Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2505

Search results for: soil erosion

2505 Stabilization of Sandy Soil Against Internal Erosion Using Lime

Authors: Shaziya Banu, and Mousa Attom


This paper Investigate the use of lime to stabilize Sandy soil against internal erosion. Well-graded sand was selected, and different percentages of lime were added with 1% increment by dry weight of soil. Specimen were prepared at optimum moisture content and 95% relative compaction. Hole Erosion Test (HET) was performed on specimens at1 day, 2 days, and 7 days curing time from the time of preparation, and soil erosion parameters were evaluated. The results proved that lime could be used as an effective Stabilization agent against internal erosion of sandy soil. The addition of just 3.0% of lime by dry weight of sand lead to a substantial reduction in the erosion rate, and the Erosion Rate Index (IHET) improved from 3.69 (moderately rapid erosion rate) at0% of the lime to 5.70(very slow erosion rate)at 3% of lime. Additionally, 2 days curing time was concluded to be the optimum time for stabilization.

Keywords: internal erosion, soil stabilization, sand, erosion rate index

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2504 The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)

Authors: George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Paschalis Koutalakis, Konstantinos Ioannou, Ioannis Kosmadakis, Panagiotis Tsardaklis, Theodoros Laopoulos


The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of an innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholder's and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.

Keywords: soil management, climate change, new technologies, conservation practices

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2503 Investigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion: A Case Study of Kasilian Watershed, Northern Iran

Authors: Mohammad Zare, Mahbubeh Sheikh


Many of the impact of climate change will material through change in soil erosion which were rarely addressed in Iran. This paper presents an investigation of the impacts of climate change soil erosin for the Kasilian basin. LARS-WG5 was used to downscale the IPCM4 and GFCM21 predictions of the A2 scenarios for the projected periods of 1985-2030 and 2080-2099. This analysis was carried out by means of the dataset the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) of Trieste. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Results indicate that soil erosion increase or decrease, depending on which climate scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods.

Keywords: Kasilian watershed, climatic change, soil erosion, LARS-WG5 Model, RUSLE

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2502 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity

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2501 Reviewing Soil Erosion in Greece

Authors: Paschalis Koutalakis, George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Konstantinos Ioannou


Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, scientific publications related to soil erosion studies in Greece were reviewed and categorized. To accomplish this, the online search engine of Scopus was used. The key words were “soil”, “erosion” and “Greece.” An analysis of the published articles was conducted at three levels: i) type of publication, ii) chronologic and iii) thematic. A hundred and ten publications published in scientific journals were reviewed. The results showed that the awareness regarding the soil erosion in Greece has increased only in the last decades. The publications covered a wide range of thematic categories such as the type of studied areas, the physical phenomena that trigger and influence the soil erosion, the negative anthropogenic impacts on them, the assessment tools that were used in order to examine the threat and the proper management. The analysis of these articles was significant and necessary in order to find the scientific gaps of soil erosion studies in Greece and help enhance the sustainability of soil management in the future.

Keywords: climate change, agricultural sustainability, environmental sustainability, soil management

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2500 Towards a Quantification of the Wind Erosion of the Gharb Shoreline Soils in Morocco by the Application of a Mathematical Model

Authors: Mohammed Kachtali, Imad Fenjiro, Jamal Alkarkouri


Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Indeed, wind erosion easily removes the finest particles of the soil surface, which also contribute to losing soil fertility. The siltation of infrastructures and cultivated areas and the negative impact on health are additional consequences of wind erosion. In Morocco, wind erosion constitutes the main factor of silting up in coast and Sahara. The aim of our study is to use an equation of wind erosion in order to estimate the soil loses by wind erosion in the coast of Gharb (North of Morocco). The used equation in our model includes the geographic data, climatic data of 30 years and edaphic data collected from area study which contained 11 crossing of 4 stations. Our results have shown that the values of wind erosion are higher and very different between some crossings (p < 0.001). This difference is explained by topography, soil texture, and climate. In conclusion, wind erosion is higher in Gharb coast and varies from station to another; this problem required several methods of control and mitigation.

Keywords: Gharb coast, modeling, silting, wind erosion

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2499 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra


A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

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2498 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement

Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi


Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.

Keywords: erosion control, soil confinement, soil erosion, slope stability

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2497 Assessments of Internal Erosion in a Landfill Due to Changes in the Groundwater Level

Authors: Siamak Feizi, Gunvor Baardvik


Soil erosion has special consequences for landfills that are more serious than those found at conventional construction sites. Different potential heads between two sides of a landfill and the subsequent movement of water through pores within the soil body could trigger the soil erosion and construction instability. Such a condition was encountered in a landfill project in the southern part of Norway. To check the risk of internal erosion due to changes in the groundwater level (because of seasonal flooding in the river), a series of numerical simulations by means of Geo-Seep software was conducted. Output of this study provides a total picture of the landfill stability, possibilities of erosions, and necessary measures to prevent or reduce the risk for the landfill operator.

Keywords: erosion, seepage, landfill, stability

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2496 Developing a Web GIS Tool for the Evaluation of Soil Erosion of a Watershed

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur


The soil erosion by water has become one of the biggest problems of the environment in the world, threatening the majority of countries. There are several models to evaluate erosion. These models are still a simplified representation of reality. They permit the analysis of complex systems, measurements are complementary to allow an extrapolation in time and space and may combine different factors. The empirical model of soil loss proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (Universal Soil Loss Equation), is widely used in many countries. He considers that erosion is a multiplicative function of five factors: rainfall erosivity (the R factor) the soil erodibility factor (K), topography (LS), the erosion control practices (P) and vegetation cover and agricultural practices (C). In this work, we tried to develop a tool based on Web GIS functionality to evaluate soil losses caused by erosion taking into account five factors. This tool allows the user to integrate all the data needed for the evaluation (DEM, Land use, rainfall ...) in the form of digital layers to calculate the five factors taken into account in the USLE equation (R, K, C, P, LS). Accordingly, and after treatment of the integrated data set, a map of the soil losses will be achieved as a result. We tested the proposed tool on a watershed basin located in the weste of Algeria where a dataset was collected and prepared.

Keywords: USLE, erosion, web gis, Algeria

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2495 Estimation of Soil Erosion Potential in Herat Province, Afghanistan

Authors: M. E. Razipoor, T. Masunaga, K. Sato, M. S. Saboory


Estimation of soil erosion is economically and environmentally important in Herat, Afghanistan. Degradation of soil has negative impact (decreased soil fertility, destroyed soil structure, and consequently soil sealing and crusting) on life of Herat residents. Water and wind are the main erosive factors causing soil erosion in Herat. Furthermore, scarce vegetation cover, exacerbated by socioeconomic constraint, and steep slopes accelerate soil erosion. To sustain soil productivity and reduce soil erosion impact on human life, due to sustaining agricultural production and auditing the environment, it is needed to quantify the magnitude and extent of soil erosion in a spatial domain. Thus, this study aims to estimate soil loss potential and its spatial distribution in Herat, Afghanistan by applying RUSLE in GIS environment. The rainfall erosivity factor ranged between values of 125 and 612 (MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1). Soil erodibility factor varied from 0.036 to 0.073 (Mg h MJ-1 mm-1). Slope length and steepness factor (LS) values were between 0.03 and 31.4. The vegetation cover factor (C), derived from NDVI analysis of Landsat-8 OLI scenes, resulting in range of 0.03 to 1. Support practice factor (P) were assigned to a value of 1, since there is not significant mitigation practices in the study area. Soil erosion potential map was the product of these factors. Mean soil erosion rate of Herat Province was 29 Mg ha-1 year-1 that ranged from 0.024 Mg ha-1 year-1 in flat areas with dense vegetation cover to 778 Mg ha-1 year-1 in sharp slopes with high rainfall but least vegetation cover. Based on land cover map of Afghanistan, areas with soil loss rate higher than soil loss tolerance (8 Mg ha-1 year-1) occupies 98% of Forests, 81% rangelands, 64% barren lands, 60% rainfed lands, 28% urban area and 18% irrigated Lands.

Keywords: Afghanistan, erosion, GIS, Herat, RUSLE

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2494 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major


Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

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2493 Contribution to the Study of the Rill Density Effects on Soil Erosion: Laboratory Experiments

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Rills begin to be generated once overland flow shear capacity overcomes the soil surface resistance. This resistance depends on soil texture, the arrangement of soil particles and on chemical and physical properties. The rill density could affect soil erosion, especially when the distance between the rills (interrill) contributes to the variation of the rill characteristics, and consequently on sediment concentration. To investigate this point, agricultural sandy soil, a soil tray of 0.2x1x3m³ and a piece of hardwood rectangular in shape to build up rills were the base of this work. The results have shown that small lines have been developed between the rills and the flow acceleration increased in comparison to the flow on the flat surface (interrill). Sediment concentration increased with increasing rill number (density).

Keywords: artificial rainfall, experiments, rills, soil erosion, transport capacity

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2492 Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Augustine Osayande


This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.

Keywords: Edo, magnitude, gully, volume, soil, sloss

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2491 Investigating the Contribution of Road Construction on Soil Erosion, a Case Study of Engcobo Local Municipality, Chris Hani District, South Africa

Authors: Yamkela Zitwana


Soil erosion along the roads and/or road riparian areas has become a norm in the Eastern Cape. Soil erosion refers to the detachment and transportation of soil from one area (onsite) to another (offsite). This displacement or removal of soil can be caused by water, air and sometimes gravity. This will focus on accelerated soil erosion which is the result of human interference with the environment. Engcobo local municipality falls within the Eastern Cape Province in the eastern side of CHRIS HANI District municipality. The focus road is R61 protruding from the Engcobo town outskirts along the Nyanga SSS on the way to Umtata although it will cover few Kilometers away from Engcobo. This research aims at looking at the contribution made by road construction to soil erosion. Steps to achieve the result will involve revisiting the phases of road construction through unstructured interviews, identifying the types of soil erosion evident in the area by doing a checklist, checking the material, utensils and equipment used for road construction and the contribution of road construction through stratified random sampling checking the soil color and texture. This research will use a pragmatic approach which combines related methods and consider the flaws of each method so as to ensure validity, precision and accuracy. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used. Statistical methods and GIS analysis will be used to analyze the collected data.

Keywords: soil erosion, road riparian, accelerated soil erosion, road construction, sampling, universal soil loss model, GIS analysis, focus groups, qualitative, quantitative method, research, checklist questionnaires, unstructured interviews, pragmatic approach

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2490 Mathematical Model for Flow and Sediment Yield Estimation on Tel River Basin, India

Authors: Santosh Kumar Biswal, Ramakar Jha


Soil erosion is a slow and continuous process and one of the prominent problems across the world leading to many serious problems like loss of soil fertility, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, sedimentation deposits etc. In this paper remote sensing and GIS based methods have been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield. Tel River basin which is the second largest tributary of the river Mahanadi laying between latitude 19° 15' 32.4"N and, 20° 45' 0"N and longitude 82° 3' 36"E and 84° 18' 18"E chosen for the present study. The catchment was discretized into approximately homogeneous sub-areas (grid cells) to overcome the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was computed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Various parameters for USLE was determined as a function of land topography, soil texture, land use/land cover, rainfall, erosivity and crop management and practice in the watershed. The concept of transport limited accumulation was formulated and the transport capacity maps were generated. The gross soil erosion was routed to the catchment outlet. This study can help in recognizing critical erosion prone areas of the study basin so that suitable control measures can be implemented.

Keywords: Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), GIS, land use, sediment yield,

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2489 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal


In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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2488 Modeling Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield in Geba Catchment, Ethiopia

Authors: Gebremedhin Kiros, Amba Shetty, Lakshman Nandagiri


Soil erosion is a major threat to the sustainability of land and water resources in the catchment and there is a need to identify critical areas of erosion so that suitable conservation measures may be adopted. The present study was taken up to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of soil erosion and daily sediment yield in Geba catchment (5137 km2) located in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the Geba catchment using data pertaining to rainfall, climate, soils, topography and land use/land cover (LU/LC) for the historical period 2000-2013. LU/LC distribution in the catchment was characterized using LANDSAT satellite imagery and the GIS-based ArcSWAT version of the model. The model was calibrated and validated using sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet. The catchment was divided into 13 sub-basins and based on estimated soil erosion, these were prioritized on the basis of susceptibility to soil erosion. Model results indicated that the average sediment yield estimated of the catchment was 12.23 tons/ha/yr. The generated soil loss map indicated that a large portion of the catchment has high erosion rates resulting in significantly large sediment yield at the outlet. Steep and unstable terrain, the occurrence of highly erodible soils and low vegetation cover appeared to favor high soil erosion. Results obtained from this study prove useful in adopting in targeted soil and water conservation measures and promote sustainable management of natural resources in the Geba and similar catchments in the region.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Geba catchment, MUSLE, sediment yield, SWAT Model

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2487 Effects of Adding Gypsum in Agricultural Land on Mitigating Splash Erosion on Sandy Loam and Loam Soil Textures, Afghanistan

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani


Splash erosion in field has affected by factors; slope, rain intensity, soil properties, and plant cover. And also, soil erosion affects not only farmland productivity but also water quality downstream. There are a number of potential soil conservation practices, but many of these are complicated and relatively expensive, such as buffer strips, agro-forestry, counter banking, catchment canal, terracing, surface mulching, reduced tillage, etc. However, mitigation soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding gypsum mineral on mitigating splash erosion caused by rain drop. The research was conducted in soil laboratory Badam Bagh Agricultural Researching Farm, Kabul, Afghanistan. The stainless steel cores were used, and constant water pressure was controlled by a Mariotte’s bottle with kinetic energy of raindrops 2.36 x 10⁻⁵J. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 and 10 t ha⁻¹ and using a sandy loam and loam soil textures. The result was showed an average soil loss from sandy loam soil texture; control was 8.22%, 4.31% and 4.06% similar from loam soil texture, control was 7.26%, 2.89%, and 2.72% respectively. The application of gypsum mineral significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dispersion of soil particles caused by the impact of raindrops compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the addition of gypsum was effective as a measure for mitigating splash erosion.

Keywords: gypsum, soil loss, splash erosion, Afghanistan

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2486 Measuring Impacts of Agroforestry on Soil Erosion with Field Devices: Quantifying Potential for Water Infiltration, Soil Conservation, and Payments for Ecosystems Services Schemes

Authors: Arthur Rouanet, Marina Gavaldao


Throughout the second half of the 20th Century, estimates indicate that soil losses due to erosion have impacted one-third of worldwide arable lands. As such, these losses are amongst the largest threats to agriculture sustainability and production potential. Increasing tree cover is considered one of the most efficient methods to mitigate this phenomenon. The present study describes soil erosion measurements in different land cover situations in Alto Huayabamba, Peru, using the experimental plot methodology. Three parcels were studied during a one-year period (starting September 2015) with 3 different land cover scenarii evaluated: 10-year-old secondary tropical forest (P1), 3-year-old native species reforestation (P2) and bare soil (P3). Information was collected systematically after each rain to assess the average rainfall, water runoff and soil eroded. The results indicate that variance in land cover has a strong impact on the level of soil erosion. In our study, it was found that P1, P2 and P3 had erosion rates of 92 kg/ha/yr, 11 tons/ha/yr and 59,7 tons/ha/year respectively. Using a replacement cost method, the potential of limiting erosion by reforesting bare soil was estimated to be 561 $/ha/yr after three years and 687 $/ha/yr after ten years. Finally, the results of the study allow us to assess the potential soil services provided by vegetation, which could be an important building block for a payment for ecosystems services (PES) scheme. The latter has been increasingly spread all over the world through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP).

Keywords: agroforestry, erosion, ecosystem services, payment for ecosystem services (PES), water conservation, public private partnership (PPP)

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2485 Evaluating the Terrace Benefits of Erosion in a Terraced-Agricultural Watershed for Sustainable Soil and Water Conservation

Authors: Sitarrine Thongpussawal, Hui Shao, Clark Gantzer


Terracing is a conservation practice to reduce erosion and widely used for soil and water conservation throughout the world but is relatively expensive. A modification of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (called SWAT-Terrace or SWAT-T) explicitly aims to improve the simulation of the hydrological process of erosion from the terraces. SWAT-T simulates erosion from the terraces by separating terraces into three segments instead of evaluating the entire terrace. The objective of this work is to evaluate the terrace benefits on erosion from the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) at watershed and Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) scales using SWAT-T. The HRU is the smallest spatial unit of the model, which lumps all similar land uses, soils, and slopes within a sub-basin. The SWAT-T model was parameterized for slope length, steepness and the empirical Universal Soil Erosion Equation support practice factor for three terrace segments. Data from 1993-2010 measured at the watershed outlet were used to evaluate the models for calibration and validation. Results of SWAT-T calibration showed good performance between measured and simulated erosion for the monthly time step, but poor performance for SWAT-T validation. This is probably because of large storms in spring 2002 that prevented planting, causing poorly simulated scheduling of actual field operations. To estimate terrace benefits on erosion, models were compared with and without terraces. Results showed that SWAT-T showed significant ~3% reduction in erosion (Pr <0.01) at the watershed scale and ~12% reduction in erosion at the HRU scale. Studies using the SWAT-T model indicated that the terraces have advantages to reduce erosion from terraced-agricultural watersheds. SWAT-T can be used in the evaluation of erosion to sustainably conserve the soil and water.

Keywords: Erosion, Modeling, Terraces, SWAT

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2484 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: rain, surface runoff water, soil, water erosion, soil erosion

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2483 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera


Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: soil degradation, soil erosion, marginal uplands, Samar island, Philippines

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2482 Case Study: Geomat Installation against Slope Erosion

Authors: Serap Kaymakci, Dogan Gundogdu, M. Bugra Yagcioglu


Erosion (soil erosion) is a phenomenon in which the soil on the slope surface is exposed to natural influences such as wind, rainfall, etc. in open areas. The most natural solution to prevent erosion is to plant surfaces exposed to erosion. However, proper ground and natural conditions must be provided in order for planting to occur. Erosion is prevented in a fast and natural way and the loss of soil is reduced mostly. Lead to allowing plants to hold onto the soil with its three-dimensional and hollow structure are as follows: The types of geomat called MacMat that is used in a case study in Turkey in order to prevent water carry over due to rainfall. The geosynthetic combined with double twisted steel wire mesh. That consists of 95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated double twisted steel wire based that is a reinforced MacMat (geosynthetic three-dimensional erosion control mat) obtained by a polypropylene consisted (mesh type 8x10-Wire diam. 2.70 mm–95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated). That is developed by the progress of the technology. When using reinforced MacMat on top clay liners, fixing pins should not be used as they will rupture the mats. Mats are simply anchored (J Type) in the top trench and, if necessary, in intermediate berm trenches. If the slope angle greater than 20°, it is necessary to use additional rebar depending soil properties also. These applications may have specific technical and installation requirements. In that project, the main purpose is erosion control after that is greening. There is a slope area around the factory which is located in Gebze, İstanbul.

Keywords: erosion, GeoMat, geosynthetic, slope

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2481 Effect of Slope Steepness with Toposequent on Erosion Factor: A Study Case of Cikeruh Catchment Area, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Julianto Arief Ismail, Rachmat Harryanto


The research was conducted with the aim to know the effect of slope steepness on organic carbon and soil erodibility as erosion factor. This research was conducted from September to December 2011 in the Raharja and Cinanjung Village, Tanjungsari, Sumedang District, West Java, Indonesia. The study was carried out using physiographic free survey method, which is a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity slope without calculating the point of observation range. Soil sampling was carried onto three classes of slope as follows: 8–15%, 15–25% and 25–40%. Each was consisted of three slope position i.e. top slope, middle slope and down slope and four samples of soil were taken from each of them, hence it resulted in 36 points of observation. The results of this study indicate that gradient of slope have some significant contribution in every sample. Middle slope with gradient 26-40% has the highest potential erosion occurrence. It has organic C content (0.84%) and the highest erodibility value (0.1092).

Keywords: slope steepness, erosion, erodibility, erosion factor

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2480 Determination of Soil Loss by Erosion in Different Land Covers Categories and Slope Classes in Bovilla Watershed, Tirana, Albania

Authors: Valmir Baloshi, Fran Gjoka, Nehat Çollaku, Elvin Toromani


As a sediment production mechanism, soil erosion is the main environmental threat to the Bovilla watershed, including the decline of water quality of the Bovilla reservoir that provides drinking water to Tirana city (the capital of Albania). Therefore, an experiment with 25 erosion plots for soil erosion monitoring has been set up since June 2017. The aim was to determine the soil loss on plot and watershed scale in Bovilla watershed (Tirana region) for implementation of soil and water protection measures or payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. The results of erosion monitoring for the period June 2017 - May 2018 showed that the highest values of surface runoff were noted in bare land of 38829.91 liters on slope of 74% and the lowest values in forest land of 12840.6 liters on slope of 64% while the highest values of soil loss were found in bare land of 595.15 t/ha on slope of 62% and lowest values in forest land of 18.99 t/ha on slope of 64%. These values are much higher than the average rate of soil loss in the European Union (2.46 ton/ha/year). In the same sloping class, the soil loss was reduced from orchard or bare land to the forest land, and in the same category of land use, the soil loss increased with increasing land slope. It is necessary to conduct chemical analyses of sediments to determine the amount of chemical elements leached out of the soil and end up in the reservoir of Bovilla. It is concluded that PES programs should be implemented for rehabilitation of sub-watersheds Ranxe, Vilez and Zall-Bastar of the Bovilla watershed with valuable conservation practices.

Keywords: ANOVA, Bovilla, land cover, slope, soil loss, watershed management

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2479 On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning’s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.

Keywords: flow resistance, laboratory experiments, rainfall simulator, sediment concentration, shear velocity, soil erosion

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2478 The Use of Empirical Models to Estimate Soil Erosion in Arid Ecosystems and the Importance of Native Vegetation

Authors: Meshal M. Abdullah, Rusty A. Feagin, Layla Musawi


When humans mismanage arid landscapes, soil erosion can become a primary mechanism that leads to desertification. This study focuses on applying soil erosion models to a disturbed landscape in Umm Nigga, Kuwait, and identifying its predicted change under restoration plans, The northern portion of Umm Nigga, containing both coastal and desert ecosystems, falls within the boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) adjacent to Iraq, and has been fenced off to restrict public access since 1994. The central objective of this project was to utilize GIS and remote sensing to compare the MPSIAC (Modified Pacific South West Inter Agency Committee), EMP (Erosion Potential Method), and USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) soil erosion models and determine their applicability for arid regions such as Kuwait. Spatial analysis was used to develop the necessary datasets for factors such as soil characteristics, vegetation cover, runoff, climate, and topography. Results showed that the MPSIAC and EMP models produced a similar spatial distribution of erosion, though the MPSIAC had more variability. For the MPSIAC model, approximately 45% of the land surface ranged from moderate to high soil loss, while 35% ranged from moderate to high for the EMP model. The USLE model had contrasting results and a different spatial distribution of the soil loss, with 25% of area ranging from moderate to high erosion, and 75% ranging from low to very low. We concluded that MPSIAC and EMP were the most suitable models for arid regions in general, with the MPSIAC model best. We then applied the MPSIAC model to identify the amount of soil loss between coastal and desert areas, and fenced and unfenced sites. In the desert area, soil loss was different between fenced and unfenced sites. In these desert fenced sites, 88% of the surface was covered with vegetation and soil loss was very low, while at the desert unfenced sites it was 3% and correspondingly higher. In the coastal areas, the amount of soil loss was nearly similar between fenced and unfenced sites. These results implied that vegetation cover played an important role in reducing soil erosion, and that fencing is much more important in the desert ecosystems to protect against overgrazing. When applying the MPSIAC model predictively, we found that vegetation cover could be increased from 3% to 37% in unfenced areas, and soil erosion could then decrease by 39%. We conclude that the MPSIAC model is best to predict soil erosion for arid regions such as Kuwait.

Keywords: soil erosion, GIS, modified pacific South west inter agency committee model (MPSIAC), erosion potential method (EMP), Universal soil loss equation (USLE)

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2477 Development of Corn (Zea mays L.) Stalk Geotextile Net for Soil Erosion Mitigation

Authors: Cristina S. Decano, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Melissa E. Agulto, Helen F. Gavino


This study aimed to introduce new natural fiber to be used in the production of geotextile net for mitigation of soil erosion. Fiber extraction from the stalks was the main challenge faced during the processing of stalks to ropes. Thus, an investigation on the extraction procedures of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk under biological and chemical retting was undertaken. Results indicated significant differences among percent fiber yield as affected by the retting methods used with values of 15.07%, 12.97%, 11.60%, and 9.01%, for dew, water, chemical (1 day after harvest and15 days after harvest), respectively, with the corresponding average extracting duration of 70, 82, 89, and 94 minutes. Physical characterization of the developed corn stalk geotextile net resulted to average mass per unit area of 806.25 g/m2 and 241% water absorbing capacity. The effect of corn stalk geotextile net in mitigating soil erosion was evaluated in a laboratory experiment for 30o and 60o inclinations with three treatments: bare soil (A1), corn stalk geotextile net (A2) and combined cornstalk geotextile net and vegetation cover (A3). Results revealed that treatment A2 and A3 significantly decreased sediment yield and an increase in terms of soil loss reduction efficiency. The cost of corn stalk geotextile net is Php 62.41 per square meter.

Keywords: corn stalk, natural geotextile, retting, soil erosion

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2476 Shallow Water Lidar System in Measuring Erosion Rate of Coarse-Grained Materials

Authors: Ghada S. Ellithy, John. W. Murphy, Maureen K. Corcoran


Erosion rate of soils during a levee or dam overtopping event is a major component in risk assessment evaluation of breach time and downstream consequences. The mechanism and evolution of dam or levee breach caused by overtopping erosion is a complicated process and difficult to measure during overflow due to accessibility and quickly changing conditions. In this paper, the results of a flume erosion tests are presented and discussed. The tests are conducted on a coarse-grained material with a median grain size D50 of 5 mm in a 1-m (3-ft) wide flume under varying flow rates. Each test is performed by compacting the soil mix r to its near optimum moisture and dry density as determined from standard Proctor test in a box embedded in the flume floor. The box measures 0.45 m wide x 1.2 m long x 0.25 m deep. The material is tested several times at varying hydraulic loading to determine the erosion rate after equal time intervals. The water depth, velocity are measured at each hydraulic loading, and the acting bed shear is calculated. A shallow water lidar (SWL) system was utilized to record the progress of soil erodibility and water depth along the scanned profiles of the tested box. SWL is a non-contact system that transmits laser pulses from above the water and records the time-delay between top and bottom reflections. Results from the SWL scans are compared with before and after manual measurements to determine the erosion rate of the soil mix and other erosion parameters.

Keywords: coarse-grained materials, erosion rate, LIDAR system, soil erosion

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