial (GM). Person’s correlation coefficients of the muscle activity patterns, the peak timing of the maximum muscle activities, and the total muscle activities were calculated and compared. BIKE3D model of AnyBody (Anybodytech, Denmark) was used for the musculoskeletal model simulation. The comparisons of the actual experiments with the simulation results showed significant correlations in the muscle activity patterns (VL: 0.789, TA: 0.503, BF: 0.468, GM: 0.670). The peak timings of the maximum muscle activities were distributed at particular phases. The total muscle activities were compared with the normalized muscle activities, and the comparison showed about 10% difference in the VL (+10%), TA (+9.7%), and BF (+10%), excluding the GM (+29.4%). Thus, it can be concluded that muscle activities of model & experiment showed similar results. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to apply the simulation of further improved musculoskeletal model to cycle fitting.

Keywords: musculoskeletal modeling, EMG, cycle fitting, simulation

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161 The Effects of Inferior Tilt Fixation on a Glenoid Components in Reverse Shoulder-Arthroplasty

Authors: Soo Min Kim, Soo-Won Chae, Soung-Yon Kim, Haea Lee, Ju Yong Kang, Juneyong Lee, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become an effective treatment option for cuff tear arthropathy and massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears and indications for its use are expanding. Numerous methods for optimal fixation of the glenoid component have been suggested, such as inferior overhang, inferior tilt, to maximize initial fixation and prevent glenoid component loosening. The inferior tilt fixation of a glenoid component has been suggested, which is expected to decrease scapular notching and to improve the stability of a glenoid component fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component has been suggested, which can improve stability and, because it provides the most uniform compressive forces and imparts the least amount of tensile forces and micromotion, reduce the likelihood of mechanical failure. Another study reported that glenoid component inferior tilt improved impingement-free range of motion as well as minimized the scapular notching. Several authors have shown that inferior tilt of a glenoid component reduces scapular notching. However, controversy still exists regarding its importance in the literature. In this study the influence of inferior tilt fixation on the primary stability of a glenoid component has been investigated. Finite element models were constructed from cadaveric scapulae and glenoid components were implanted with neutral and 10° inferior tilts. Most previous biomechanical studies regarding the effect of glenoid component inferior tilt used a solid rigid polyurethane foam or sawbones block, not cadaveric scapulae, to evaluate the stability of the RTSA. Relative micromotions at the bone-glenoid component interface, and the distribution of bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were analyzed and compared between neutral and 10° inferior tilt groups. Contact area between bone and screws and cut surface area of the cancellous bone exposed after reaming of the glenoid have also been investigated because of the fact that cancellous and cortical bone thickness vary depending on the resection level of the inferior glenoid bone. The greater relative micromotion of the bone-glenoid component interface occurred in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior area of the bone-glenoid component interface. Bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were also higher in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior third of the glenoid bone surface under the glenoid component and inferior scapula. Thus inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component may adversely affect the primary stability and longevity of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

Keywords: finite element analysis, glenoid component, inferior tilt, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
160 Characteristics and Feature Analysis of PCF Labeling among Construction Materials

Authors: Sung-mo Seo, Chang-u Chae

Abstract:

The Product Carbon Footprint Labeling has been run for more than four years by the Ministry of Environment and there are number of products labeled by KEITI, as for declaring products with their carbon emission during life cycle stages. There are several categories for certifying products by the characteristics of usage. Building products which are applied to a building as combined components. In this paper, current status of PCF labeling has been compared with LCI DB for data composition. By this comparative analysis, we suggest carbon labeling development.

Keywords: carbon labeling, LCI DB, building materials, life cycle assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
159 A Project Screening System for Energy Enterprise Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: Woosik Jang, Seung Heon Han, Seung Won Baek

Abstract:

Natural gas (NG) is an energy resource in a few countries, and most NG producers do business in politically unstable countries. In addition, as 90% of the LNG market is controlled by a small number of international oil companies (IOCs) and national oil companies (NOCs), entry of latecomers into the market is extremely limited. To meet these challenges, project viability needs to be assessed based on limited information from a project screening perspective. However, the early stages of the project have the following difficulties: (1) What are the factors to consider? (2) How many professionals do you need to decide? (3) How to make the best decision with limited information? To address this problem, this study proposes a model for evaluating LNG project viability based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST). A total of 11 indicators for analyzing the gas field, reflecting the characteristics of the LNG industry, and 23 indicators for analyzing the market environment, were identified. The proposed model also evaluates the LNG project based on the survey and provides uncertainty of the results based on DST as well as quantified results. Thus, the proposed model is expected to be able to support the decision-making process of the gas field project using quantitative results as a systematic framework, and it was developed as a stand-alone system to improve its usefulness in practice. Consequently, the amount of information and the mathematical approach are expected to improve the quality and opportunity of decision making for LNG projects for enterprises.

Keywords: project screen, energy enterprise, decision support system, Dempster-Shafer theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
158 Energy Enterprise Information System for Strategic Decision-Making

Authors: Woosik Jang, Seung H. Han, Seung Won Baek, Chan Young Park

Abstract:

Natural gas (NG) is a local energy resource that exists in certain countries, and most NG producers operate within unstable governments. Moreover, about 90% of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market is governed by a small number of international oil companies (IOCs) and national oil companies (NOCs), market entry of second movers is extremely limited. To overcome these barriers, project viability should be assessed based on limited information at the project screening perspective. However, there have been difficulties at the early stages of projects as follows: (1) What factors should be considered? (2) How many experts are needed to make a decision? and (3) How to make an optimal decision with limited information? To answer these questions, this research suggests a LNG project viability assessment model based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST). Total of 11 indices for the gas field analysis and 23 indices for the market environment analysis are identified that reflect unique characteristics of LNG industry. Moreover, the proposed model evaluates LNG projects based on questionnaire survey and it provides not only quantified results but also uncertainty level of results based on DST. Consequently, the proposed model as a systematic framework can support the decision-making process from the gas field projects using quantitative results, and it is developed to a stand-alone system to enhance the practical usability. It is expected to improve the decision-making quality and opportunity in LNG projects for enterprise through informed decision.

Keywords: project viability, LNG project, enterprise information system, Dempster-Shafer Theory, strategic decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
157 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
156 A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Space-time transmission, cooperative communication system, MIMO.

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
155 Functional Aspects of Carbonic Anhydrase

Authors: Bashistha Kumar Kanth, Seung Pil Pack

Abstract:

Carbonic anhydrase is ubiquitously distributed in organisms, and is fundamental to many eukaryotic biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, CO2 and ion transport, calcification and acid–base balance. However, CA occurs across the spectrum of prokaryotic metabolism in both the archaea and bacteria domains and many individual species contain more than one class. In this review, various roles of CA involved in cellular mechanism are presented to find out the CA functions applicable for industrial use.

Keywords: carbonic anhydrase, mechanism, CO2 sequestration, respiration

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154 Development of a System for Measuring the Three-axis Pedal Force in Cycling and Its Applications

Authors: Joo-Hack Lee, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

For cycling, the analysis of the pedal force is one of the important factors in the study of exercise ability assessment and overuse injuries. In past studies, a two-axis measurement sensor was used at the sagittal plane to measure the force only in the anterior, posterior, and vertical directions and to analyze the loss of force and the injury on the frontal plane due to the forces in the right and left directions. In this study, which is a basic study on diverse analyses of the pedal force that consider the forces on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane, a three-axis pedal force measurement sensor was developed to measure the anterior-posterior (Fx), medio-lateral (Fz), and vertical (Fy) forces. The sensor was fabricated with a size and shape similar to those of the general flat pedal, and had a 550g weight that allowed smooth pedaling. Its measurement range was ±1000 N for Fx and Fz and ±2000 N for Fy, and its non-linearity, hysteresis, and repeatability were approximately 0.5%. The data were sampled at 1000 Hz using a signal collector. To use the developed sensor, the pedaling efficiency (index of efficiency, IE) and the range of left and right (medio-lateral, ML) forces were measured with two seat heights (low and high). The results of the measurement showed that the IE was higher and the force range in the ML direction was lower with the high position than with the low position. The developed measurement sensor and its application results will be useful in understanding and explaining the complicated pedaling technique, and will enable diverse kinematic analyses of the pedal force on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane.

Keywords: cycling, pedal force, index of effectiveness, measuring

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153 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm

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152 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles and Their Contribution to the Thin Film and Nanowire Growth during Chemical Vapour Deposition

Authors: Seung-Min Yang, Seong-Han Park, Sang-Hoon Lee, Seung-Wan Yoo, Chan-Soo Kim, Nong-Moon Hwang

Abstract:

The theory of charged nanoparticles suggested that in many Chemical Vapour Depositions (CVD) processes, Charged Nanoparticles (CNPs) are generated in the gas-phase and become a building block of thin films and nanowires. Recently, the nanoparticle-based crystallization has become a big issue since the growth of nanorods or crystals by the building block of nanoparticles was directly observed by transmission electron microscopy observations in the liquid cell. In an effort to confirm charged gas-phase nuclei, that might be generated under conventional processing conditions of thin films and nanowires during CVD, we performed an in-situ measurement using differential mobility analyser and particle beam mass spectrometer. The size distribution and number density of CNPs were affected by process parameters such as precursor flow rate and working temperature. It was shown that many films and nanostructures, which have been believed to grow by individual atoms or molecules, actually grow by the building blocks of such charged nuclei. The electrostatic interaction between CNPs and the growing surface induces the self-assembly into films and nanowires. In addition, the charge-enhanced atomic diffusion makes CNPs liquid-like quasi solid. As a result, CNPs tend to land epitaxial on the growing surface, which results in the growth of single crystalline nanowires with a smooth surface.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged nanoparticle, electrostatic force, nanostructure evolution, differential mobility analyser, particle beam mass spectrometer

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151 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

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150 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

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149 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM

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148 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
147 Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen

Authors: Chae Hoon Park, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.

Keywords: electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen, iterative extraction, lumped RC model, physical lengths of channel paths

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
146 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based on ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol

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145 An Improved Transmission Scheme in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently developed cooperative diversity scheme enables a terminal to get transmit diversity through the support of other terminals. However, most of the introduced cooperative schemes have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In order to achieve high data rate, we propose a cooperative scheme that employs hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: cooperative communication, hierarchical modulation, high data rate, transmission scheme

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144 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

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143 Development of Verification System of Workspace Clashes Between Construction Activities

Authors: Hyeon-Seung Kim, Sang-Mi Park, Min-Seo Kim, Jong-Myeung Shin, Leen-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Recently, the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in public construction works has become mandatory in some countries and it is anticipated that BIM will be applied to the actual field of civil engineering projects. However, the BIM system is still focused on the architectural project and the design phase. Because the civil engineering project is linear type project and is focused on the construction phase comparing with architectural project, 3D simulation is difficult to visualize them. This study suggests a method and a prototype system to solve workspace conflictions among construction activities using BIM simulation tool.

Keywords: BIM, workspace, confliction, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 242