Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Sarina Sulaiman

82 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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81 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin

Abstract:

Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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80 Study of Structural Styles and Hydrocarbon Potential of Rajan Pur Area, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Abbassi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of structural styles and evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of Kotrum and Drigri anticlines located in Rajanpur Area, Midddle Indus Basin of Pakistan with the approach of geophysical data integration. The study area is situated between the Sulaiman Foldbelt on the west and Indus River in the east. It is an anticlinal fold, located to the southeast of Sakhi Sarwar anticline and separated from a prominent syncline. The structure has a narrow elongated crest, with the axis running in SSW-NNE direction. In the east, the structure is bounded by a gentle syncline. Structural Styles are trending East-West and perpendicular to tectonic transport and stress direction and the base of the structures gradually dipping Eastward beneath the deformation frontal part in Eastern Sulaiman Fold Belt. Middle Indus Basin can be divided into Foreland, Sulaiman fold belt and a broad foredeep. Sulaiman represents a blind thrust front, which suggests that all frontal folds of the fold belt are cored by blind thrust. The deformation of frontal part of Sulaiman Lobe represents the passive roof duplex stacked beneath the frontal passive roof thrust. The passive roof thrust, which has a back thrust sense of motion and extends into the interior of Fold belt. Left lateral Kingri Fault separates Eastern and Central Sulaiman fold belt. In Central Sulaiman fold belt the deformation front moved further towards fore deep as compared to Eastern Sulaiman. Two wells (Kotrum-01, Drigri-01) have been drilled in the study area with the objective to determine the potential of oil and gas in Habib Rahi Limestone of Eocene age, Dunghan Limestone of Paleocene age and Pab Sandstone of cretaceous age and role of structural styles in hydrocarbon potential of study area. Kotrum-01 well was drilled to its T.D of 4798m. Besides fishing and side tracking, tight whole conditions, high pressure, and losses of circulation were also encountered. During production, testing Pab sandstone were tested but abandoned found. Drigri-01 well was drilled to its T.D 3250 m. RFT was carried out at different points, but all points showed no pressure / seal failure and the well was plugged and declared abandoned.

Keywords: hydrocarbon potential, structural style, reserve calculation, enhance production

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79 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: enough size, good potential, shale gas, structure closure

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78 Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline

Authors: Sulaiman Gafar Muhamad

Abstract:

A rapid spectrophotometric method for the micro-determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHE) has been developed. The proposed method involves the coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium at λmax 455 nm. Under the present optimum condition, Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20 μg/ml of PHE with molar absorptivity of 1.915 ×104 l. mol-1.cm-1, with a relative error of 0.015 and a relative standard deviation of 0.024%. The current method has been applied successfully to estimate phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (nose drop and syrup).

Keywords: diazo-coupling, 2, 4-dinitroaniline, phenylephrine-HCl, spectrophotometry

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77 Students’ Perception of Their M-Learning Readiness

Authors: Sulaiman Almutairy, Trevor Davies, Yota Dimitriadi

Abstract:

This paper presents study investigating how to understand better the psychological readiness for mobile learning (m-learning) among Saudi students, while also evaluating m-learning in Saudi Arabia-a topic that has not yet received adequate attention from researchers. Data was acquired through a questionnaire administered to 131 Saudi students at UK universities, in July 2013. The study confirmed that students are confident using mobile devices in their daily lives and that they would welcome more opportunities for mobile learning. The findings indicated that Saudi higher education students are highly familiar with, and are psychologically ready for, m-learning.

Keywords: m-learning, mobile technologies, psychological readiness, higher education

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76 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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75 A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques

Authors: Sulaiman Al amro, Ali Alkhalifah

Abstract:

The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.

Keywords: computer viruses, virus detection, signature-based, behaviour-based, heuristic-based

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74 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

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Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

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73 Regional Trade Integration: Empirical Investigation of Trade within the European Union versus Association for South East Asian Nations

Authors: Sarina Zainab Shirazi

Abstract:

Abstract— With the advent of globalization, different countries have liberalized their trade policies to enhance economic integration and developmental processes but the advantages accrued vary greatly from region to region. This study specifically examines European Union (EU) and Association for South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), two regions that show contrasting integration patterns. EU shows most successful integrations versus the slower paced integration in the ASEAN region. A comprehensive panel data empirical investigation of EU and ASEAN in the context of economy size, geographical distances, language, ethnicity, common border and regional trade agreements (RTA) is conducted for a period of 1985 – 2015. The empirical investigation through the augmented gravity equation shows that the real effectiveness for enhanced intra-regional trade is significant when specific examination of export and import components is conducted in the presence of non-tariff barriers. These barriers surface in the form of terms of trade openness, inflation, exchange rate, common borders, common language, ethnic similarity, and presence of a formal regional trade agreement (RTA). Thus, these factors can be utilized by the EU and ASEAN regions in order to formulate effective policy tools to enhance trade within their respective spheres of influence.

Keywords: Association for South East Asian Nations, European Union, Gravity Model, Regional Trade

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72 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

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Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells

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71 The Role of International Organizations in Educational Reform in Iraq

Authors: Thanaa M. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The Iraqi education system has suffered greatly as a result of wars, political instability, and economic problems. After the fall of Saddam’s regime in 2003, the Iraqi education system was proportionally the most impacted sector. The new administration prioritized educational reforms. International organizations, as well as foreign countries, were in the lead to achieve educational reforms. The current study aims to shed light on the reformation process and the roles of different stakeholders, especially international organizations. It also aims to explore the current problems facing the Iraqi education system. Additionally, it aims to explore the different programs and projects that are funded and implemented by international organizations and the impact of these programs and projects.

Keywords: Iraq, Iraqi education system, educational reform, international organizations

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70 Comparison of Er:YAG Laser with Bur Prepared Cavities: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sarina Sahmeddini, Fahimeh Safarpour, Forough Pazhuheian

Abstract:

With the concepts of minimally invasive treatment and preventive dentistry gaining more and more recognition by dentists, there are many published clinical trials comparing the use of the erbium laser with traditional drilling for caries removal. However, the efficacy of the erbium laser is still controversial. The aim of this review study is to compare the effects of tooth preparation by laser irradiation and conventional preparation by bur to identify the best means for cavity preparation and reduction of recurrent caries. Randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and prospective, and retrospective cohort studies were included in this review. The eligibility criteria included studies in humans’ permanent teeth in which cavities were conducted in their cervical third and proximal surfaces. PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus about Er:YAG laser and bur prepared cavities were carried out. The studies’ details were organized in four tables according to the groups: (1) Microleakage; (2) Morphological changes; (3) Microhardness; and (4) Bond strength. The initial search resulted in 134 articles, 12 studies published from 2012 up to March 2020 were included in this review. According to the risk of bias evaluation, all studies were classified as high quality. Clinical implications: Er:YAG lasers with the energy levels between 250 to 300 mJ can be proper alternatives to conventional burs, as minimal invasive instruments with no significant differences or better results in microleakage, microhardness, and bond strength compared with conventional burs. In conclusion, Er:YAG laser irradiations accompanied by phosphoric acid etching can reduce the chance of recurrent carries.

Keywords: lasers, drilling, caries, micro leakage

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69 Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro

Authors: Sulaiman B. Ali Alharbi, Bassam H. Mashat, Naif Abdullah Al-Harbi, Milton Wainwright, Abeer S. Aloufi, Sulamain Alnaimat

Abstract:

Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.

Keywords: bacterial inhibition, fungal growth stimulation, medical uses of bismuth, yeast inhibition

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68 Street Begging: A Loss of Human Resource in Nigeria

Authors: Sulaiman Kassim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Human Resource is one of the most important elements in any country. They are very important in actualizing the potential of every sector in the country, i.e Agric, Education, Finance, Judiciary and all formal and informal sectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the loss of human resource in Nigeria through street begging. The study used intensive literature review. Finding from the review indicate that a significant number of human resource are into street begging in the country undeveloped and untapped. The paper recommend that policy should be initiated to discourage street begging, develop this resource through education and empowerment, stop rural-urban migration by providing infrastructure in the rural areas and abolish informal (Almajiri or beggars school) and transform it into formal school.

Keywords: human resource, street begging, Nigeria, Almajiri

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67 Graphene-Oxide-Supported Coal-Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Shaeel A. Al Thabaiti, Sulaiman N. Basahel, Salem M. Bawaked, Mohamed Mokhtar

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Nanosheets for cobalt-layered double hydroxide (Co-Al-LDH)/GO were successfully synthesized with different Co:M g:Al ratios (0:3:1, 1.5:1.5:1, and 3:0:1). The layered double hydroxide structure and morphology were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature prgrammed reduction (TPR) of Co-Al-LDH showed reduction peaks at lower temperature which indicates the ease reducibility of this particular sample. The thermal behaviour was studied using thermal graviemetric technique (TG), and the BET-surface area was determined using N2 physisorption at -196°C. The C-C coupling reaction was carried out over all the investigated catalysts. The Mg–Al LDH catalyst without Co ions is inactive, but the isomorphic substitution of Mg by Co ions (Co:Mg:Al = 1.5:1.5:1) in the cationic sheet resulted in 88% conversion of iodobenzene under reflux. LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher activity than for the unsupported LDH.

Keywords: adsorption, co-precipitation, graphene oxide, layer double hydroxide

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66 Transient Analysis of Laminated Rubber Bearing Bridge during High Intensity Earthquake

Authors: N. M. Amin, W. N. A. W. Sulaiman

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The effectiveness of the seismic response between 3D solid elements model and simplified beam elements model has been investigated. At present, the studies of the numerical modelling using 3D solid element are minimal due to numerical software constraint. The finite element analysis using 3D solid element was chosen to study displacement response of laminated rubber bearing (LRB) during high intensity Kobe earthquake. In this research a simply supported bridge (single span), fixed at support was analysed by using transient analysis subjected to real time history loading of Kobe earthquake.

Keywords: laminated rubber bearing, solid element, simplified beam element, transient analysis

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65 Design of Residential Geothermal Cooling System in Kuwait

Authors: Tebah KH A AlFouzan, Meznah Dahlous Ali Alkreebani, Fatemah Salem Dekheel Alrasheedi, Hanadi Bandar Rughayan AlNomas, Muneerah Mohammad Sulaiman ALOjairi

Abstract:

Article spotlights the heat transfer process based beneath the earth’s surface. The process starts by exchanging the heat found in the building as fluid in the pipes absorbs it, then transports it down the soil consuming cool temperature exchange, recirculating, and rebounding to deliver cool air. This system is a renewable energy that is reliable and sustainable. The analysis showed the disposal of fossil fuels, energy preservation, 400% efficiency, long lifespan, and lower maintenance. Investigation displays the system’s types of design, whether open or closed loop and piping layout. Finally, the geothermal cooling study presents the challenges of creating a prototype in Kuwait, as constraints are applicable due to geography.

Keywords: cooling system, engineering, geothermal cooling, natural ventilation, renewable energy

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64 Effect of Pulse Duration and Current to the EDM Process on Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel

Authors: S. Sulaiman, M. A. Razak, M. R. Ibrahim, A. A. Khan

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An experimental work on the effect of different current and pulse duration on performance of EDM process of Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel (UNS T30402). The effect of varying the machining parameters on the machining responses such as material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) have been investigated. In this study, triangular shape and circular shape of copper was used as an electrode with surface area of 100 mm². The experiments were repeated for three different values of pulse duration (100 µs, 200 µs and 400 µs) with combination of three different values of discharge current (12 A, 16 A and 24 A). It was found that the pulse duration and current have significant effect on MRR, EWR and Ra. An increase in the pulse durations causes an increase in the MRR and Ra, but a decrease in the EWR. Meanwhile, the effect of currents on EDM performance shows that the increasing currents lead to an increase in the MRR, EWR and Ra.

Keywords: allegheny ludlum D2 tool steel, current, EDM, surface roughness, pulse duration

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63 Hydrodynamics of Periphyton Biofilters in Recirculating Aquaculture

Authors: Adam N. Bell, Sarina J. Ergas, Michael Nystrom, Nathan P. Brennan, Kevan L. Main

Abstract:

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture systems (IMTA) have the potential to improve the sustainability of seafood production, generate organic fertilizer and feed, remove waste discharges and reduce energy use. IMTA can include periphyton biofilters where algae and microbes grow on surfaces, along with caught detritus and amphipods. Periphyton biofilters provide many advantages: nitrification, denitrification, primary production and ecological diversity. The goal of this study was to determine how biofilter hydraulic residence time (τ) effects periphyton biomass production, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient removal. A pilot scale recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was designed, constructed and operated at different hydraulic residence times (τ= 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours per tank). For each τ, a conservative tracer study was conducted to investigate system hydrodynamics. Data on periphyton weights, pH, nitrogen species, phosphorus, temperature and DO were collected. The tracer study for τ =1 hour revealed that the normalized time < τ, indicating short-circuiting. Periphyton biomass production rate was relatively unaffected by τ (R_e<1 for all τ). Average ammonia nitrogen removal was > 75% for all trials. Nitrate and nitrite did not accumulate in the RAS for τ≥4 hours due to enhanced denitrification in anoxic zones. For τ≥4 hours DO concentration was at a maximum of 4 mg L-1 after 14:00, and decreased to 0 mg L-1 during nighttime. At τ=1 hour, the RAS stayed > 2 mg L-1 and DO was more evenly distributed. For the validation trial, the culture tank was stocked with Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and the system was operated at τ= 1 hr. Preliminary results showed that a RAS with an integrated periphyton biofilter could support fish health with low nutrient concentrations DO > 6 mg L-1.

Keywords: sustainable aquaculture, resource recovery, nitrogen, microalgae, hydrodynamics, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
62 The Impact of Election Observation on Electoral Reforms in Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Sulaiman

Abstract:

The paper examines how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Over the years, election observation continues to play critical role in the electoral process specifically in Nigeria and Africa at large. Election observation keeps an eye on the electoral process and all the stakeholders during elections, to ensure that the process is fair to all contestants. While literature abound on this role of election observation on electoral process in Nigeria, scanty scholarly efforts have been made to appraise how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Also, while election observation may play a role in ensuring that the electoral process is credible, specifically, its role in prvoking and eliciting various electoral reforms in the country has not been explored. The paper adopts the explanatory research design using secondary data and document analysis. Preliminary findings show that election observation has influenced electoral reforms in Nigeria in no small measure. The paper concludes that election observation is critical for result oriented electoral reforms in Nigeria, albeit, such reforms have to be implemented to the latter.

Keywords: electoral reforms, election observation, electoral process, developing country

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61 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: street children, health status, psychology wellbeing, homeless

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60 Biogenic-Sedimentary Structures of the Ordovician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone, Kurdistan, Iraq

Authors: Waleed Sulaiman Shingaly

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The Ordivician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone of Iraqi-Kurdistan comprises between 500 and 800 m of alternating predominantly greenish-grey sandstones, siltstones and shales. The succession has revealed an abundant ichnofossils characterized by 11 ichnogenus, namely: Helminthopsis, Gordia, Cruziana, Rusophycus, Monomorphichnus, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoide, Planolite, Paleophycus, Deplocraterion and Skolithose. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. This association of ichnofossils contains elements of the Skolithose and Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shore face/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate shoreface-offshore zone of shallow-marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Khabour Formation.

Keywords: Ichnofossils, shoreface-offshore zone, Khabour Formation, Iraq

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59 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: banana waste, biomass, renewable energy, thermo-chemical characteristics

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58 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System

Authors: A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, S. Sulaiman, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah

Abstract:

In this study, the effectiveness of integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp. in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phytogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.

Keywords: phytoremediation, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond, aquatic plants

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57 The Arab Spring Rebellion or Revolution: An Analysis of the Text

Authors: Sulaiman Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper will analyse the classical Islamic text in order to determine whether the Arab spring was a rebellion or a revolution. Commencing in 2010, we saw a series of revolutions or what some would call rebellions throughout the Arab peninsula. Many of the religious clergies came out emphatically in support of the people who wanted to overthrow the leaders. This brought forth the important question about the acceptability of rebelling against unjust leaders in Islamic theological texts. The paper will look to analyse the Islamic legal and theological position on the permissibility of rebelling, whether there is scholarly consensus on the issue, and how the texts are analysed in order to come to the current position we have today. The position of the clergy who supported the Arab spring will also be analysed in order to deduce if their position falls within the religious framework. An inquiry will be about to determine the ideology of those who joined the rebellion after the inception and whether these ideas can be found in classical Islamic texts. The nuances of these positions will be analysed in order to determine whether what we witnessed was a rebellion or a revolution.

Keywords: rebellion, revolution, Arab spring, scholarly consensus

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
56 The Proactive Approach of Digital Forensics Methodology against Targeted Attack Malware

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Each individual organization has their own mechanism to build up cyber defense capability in protecting their information infrastructures from data breaches and cyber espionage. But, we can not deny the possibility of failing to detect and stop cyber attacks especially for those targeting credential information and intellectual property (IP). In this paper, we would like to share the modern approach of effective digital forensic methodology in order to identify the artifacts in tracing the trails of evidence while mitigating the infection from the target machine/s. This proposed approach will suit the digital forensic investigation to be conducted while resuming the business critical operation after mitigating the infection and minimizing the risk from the identified attack to transpire. Therefore, traditional digital forensics methodology has to be improvised to be proactive which not only focusing to discover the root caused and the threat actor but to develop the relevant mitigation plan in order to prevent from the same attack.

Keywords: digital forensic, detection, eradication, targeted attack, malware

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55 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj

Abstract:

Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
54 Flexural Behavior of Voided Slabs Reinforced With Basalt Bars

Authors: Jazlah Majeed Sulaiman, Lakshmi P.

Abstract:

Concrete slabs are considered to be very ductile structural members. Openings in reinforced slabs are necessary so as to install the mechanical, electrical and pumping (MEP) conduits and ducts. However, these openings reduce the load-carrying capacity, stiffness, energy, and ductility of the slabs. To resolve the undesirable effects of openings in the slab behavior, it is significant to achieve the desired strength against the loads acting on it. The use of Basalt Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (BFRP) as reinforcement has become a valid sustainable option as they produce less greenhouse gases, resist corrosion and have higher tensile strength. In this paper, five slab models are analyzed using non-linear static analysis in ANSYS Workbench to study the effect of openings on slabs reinforced with basalt bars. A parametric numerical study on the loading condition and the shape and size of the opening is conducted, and their load and displacement values are compared. One of the models is validated experimentally.

Keywords: concrete slabs, openings, BFRP, sustainable, corrosion resistant, non-linear static analysis, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
53 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: multi-wavelength Q-switched, multi-walled carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 469