Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 159

Search results for: condensation

159 Numeric Modeling of Condensation of Water Vapor from Humid Air in a Room

Authors: Nguyen Van Que, Nguyen Huy The

Abstract:

This paper presents combined natural and forced convection of humid air flow. The film condensation of water vapour on a cold floor was investigated using ANSYS Fluent software. User-defined Functions(UDFs) were developed and added to address the issue of film condensation at the surface of the floor. Those UDFs were validated by analytical results on a flat plate. The film condensation model based on mass transfer was used to solve phase change. On the floor, condensation rate was obtained by mass fraction change near the floor. The study investigated effects of inlet velocity, inlet relative humidity and cold floor temperature on the condensation rate. The simulations were done in both 2D and 3D models to show the difference and need for 3D modeling of condensation.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, convection, condensation, relative humidity, user-defined functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
158 Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD

Authors: Jan Barak, Karel Frana, Joerg Stiller

Abstract:

This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and post processing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

Keywords: condensation, exchanger, experiment, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
157 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Film Condensation

Authors: M. Mosaad, J. H. Almutairi, A. S. Almutairi

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In this paper, saturated-vapour film condensation on a vertical wall with the backside cooled by forced convection is analyzed as a conjugate problem. In the analysis, the temperature and heat flux at the wall sides are assumed unknown and determined from the solution. The model is presented in a dimensionless form to take a broad view of the solution. The dimensionless variables controlling this coupled heat transfer process are discovered from the analysis. These variables explain the relative impact of the interactive heat transfer mechanisms of forced convection and film condensation. The study shows that the conjugate treatment of film condensation process yields results different from that predicted by a non-conjugate Nusselt-type solution, wherein the effect of the cooling fluid is neglected.

Keywords: film condensation, forced convection, coupled heat transfer, analytical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
156 The Effects of Modern Materials on the Moisture Resistance Performance of Architectural Buildings

Authors: Leyli Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hoda Mortazavi Alavi, Amirhossein Habibzadeh

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At present, the atmospheric and environmental factors impose massive damages to buildings. Thus, to reduce these damages, researchers pay more attention on qualitative and quantitative characteristic of buildings materials. Condensation is one of the problems in Contemporary Sustecture Design. It could cause serious damages to the frontage, interior and structural elements of buildings. As a result, taking preventative steps to avoid condensation from occurring in buildings will help prevent avoidable and costly problems in the future. Hence, the aim of this paper is to answer the question: “Does the use of advanced materials cause the reduction of condensation formed on the walls?" In response to those flaws, this paper considered similar articles and selected 20 buildings randomly from contemporary architecture of developing countries which have been built in recent decade from 2002 to 2012, to find out the mutual relation between the usage of advanced materials and level of condensation damages. This consideration shows that by using advanced materials, we will have fewer damages.

Keywords: condensation, advanced materials, contemporary sustecture, moisture

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
155 Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces

Authors: A. Kazemi Jouybari, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani

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This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.

Keywords: condensation, numerical solution, analytical solution, entropy rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
154 Study on the Thermal Mixing of Steam and Coolant in the Hybrid Safety Injection Tank

Authors: Sung Uk Ryu, Byoung Gook Jeon, Sung-Jae Yi, Dong-Jin Euh

Abstract:

In such passive safety injection systems in the nuclear power plant as Core Makeup Tank (CMT) and Hybrid Safety Injection Tank, various thermal-hydraulic phenomena including the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal stratification of coolant occur. These phenomena are also closely related to the performance of the system. Depending on the condensation rate of the steam injected to the tank, the injection of the coolant and pressure equalizing timings of the tank are decided. The steam injected to the tank from the upper nozzle penetrates the coolant and induces a direct contact condensation. In the present study, the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal mixing between the steam and coolant were examined by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Especially, by altering the size of the nozzle from which the steam is injected, the influence of steam injection velocity on the thermal mixing with coolant and condensation shall be comprehended, while also investigating the influence of condensation on the pressure variation inside the tank. Even though the amounts of steam inserted were the same in three different nozzle size conditions, it was found that the velocity of pressure rise becomes lower as the steam injection area decreases. Also, as the steam injection area increases, the thickness of the zone within which the coolant’s temperature decreases. Thereby, the amount of steam condensed by the direct contact condensation also decreases. The results derived from the present study can be utilized for the detailed design of a passive safety injection system, as well as for modeling the direct contact condensation triggered by the steam jet’s penetration into the coolant.

Keywords: passive safety injection systems, steam penetration, direct contact condensation, particle image velocimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
153 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
152 Assessing the Risk of Condensation and Moisture Accumulation in Solid Walls: Comparing Different Internal Wall Insulation Options

Authors: David Glew, Felix Thomas, Matthew Brooke-Peat

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Improving the thermal performance of homes is seen as an essential step in achieving climate change, fuel security, fuel poverty targets. One of the most effective thermal retrofits is to insulate solid walls. However, it has been observed that applying insulation to the internal face of solid walls reduces the surface temperature of the inner wall leaf, which may introduce condensation risk and may interrupt seasonal moisture accumulation and dissipation. This research quantifies the extent to which the risk of condensation and moisture accumulation in the wall increases (which can increase the risk of timber rot) following the installation of six different types of internal wall insulation. In so doing, it compares how risk is affected by both the thermal resistance, thickness, and breathability of the insulation. Thermal bridging, surface temperatures, condensation risk, and moisture accumulation are evaluated using hygrothermal simulation software before and after the thermal upgrades. The research finds that installing internal wall insulation will always introduce some risk of condensation and moisture. However, it identifies that risks were present prior to insulation and that breathable materials and insulation with lower resistance have lower risks than alternative insulation options. The implications of this may be that building standards that encourage the enhanced thermal performance of solid walls may be introducing moisture risks into homes.

Keywords: condensation risk, hygrothermal simulation, internal wall insulation, thermal bridging

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
151 Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube

Authors: Shengjun Zhang, Xu Cheng, Feng Shen

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The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.

Keywords: non-condensable gas, condensation, heat transfer coefficient, heat and mass transfer analogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
150 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance

Authors: Aysegul Sarac

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Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
149 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

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As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
148 Superlyophobic Surfaces for Increased Heat Transfer during Condensation of CO₂

Authors: Ingrid Snustad, Asmund Ervik, Anders Austegard, Amy Brunsvold, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang

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CO₂ capture, transport and storage (CCS) is essential to mitigate global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. To make CCS a widely implemented technology in, e.g. the power sector, the reduction of costs is crucial. For a large cost reduction, every part of the CCS chain must contribute. By increasing the heat transfer efficiency during liquefaction of CO₂, which is a necessary step, e.g. ship transportation, the costs associated with the process are reduced. Heat transfer rates during dropwise condensation are up to one order of magnitude higher than during filmwise condensation. Dropwise condensation usually occurs on a non-wetting surface (Superlyophobic surface). The vapour condenses in discrete droplets, and the non-wetting nature of the surface reduces the adhesion forces and results in shedding of condensed droplets. This, again, results in fresh nucleation sites for further droplet condensation, effectively increasing the liquefaction efficiency. In addition, the droplets in themselves have a smaller heat transfer resistance than a liquid film, resulting in increased heat transfer rates from vapour to solid. Surface tension is a crucial parameter for dropwise condensation, due to its impact on the solid-liquid contact angle. A low surface tension usually results in a low contact angle, and again to spreading of the condensed liquid on the surface. CO₂ has very low surface tension compared to water. However, at relevant temperatures and pressures for CO₂ condensation, the surface tension is comparable to organic compounds such as pentane, a dropwise condensation of CO₂ is a completely new field of research. Therefore, knowledge of several important parameters such as contact angle and drop size distribution must be gained in order to understand the nature of the condensation. A new setup has been built to measure these relevant parameters. The main parts of the experimental setup is a pressure chamber in which the condensation occurs, and a high- speed camera. The process of CO₂ condensation is visually monitored, and one can determine the contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and hence, the surface adhesion of the liquid. CO₂ condensation on different surfaces can be analysed, e.g. copper, aluminium and stainless steel. The experimental setup is built for accurate measurements of the temperature difference between the surface and the condensing vapour and accurate pressure measurements in the vapour. The temperature will be measured directly underneath the condensing surface. The next step of the project will be to fabricate nanostructured surfaces for inducing superlyophobicity. Roughness is a key feature to achieve contact angles above 150° (limit for superlyophobicity) and controlled, and periodical roughness on the nanoscale is beneficial. Surfaces that are non- wetting towards organic non-polar liquids are candidates surface structures for dropwise condensation of CO₂.

Keywords: CCS, dropwise condensation, low surface tension liquid, superlyophobic surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
147 Production of Size-Selected Tin Nanoclusters for Device Applications

Authors: Ahmad I. Ayesh

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This work reports on the fabrication of tin nanoclusters by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. This technique allows to fine tune the size and yield of nanoclusters by controlling the nanocluster source parameters. The produced nanoclusters are deposited on SiO2/Si substrate with pre-formed electrical electrodes to produce a nanocluster device. Those devices can be potentially used for gas sensor applications.

Keywords: tin, nanoclusters, inert-gas condensation, nanotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
146 New Desiccant Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Desalination: Study of the Compartments of Desalination and Water Condensation

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a new desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of the desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel, modelling, experimental investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
145 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels

Authors: Foad Hassaninejadafarahani, Scott Ormiston

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Reflux condensation occurs in a vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapor (or gas-vapor mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapor-gas mixture (or pure vapor) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapor core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on a finite volume method and a co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and pressure profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness, Nusselt number and interface gas mass fraction.

Keywords: Reflux, Condensation, CFD-Two Phase, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
144 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

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This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
143 Three Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Wall Condensation inside Inclined Tubes

Authors: Amirhosein Moonesi Shabestary, Eckhard Krepper, Dirk Lucas

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The current PhD project comprises CFD-modeling and simulation of condensation and heat transfer inside horizontal pipes. Condensation plays an important role in emergency cooling systems of reactors. The emergency cooling system consists of inclined horizontal pipes which are immersed in a tank of subcooled water. In the case of an accident the water level in the core is decreasing, steam comes in the emergency pipes, and due to the subcooled water around the pipe, this steam will start to condense. These horizontal pipes act as a strong heat sink which is responsible for a quick depressurization of the reactor core when any accident happens. This project is defined in order to model all these processes which happening in the emergency cooling systems. The most focus of the project is on detection of different morphologies such as annular flow, stratified flow, slug flow and plug flow. This project is an ongoing project which has been started 1 year ago in Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR), Fluid Dynamics department. In HZDR most in cooperation with ANSYS different models are developed for modeling multiphase flows. Inhomogeneous MUSIG model considers the bubble size distribution and is used for modeling small-scaled dispersed gas phase. AIAD (Algebraic Interfacial Area Density Model) is developed for detection of the local morphology and corresponding switch between them. The recent model is GENTOP combines both concepts. GENTOP is able to simulate co-existing large-scaled (continuous) and small-scaled (polydispersed) structures. All these models are validated for adiabatic cases without any phase change. Therefore, the start point of the current PhD project is using the available models and trying to integrate phase transition and wall condensing models into them. In order to simplify the idea of condensation inside horizontal tubes, 3 steps have been defined. The first step is the investigation of condensation inside a horizontal tube by considering only direct contact condensation (DCC) and neglect wall condensation. Therefore, the inlet of the pipe is considered to be annular flow. In this step, AIAD model is used in order to detect the interface. The second step is the extension of the model to consider wall condensation as well which is closer to the reality. In this step, the inlet is pure steam, and due to the wall condensation, a liquid film occurs near the wall which leads to annular flow. The last step will be modeling of different morphologies which are occurring inside the tube during the condensation via using GENTOP model. By using GENTOP, the dispersed phase is able to be considered and simulated. Finally, the results of the simulations will be validated by experimental data which will be available also in HZDR.

Keywords: wall condensation, direct contact condensation, AIAD model, morphology detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
142 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson

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Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
141 Segmentation of Gray Scale Images of Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces

Authors: Helene Martin, Solmaz Boroomandi Barati, Jean-Charles Pinoli, Stephane Valette, Yann Gavet

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In the present work we developed an image processing algorithm to measure water droplets characteristics during dropwise condensation on pillared surfaces. The main problem in this process is the similarity between shape and size of water droplets and the pillars. The developed method divides droplets into four main groups based on their size and applies the corresponding algorithm to segment each group. These algorithms generate binary images of droplets based on both their geometrical and intensity properties. The information related to droplets evolution during time including mean radius and drops number per unit area are then extracted from the binary images. The developed image processing algorithm is verified using manual detection and applied to two different sets of images corresponding to two kinds of pillared surfaces.

Keywords: dropwise condensation, textured surface, image processing, watershed

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
140 DNA-Polycation Condensation by Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Titus A. Beu

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Many modern gene-delivery protocols rely on condensed complexes of DNA with polycations to introduce the genetic payload into cells by endocytosis. In particular, polyethyleneimine (PEI) stands out by a high buffering capacity (enabling the efficient condensation of DNA) and relatively simple fabrication. Realistic computational studies can offer essential insights into the formation process of DNA-PEI polyplexes, providing hints on efficient designs and engineering routes. We present comprehensive computational investigations of solvated PEI and DNA-PEI polyplexes involving calculations at three levels: ab initio, all-atom (AA), and coarse-grained (CG) molecular mechanics. In the first stage, we developed a rigorous AA CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics) force field (FF) for PEI on the basis of accurate ab initio calculations on protonated model pentamers. We validated this atomistic FF by matching the results of extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of structural and dynamical properties of PEI with experimental data. In a second stage, we developed a CG MARTINI FF for PEI by Boltzmann inversion techniques from bead-based probability distributions obtained from AA simulations and ensuring an optimal match between the AA and CG structural and dynamical properties. In a third stage, we combined the developed CG FF for PEI with the standard MARTINI FF for DNA and performed comprehensive CG simulations of DNA-PEI complex formation and condensation. Various technical aspects which are crucial for the realistic modeling of DNA-PEI polyplexes, such as options of treating electrostatics and the relevance of polarizable water models, are discussed in detail. Massive CG simulations (with up to 500 000 beads) shed light on the mechanism and provide time scales for DNA polyplex formation independence of PEI chain size and protonation pattern. The DNA-PEI condensation mechanism is shown to primarily rely on the formation of DNA bundles, rather than by changes of the DNA-strand curvature. The gained insights are expected to be of significant help for designing effective gene-delivery applications.

Keywords: DNA condensation, gene-delivery, polyethylene-imine, molecular dynamics.

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
139 Thermodynamics of Water Condensation on an Aqueous Organic-Coated Aerosol Aging via Chemical Mechanism

Authors: Yuri S. Djikaev

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A large subset of aqueous aerosols can be initially (immediately upon formation) coated with various organic amphiphilic compounds whereof the hydrophilic moieties are attached to the aqueous aerosol core while the hydrophobic moieties are exposed to the air thus forming a hydrophobic coating thereupon. We study the thermodynamics of water condensation on such an aerosol whereof the hydrophobic organic coating is being concomitantly processed by chemical reactions with atmospheric reactive species. Such processing (chemical aging) enables the initially inert aerosol to serve as a nucleating center for water condensation. The most probable pathway of such aging involves atmospheric hydroxyl radicals that abstract hydrogen atoms from hydrophobic moieties of surface organics (first step), the resulting radicals being quickly oxidized by ubiquitous atmospheric oxygen molecules to produce surface-bound peroxyl radicals (second step). Taking these two reactions into account, we derive an expression for the free energy of formation of an aqueous droplet on an organic-coated aerosol. The model is illustrated by numerical calculations. The results suggest that the formation of aqueous cloud droplets on such aerosols is most likely to occur via Kohler activation rather than via nucleation. The model allows one to determine the threshold parameters necessary for their Kohler activation. Numerical results also corroborate previous suggestions that one can neglect some details of aerosol chemical composition in investigating aerosol effects on climate.

Keywords: aqueous aerosols, organic coating, chemical aging, cloud condensation nuclei, Kohler activation, cloud droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
138 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
137 Building Atmospheric Moisture Diagnostics: Environmental Monitoring and Data Collection

Authors: Paula Lopez-Arce, Hector Altamirano, Dimitrios Rovas, James Berry, Bryan Hindle, Steven Hodgson

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Efficient mould remediation and accurate moisture diagnostics leading to condensation and mould growth in dwellings are largely untapped. Number of factors are contributing to the rising trend of excessive moisture in homes mainly linked with modern living, increased levels of occupation and rising fuel costs, as well as making homes more energy efficient. Environmental monitoring by means of data collection though loggers sensors and survey forms has been performed in a range of buildings from different UK regions. Air and surface temperature and relative humidity values of residential areas affected by condensation and/or mould issues were recorded. Additional measurements were taken through different trials changing type, location, and position of loggers. In some instances, IR thermal images and ventilation rates have also been acquired. Results have been interpreted together with environmental key parameters by processing and connecting data from loggers and survey questionnaires, both in buildings with and without moisture issues. Monitoring exercises carried out during Winter and Spring time show the importance of developing and following accurate protocols for guidance to obtain consistent, repeatable and comparable results and to improve the performance of environmental monitoring. A model and a protocol are being developed to build a diagnostic tool with the goal of performing a simple but precise residential atmospheric moisture diagnostics to distinguish the cause entailing condensation and mould generation, i.e., ventilation, insulation or heating systems issue. This research shows the relevance of monitoring and processing environmental data to assign moisture risk levels and determine the origin of condensation or mould when dealing with a building atmospheric moisture excess.

Keywords: environmental monitoring, atmospheric moisture, protocols, mould

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
136 The Usefulness of Premature Chromosome Condensation Scoring Module in Cell Response to Ionizing Radiation

Authors: K. Rawojć, J. Miszczyk, A. Możdżeń, A. Panek, J. Swakoń, M. Rydygier

Abstract:

Due to the mitotic delay, poor mitotic index and disappearance of lymphocytes from peripheral blood circulation, assessing the DNA damage after high dose exposure is less effective. Conventional chromosome aberration analysis or cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay do not provide an accurate dose estimation or radiosensitivity prediction in doses higher than 6.0 Gy. For this reason, there is a need to establish reliable methods allowing analysis of biological effects after exposure in high dose range i.e., during particle radiotherapy. Lately, Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) has become an important method in high dose biodosimetry and a promising treatment modality to cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of drug-induced PCC scoring procedure in an experimental mode, where 100 G2/M cells were analyzed in different dose ranges. To test the consistency of obtained results, scoring was performed by 3 independent persons in the same mode and following identical scoring criteria. Whole-body exposure was simulated in an in vitro experiment by irradiating whole blood collected from healthy donors with 60 MeV protons and 250 keV X-rays, in the range of 4.0 – 20.0 Gy. Drug-induced PCC assay was performed on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) isolated after in vitro exposure. Cells were cultured for 48 hours with PHA. Then to achieve premature condensation, calyculin A was added. After Giemsa staining, chromosome spreads were photographed and manually analyzed by scorers. The dose-effect curves were derived by counting the excess chromosome fragments. The results indicated adequate dose estimates for the whole-body exposure scenario in the high dose range for both studied types of radiation. Moreover, compared results revealed no significant differences between scores, which has an important meaning in reducing the analysis time. These investigations were conducted as a part of an extended examination of 60 MeV protons from AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron, at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków, Poland (IFJ PAN) by cytogenetic and molecular methods and were partially supported by grant DEC-2013/09/D/NZ7/00324 from the National Science Centre, Poland.

Keywords: cell response to radiation exposure, drug induced premature chromosome condensation, premature chromosome condensation procedure, proton therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
135 Condensation Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of R-134a Flowing inside Dimpled Tubes

Authors: Kanit Aroonrat, Somchai Wongwises

Abstract:

A heat exchanger is one of the vital parts in a wide variety of applications. The tube with surface modification is generally referred to as an enhanced tube. With this, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is improved. A dimpled tube is one of many kinds of enhanced tube. The heat transfer and pressure drop of two-phase flow inside dimpled tubes have received little attention in the literature, despite of having an important role in the development of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. As a result, the main aim of this study is to investigate the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant-134a flowing inside dimpled tubes. The test section is a counter-flow double-tube heat exchanger, which the refrigerant flows in the inner tube and water flows in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and three dimpled tubes with different helical pitches. All test tubes are made from copper with an inside diameter of 8.1 mm and length of 1500 mm. The experiments are conducted over mass fluxes ranging from 300 to 500 kg/m²s, heat flux ranging from 10 to 20 kW/m², and condensing temperature ranging from 40 to 50 ˚C. The results show that all dimpled tubes provide higher heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop compared to the smooth tube. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop increase with decreasing of helical pitch. It can be observed that the dimpled tube with lowest helical pitch yields the heat transfer enhancement in the range of 60-89% with the frictional pressure drop increase of 289-674% in comparison to the smooth tube.

Keywords: condensation, dimpled tube, heat transfer, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
134 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress

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133 Retrofitting Insulation to Historic Masonry Buildings: Improving Thermal Performance and Maintaining Moisture Movement to Minimize Condensation Risk

Authors: Moses Jenkins

Abstract:

Much of the focus when improving energy efficiency in buildings fall on the raising of standards within new build dwellings. However, as a significant proportion of the building stock across Europe is of historic or traditional construction, there is also a pressing need to improve the thermal performance of structures of this sort. On average, around twenty percent of buildings across Europe are built of historic masonry construction. In order to meet carbon reduction targets, these buildings will require to be retrofitted with insulation to improve their thermal performance. At the same time, there is also a need to balance this with maintaining the ability of historic masonry construction to allow moisture movement through building fabric to take place. This moisture transfer, often referred to as 'breathable construction', is critical to the success, or otherwise, of retrofit projects. The significance of this paper is to demonstrate that substantial thermal improvements can be made to historic buildings whilst avoiding damage to building fabric through surface or interstitial condensation. The paper will analyze the results of a wide range of retrofit measures installed to twenty buildings as part of Historic Environment Scotland's technical research program. This program has been active for fourteen years and has seen interventions across a wide range of building types, using over thirty different methods and materials to improve the thermal performance of historic buildings. The first part of the paper will present the range of interventions which have been made. This includes insulating mass masonry walls both internally and externally, warm and cold roof insulation and improvements to floors. The second part of the paper will present the results of monitoring work which has taken place to these buildings after being retrofitted. This will be in terms of both thermal improvement, expressed as a U-value as defined in BS EN ISO 7345:1987, and also, crucially, will present the results of moisture monitoring both on the surface of masonry walls the following retrofit and also within the masonry itself. The aim of this moisture monitoring is to establish if there are any problems with interstitial condensation. This monitoring utilizes Interstitial Hygrothermal Gradient Monitoring (IHGM) and similar methods to establish relative humidity on the surface of and within the masonry. The results of the testing are clear and significant for retrofit projects across Europe. Where a building is of historic construction the use of materials for wall, roof and floor insulation which are permeable to moisture vapor provides both significant thermal improvements (achieving a u-value as low as 0.2 Wm²K) whilst avoiding problems of both surface and intestinal condensation. As the evidence which will be presented in the paper comes from monitoring work in buildings rather than theoretical modeling, there are many important lessons which can be learned and which can inform retrofit projects to historic buildings throughout Europe.

Keywords: insulation, condensation, masonry, historic

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132 Dynamic Thin Film Morphology near the Contact Line of a Condensing Droplet: Nanoscale Resolution

Authors: Abbasali Abouei Mehrizi, Hao Wang

Abstract:

The thin film region is so important in heat transfer process due to its low thermal resistance. On the other hand, the dynamic contact angle is crucial boundary condition in numerical simulations. While different modeling contains different assumption of the microscopic contact angle, none of them has experimental evidence for their assumption, and the contact line movement mechanism still remains vague. The experimental investigation in complete wetting is more popular than partial wetting, especially in nanoscale resolution when there is sharp variation in thin film profile in partial wetting. In the present study, an experimental investigation of water film morphology near the triple phase contact line during the condensation is performed. The state-of-the-art tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used to get the high-resolution film profile goes down to 2 nm from the contact line. The droplet was put in saturated chamber. The pristine silicon wafer was used as a smooth substrate. The substrate was heated by PI film heater. So the chamber would be over saturated by droplet evaporation. By turning off the heater, water vapor gradually started condensing on the droplet and the droplet advanced. The advancing speed was less than 20 nm/s. The dominant results indicate that in contrast to nonvolatile liquid, the film profile goes down straightly to the surface till 2 nm from the substrate. However, small bending has been observed below 20 nm, occasionally. So, it can be claimed that for the low condensation rate the microscopic contact angle equals to the optically detectable macroscopic contact angle. This result can be used to simplify the heat transfer modeling in partial wetting. The experimental result of the equality of microscopic and macroscopic contact angle can be used as a solid evidence for using this boundary condition in numerical simulation.

Keywords: advancing, condensation, microscopic contact angle, partial wetting

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131 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of 2-Pyrazolines and Cyclohexenones Incorporating Naphthalene Moiety and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation

Authors: Al-Bogami Abdullah Saad

Abstract:

We reported the environmental benign synthesis of chalcones, 2-pyrazolines and cyclohexanones under microwave irradiation. Chalcones were obtained by the condensation of each of 2-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives with α-naphthaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The condensation reactions of each of synthesized chalcones with phenyl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in the presence of dry acetic acid as a cyclizing agent gave 2-pyrazolines. Also, the new cyclohexenone derivatives, valuable intermediates to synthesize fused heterocycles, have been prepared by the cyclocondensation of each of hydroxychalcones with ethyl acetoacetate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by Infrared (IR) spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry(MS) and elmental analysis. The results indicate that unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields with shorter and cleaner reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus niger. We clarified the effects of different substituents in the tested compounds on the obtaind antibacterial activities and antifungal activities.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, 2-Hydroxyacetophenone, α-Naphthaldehyde, pyrazoline, cyclohexenone, antimicrobial activity

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130 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer

Abstract:

The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 210