Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Alexandra-Veronica Luca

35 Characterization of the in 0.53 Ga 0.47 as n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani

Abstract:

We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detectivity for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed. The responsivity and the detectivity are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: detectivity, photodetectors, continuity equation, current noise

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34 Lisbon Experience, Mobility, Quality of Life and Tourist Image: A Survey

Authors: Luca Zarrilli, Miguel Brito, Marianna Cappucci

Abstract:

Tourists recently awarded Lisbon as the best city break destination in Europe. This article analyses the various types of tourist experiences in the city of Lisbon. The research method is the questionnaire, aimed at investigating the choices of tourists in the area of mobility, their perception of the quality of life and their level of appreciation of neighbourhoods, landmarks and infrastructures. There is an obvious link between the quality of life and the quality of the tourist experience, but it is difficult to measure it. Through this questionnaire, we hope to have made a small contribution to the understanding of the perceptive sphere of the individual and his choices in terms of behaviour, which is an essential element of any strategy for tourism marketing.

Keywords: Lisbon, mobility, quality of life, perception, tourism, hospitality

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33 Full-Wave Analysis of Magnetic Meta-Surfaces for Microwave Component Applications

Authors: Christopher Hardly Joseph, Nicola Pelagalli, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni

Abstract:

In this contribution, we report the electromagnetic response of a split ring resonator (SRR) based magnetic metamaterial unit cell in free space nature by means of a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The effective parameters of these designed structures have been analyzed. The structures have been specifically designed to work at high frequency considering the development of many microwave and lower mm-wave devices. In addition to that, the application of the designed metamaterial structures is also proposed, namely metamaterial loaded planar transmission lines, potentially useful to optimize size and quality factor of circuit components and radiating elements.

Keywords: CPW, Microwave Components, Negative Permeability, Split Ring Resonator (SRR)

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32 Utilization of Treated Spend Pot Lining by Product from the Primary Aluminum Production in Cement and Concrete

Authors: Hang Tran, Victor Brial, Luca Sorelli, Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon, David Conciatori, Laurent Birry

Abstract:

Spend pot lining (SPL) is a by-product generated from primary aluminum production. SPL consists of two parts, the first cut is rich in carbonaceous materials, and the second cut is rich in aluminum and silicon oxides. After treating by the hydrometallurgical Low Caustic Leaching and Liming process, the refractory part of SPL becomes an inert material, called LCLL ash in this project. LCLL ash was calcined at different temperatures (800 and 1000°C) and Calcined LCLL ash ground as fines of cement and replacement a part of cement in concrete production. The effect of LCLL ash on the chemical properties, mechanical properties and fresh behavior of concrete was evaluated by isothermal calorimetry, compressive test, and slump test. These results were compared to the reference mixture.

Keywords: spend pot lining, concrete, cement, compressive strength, calorimetry

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31 Networked Radar System to Increase Safety of Urban Railroad Crossing

Authors: Sergio Saponara, Luca Fanucci, Riccardo Cassettari, Ruggero Piernicola, Marco Righetto

Abstract:

The paper presents an innovative networked radar system for detection of obstacles in a railway level crossing scenario. This Monitoring System (MS) is able to detect moving or still obstacles within the railway level crossing area automatically, avoiding the need of human presence for surveillance. The MS is also connected to the National Railway Information and Signaling System to communicate in real-time the level crossing status. The architecture is compliant with the highest Safety Integrity Level (SIL4) of the CENELEC standard. The number of radar sensors used is configurable at set-up time and depends on how large the level crossing area can be. At least two sensors are expected and up four can be used for larger areas. The whole processing chain that elaborates the output sensor signals, as well as the communication interface, is fully-digital, was designed in VHDL code and implemented onto a Xilinx Virtex 6.

Keywords: radar for safe mobility, railroad crossing, railway, transport safety

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30 The Effects of Big 6+6 Skill Training on Daily Living Skills for an Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Luca Vascelli, Silvia Iacomini, Giada Gueli, Francesca Cavallini, Carlo Cavallini, Federica Berardo

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on Big 6 + 6 motor skills to promote daily living skills. Precision teaching (PT) suggests that improved speed of the component behaviors can lead to better performance of composite skills. This study assessed the effects of the repeated timed practice of component motor skills on speed and accuracy of composite skills related to daily living skills. An 18 years old adolescent with intellectual disability participated. A pre post probe single-subject design was used. The results suggest that the participant was able to perform the component skills at his individual aims (endurance was assessed). The speed and accuracy of composite skills were increased; stability and retention were also measured for the composite skill after the training.

Keywords: big 6+6, daily living skills, intellectual disability, precision teaching

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29 Early Detection of Major Earthquakes Using Broadband Accelerometers

Authors: Umberto Cerasani, Luca Cerasani

Abstract:

Methods for earthquakes forecasting have been intensively investigated in the last decades, but there is still no universal solution agreed by seismologists. Rock failure is most often preceded by a tiny elastic movement in the failure area and by the appearance of micro-cracks. These micro-cracks could be detected at the soil surface and represent useful earth-quakes precursors. The aim of this study was to verify whether tiny raw acceleration signals (in the 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ cm/s² range) prior to the arrival of main primary-waves could be exploitable and related to earthquakes magnitude. Mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), moving average and wavelets have been applied on raw acceleration data available on the ITACA web site, and the study focused on one of the most unpredictable earth-quakes, i.e., the August 24th, 2016 at 01H36 one that occurred in the central Italy area. It appeared that these tiny acceleration signals preceding main P-waves have different patterns both on frequency and time domains for high magnitude earthquakes compared to lower ones.

Keywords: earthquake, accelerometer, earthquake forecasting, seism

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28 Analytical Terahertz Characterization of In0.53Ga0.47As Transistors and Homogenous Diodes

Authors: Abdelmadjid Mammeri, Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani, H. Marinchoi

Abstract:

We propose an analytical model for the admittance and the noise calculations of the InGaAs transistor and diode. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The frequency-dependent of the small-signal admittance response is determined by the total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals. The noise is evaluated by using the real part of the transistor/diode admittance under a small-signal perturbation. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand; to control the appearance of the plasma resonances, and on other hand; can give significant information about the noise frequency dependence in the InGaAs transistor and diode.

Keywords: InGaAs transistors, InGaAs diode, admittance, resonant peaks, plasma waves, analytical model

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27 Reducing Weight and Fuel Consumption of Civil Aircraft by EML

Authors: Luca Bertola, Tom Cox, Pat Wheeler, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan

Abstract:

Electromagnetic launch systems have been proposed for military applications to accelerate jet planes on aircraft carriers. This paper proposes the implementation of similar technology to aid civil aircraft take-off, which can provide significant economic, environmental and technical benefits. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing ground noise and emissions near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. This paper presents a take-off performance analysis for an Airbus A320-200 taking off with and without the assistance of the electromagnetic catapult. Assisted take-off allows for a significant reduction in take-off field length, giving more capacity with existing airport footprints and reducing the necessary footprint of new airports, which will both reduce costs and increase the number of suitable sites. The electromagnetic catapult may allow the installation of smaller engines with lower rated thrust. The consequent fuel consumption and operational cost reduction are estimated. The potential of reducing the aircraft operational costs and the runway length required making electromagnetic launch system an attractive solution to the air traffic growth in busy airports.

Keywords: electromagnetic launch, fuel consumption, take-off analysis, weight reduction

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26 The Trigger-DAQ System in the Mu2e Experiment

Authors: Antonio Gioiosa, Simone Doanti, Eric Flumerfelt, Luca Morescalchi, Elena Pedreschi, Gianantonio Pezzullo, Ryan A. Rivera, Franco Spinella

Abstract:

The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the charged-lepton flavour violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus. With the expected experimental sensitivity, Mu2e will improve the previous limit of four orders of magnitude. The Mu2e data acquisition (DAQ) system provides hardware and software to collect digitized data from the tracker, calorimeter, cosmic ray veto, and beam monitoring systems. Mu2e’s trigger and data acquisition system (TDAQ) uses otsdaq as its solution. developed at Fermilab, otsdaq uses the artdaq DAQ framework and art analysis framework, under-the-hood, for event transfer, filtering, and processing. Otsdaq is an online DAQ software suite with a focus on flexibility and scalability while providing a multi-user, web-based interface accessible through the Chrome or Firefox web browser. The detector read out controller (ROC) from the tracker and calorimeter stream out zero-suppressed data continuously to the data transfer controller (DTC). Data is then read over the PCIe bus to a software filter algorithm that selects events which are finally combined with the data flux that comes from a cosmic ray veto system (CRV).

Keywords: trigger, daq, mu2e, Fermilab

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25 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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24 Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass

Authors: David Halley, Tyra Oseng-Rees, Luca Pagano, Juan A Ferriz-Papi

Abstract:

Recycled glass material is made from 100% recycled bottle glass and consumes less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principal, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to other materials such as natural stone, ceramics and glass. A drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured with two different thicknesses and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically, obtaining results with 5 and 10 J. The results on the material were subsequently discussed. Improvements on the procedure can be made using high speed video technology to calculate velocity just before and immediately after the impact to know the absorbed energy. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.

Keywords: construction materials, drop weight impact, impact testing, recycled glass

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23 A Mathematical Investigation of the Turkevich Organizer Theory in the Citrate Method for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Emmanuel Agunloye, Asterios Gavriilidis, Luca Mazzei

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with sodium citrate. This method, referred to as the citrate method, can produce spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range 10-150 nm. Gold NPs of this size are useful in many applications. However, the NPs are usually polydisperse and irreproducible. A better understanding of the synthesis mechanisms is thus required. This work thoroughly investigated the only model that describes the synthesis. This model combines mass and population balance equations, describing the NPs synthesis through a sequence of chemical reactions. Chloroauric acid reacts with sodium citrate to form aurous chloride and dicarboxy acetone. The latter organizes aurous chloride in a nucleation step and concurrently degrades into acetone. The unconsumed precursor then grows the formed nuclei. However, depending on the pH, both the precursor and the reducing agent react differently thus affecting the synthesis. In this work, we investigated the model for different conditions of pH, temperature and initial reactant concentrations. To solve the model, we used Parsival, a commercial numerical code, whilst to test it, we considered various conditions studied experimentally by different researchers, for which results are available in the literature. The model poorly predicted the experimental data. We believe that this is because the model does not account for the acid-base properties of both chloroauric acid and sodium citrate.

Keywords: citrate method, gold nanoparticles, Parsival, population balance equations, Turkevich organizer theory

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22 Non-Destructive Testing of Selective Laser Melting Products

Authors: Luca Collini, Michele Antolotti, Diego Schiavi

Abstract:

At present, complex geometries within production time shrinkage, rapidly increasing demand, and high-quality standard requirement make the non-destructive (ND) control of additively manufactured components indispensable means. On the other hand, a technology gap and the lack of standards regulating the methods and the acceptance criteria indicate the NDT of these components a stimulating field to be still fully explored. Up to date, penetrant testing, acoustic wave, tomography, radiography, and semi-automated ultrasound methods have been tested on metal powder based products so far. External defects, distortion, surface porosity, roughness, texture, internal porosity, and inclusions are the typical defects in the focus of testing. Detection of density and layers compactness are also been tried on stainless steels by the ultrasonic scattering method. In this work, the authors want to present and discuss the radiographic and the ultrasound ND testing on additively manufactured Ti₆Al₄V and inconel parts obtained by the selective laser melting (SLM) technology. In order to test the possibilities given by the radiographic method, both X-Rays and γ-Rays are tried on a set of specifically designed specimens realized by the SLM. The specimens contain a family of defectology, which represent the most commonly found, as cracks and lack of fusion. The tests are also applied to real parts of various complexity and thickness. A set of practical indications and of acceptance criteria is finally drawn.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, selective laser melting, radiography, UT method

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21 Crossing Narrative Waters in World Cinema: Alamar (2009) and Kaili Blues (2015)

Authors: Dustin Dill

Abstract:

The physical movement of crossing over water points to both developing narrative tropes and innovative cinematography in World Cinema today. Two prime examples, Alamar (2009) by Pedro González-Rubio and Kaili Blues (2015) by Bi Gan, demonstrate how contemporary storytelling in a film not only rests upon these water shots but also emerges from them. The range of symbolism that these episodes in the story provoke goes hand in hand with the diverse filming sequences found in the respective productions. While González-Rubio decides to cut the scene into long and longer shots, Gan uses a single take. The differing angles depict equally unique directors and film projects: Alamar runs parallel to many definitions of the essay film, and Kaili Blues resonates much more with mystery and art film. Nonetheless, the crossing of water scenes influence the narratives’ subjects despite the generic consequences, and it is within the essay, mystery, and art film genres which allows for a better understanding of World Cinema. Tiago de Luca explains World Cinema’s prerogative of giving form to a certain type of spectator does not always line up. Given the immense number of interpretations of crossing water —the escape from suffering to find nirvana, rebirth, and colonization— underline the difficulty of categorizing it. If before this type of cross-genre was a trait that defined World Cinema in its beginning, this study observes that González-Rubio and Gan question the all-encompassing genre with their experimental shots of a universal narrative trope, the crossing of water.

Keywords: cinematography, genre, narrative, world cinema

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20 Understanding Tourism Innovation through Fuzzy Measures

Authors: Marcella De Filippo, Delio Colangelo, Luca Farnia

Abstract:

In recent decades, the hyper-competition of tourism scenario has implicated the maturity of many businesses, attributing a central role to innovative processes and their dissemination in the economy of company management. At the same time, it has defined the need for monitoring the application of innovations, in order to govern and improve the performance of companies and destinations. The study aims to analyze and define the innovation in the tourism sector. The research actions have concerned, on the one hand, some in-depth interviews with experts, identifying innovation in terms of process and product, digitalization, sustainability policies and, on the other hand, to evaluate the interaction between these factors, in terms of substitutability and complementarity in management scenarios, in order to identify which one is essential to be competitive in the global scenario. Fuzzy measures and Choquet integral were used to elicit Experts’ preferences. This method allows not only to evaluate the relative importance of each pillar, but also and more interestingly, the level of interaction, ranging from complementarity to substitutability, between pairs of factors. The results of the survey are the following: in terms of Shapley values, Experts assert that Innovation is the most important factor (32.32), followed by digitalization (31.86), Network (20.57) and Sustainability (15.25). In terms of Interaction indices, given the low degree of consensus among experts, the interaction between couples of criteria on average could be ignored; however, it is worth to note that the factors innovations and digitalization are those in which experts express the highest degree of interaction. However for some of them, these factors have a moderate level of complementarity (with a pick of 57.14), and others consider them moderately substitutes (with a pick of -39.58). Another example, although outlier is the interaction between network and digitalization, in which an expert consider them markedly substitutes (-77.08).

Keywords: innovation, business model, tourism, fuzzy

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19 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: architectural typology, developing countries, local construction techniques, primary health care.

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18 Faster Pedestrian Recognition Using Deformable Part Models

Authors: Alessandro Preziosi, Antonio Prioletti, Luca Castangia

Abstract:

Deformable part models achieve high precision in pedestrian recognition, but all publicly available implementations are too slow for real-time applications. We implemented a deformable part model algorithm fast enough for real-time use by exploiting information about the camera position and orientation. This implementation is both faster and more precise than alternative DPM implementations. These results are obtained by computing convolutions in the frequency domain and using lookup tables to speed up feature computation. This approach is almost an order of magnitude faster than the reference DPM implementation, with no loss in precision. Knowing the position of the camera with respect to horizon it is also possible prune many hypotheses based on their size and location. The range of acceptable sizes and positions is set by looking at the statistical distribution of bounding boxes in labelled images. With this approach it is not needed to compute the entire feature pyramid: for example higher resolution features are only needed near the horizon. This results in an increase in mean average precision of 5% and an increase in speed by a factor of two. Furthermore, to reduce misdetections involving small pedestrians near the horizon, input images are supersampled near the horizon. Supersampling the image at 1.5 times the original scale, results in an increase in precision of about 4%. The implementation was tested against the public KITTI dataset, obtaining an 8% improvement in mean average precision over the best performing DPM-based method. By allowing for a small loss in precision computational time can be easily brought down to our target of 100ms per image, reaching a solution that is faster and still more precise than all publicly available DPM implementations.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deformable part model, dpm, pedestrian detection, real time

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17 Rumination Time and Reticuloruminal Temperature around Calving in Eutocic and Dystocic Dairy Cows

Authors: Levente Kovács, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Ottó Szenci

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Prediction of the onset of calving and recognizing difficulties at calving has great importance in decreasing neonatal losses and reducing the risk of health problems in the early postpartum period. In this study, changes of rumination time, reticuloruminal pH and temperature were investigated in eutocic (EUT, n = 10) and dystocic (DYS, n = 8) dairy cows around parturition. Rumination time was continuously recorded using an acoustic biotelemetry system, whereas reticuloruminal pH and temperature were recorded using an indwelling and wireless data transmitting system. The recording period lasted from 3 d before calving until 7 days in milk. For the comparison of rumination time and reticuloruminal characteristics between groups, time to return to baseline (the time interval required to return to baseline from the delivery of the calf) and area under the curve (AUC, both for prepartum and postpartum periods) were calculated for each parameter. Rumination time decreased from baseline 28 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.023 and P = 0.017, respectively). After 20 h before calving, it decreased onwards to reach 32.4 ± 2.3 and 13.2 ± 2.0 min/4 h between 8 and 4 h before delivery in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and then it decreased below 10 and 5 min during the last 4 h before calving (P = 0.003 and P = 0.008, respectively). Until 12 h after delivery rumination time reached 42.6 ± 2.7 and 51.0 ± 3.1 min/4 h in DYS and EUT dams, respectively, however, AUC and time to return to baseline suggested lower rumination activity in DYS cows than in EUT dams for the 168-h postpartum observational period (P = 0.012 and P = 0.002, respectively). Reticuloruminal pH decreased from baseline 56 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively), but did not differ between groups before delivery. In DYS cows, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from baseline 32 h before calving by 0.23 ± 0.02 °C (P = 0.012), whereas in EUT cows such a decrease was found only 20 h before delivery (0.48 ± 0.05 °C, P < 0.01). AUC of reticuloruminal temperature calculated for the prepartum period was greater in EUT cows than in DYS cows (P = 0.042). During the first 4 h after calving, it decreased from 39.7 ± 0.1 to 39.00 ± 0.1 °C and from 39.8 ± 0.1 to 38.8 ± 0.1 °C in EUT and DYS cows, respectively (P < 0.01 for both groups) and reached baseline levels after 35.4 ± 3.4 and 37.8 ± 4.2 h after calving in EUT and DYS cows, respectively. Based on our results, continuous monitoring of changes in rumination time and reticuloruminal temperature seems to be promising in the early detection of cows with a higher risk of dystocia. Depressed postpartum rumination time of DYS cows highlights the importance of the monitoring of cows experiencing difficulties at calving.

Keywords: reticuloruminal pH, reticuloruminal temperature, rumination time, dairy cows, dystocia

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16 A Settlement Strategy for Health Facilities in Emerging Countries: A Case Study in Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Piero Favino, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A settlement strategy is to anticipate and respond the needs of existing and future communities through the provision of primary health care facilities in marginalized areas. Access to a health care network is important to improving healthcare coverage, often lacking, in developing countries. The study explores that a good sanitary system strategy of rural contexts brings advantages to an existing settlement: improving transport, communication, water and social facilities. The objective of this paper is to define a possible methodology to implement primary health care facilities in disadvantaged areas of emerging countries. In this research, we analyze the case study of Lauro de Freitas, a municipality in the Brazilian state of Bahia, part of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, with an area of 57,662 km² and 194.641 inhabitants. The health localization system in Lauro de Freitas is an integrated process that involves not only geographical aspects, but also a set of factors: population density, epidemiological data, allocation of services, road networks, and more. Data were collected also using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to the local population. Synthesized data suggest that moving away from the coast where there is the greatest concentration of population and services, a network of primary health care facilities is able to improve the living conditions of small-dispersed communities. Based on the health service needs of populations, we have developed a methodological approach that is particularly useful in rural and remote contexts in emerging countries.

Keywords: healthcare, settlement strategy, urban health, rural

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15 A Flexible Real-Time Eco-Drive Strategy for Electric Minibus

Authors: Felice De Luca, Vincenzo Galdi, Piera Stella, Vito Calderaro, Adriano Campagna, Antonio Piccolo

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Sustainable mobility has become one of the major issues of recent years. The challenge in reducing polluting emissions as much as possible has led to the production and diffusion of vehicles with internal combustion engines that are less polluting and to the adoption of green energy vectors, such as vehicles powered by natural gas or LPG and, more recently, with hybrid and electric ones. While on the one hand, the spread of electric vehicles for private use is becoming a reality, albeit rather slowly, not the same is happening for vehicles used for public transport, especially those that operate in the congested areas of the cities. Even if the first electric buses are increasingly being offered on the market, it remains central to the problem of autonomy for battery fed vehicles with high daily routes and little time available for recharging. In fact, at present, solid-state batteries are still too large in size, heavy, and unable to guarantee the required autonomy. Therefore, in order to maximize the energy management on the vehicle, the optimization of driving profiles offer a faster and cheaper contribution to improve vehicle autonomy. In this paper, following the authors’ precedent works on electric vehicles in public transport and energy management strategies in the electric mobility area, an eco-driving strategy for electric bus is presented and validated. Particularly, the characteristics of the prototype bus are described, and a general-purpose eco-drive methodology is briefly presented. The model is firstly simulated in MATLAB™ and then implemented on a mobile device installed on-board of a prototype bus developed by the authors in a previous research project. The solution implemented furnishes the bus-driver suggestions on the guide style to adopt. The result of the test in a real case will be shown to highlight the effectiveness of the solution proposed in terms of energy saving.

Keywords: eco-drive, electric bus, energy management, prototype

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14 Development and Validation of a Carbon Dioxide TDLAS Sensor for Studies on Fermented Dairy Products

Authors: Lorenzo Cocola, Massimo Fedel, Dragiša Savić, Bojana Danilović, Luca Poletto

Abstract:

An instrument for the detection and evaluation of gaseous carbon dioxide in the headspace of closed containers has been developed in the context of Packsensor Italian-Serbian joint project. The device is based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) with a Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) technique in order to accomplish a non-invasive measurement inside closed containers of fermented dairy products (yogurts and fermented cheese in cups and bottles). The purpose of this instrument is the continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration during incubation and storage of products over a time span of the whole shelf life of the product, in the presence of different microorganisms. The instrument’s optical front end has been designed to be integrated in a thermally stabilized incubator. An embedded computer provides processing of spectral artifacts and storage of an arbitrary set of calibration data allowing a properly calibrated measurement on many samples (cups and bottles) of different shapes and sizes commonly found in the retail distribution. A calibration protocol has been developed in order to be able to calibrate the instrument on the field also on containers which are notoriously difficult to seal properly. This calibration protocol is described and evaluated against reference measurements obtained through an industry standard (sampling) carbon dioxide metering technique. Some sets of validation test measurements on different containers are reported. Two test recordings of carbon dioxide concentration evolution are shown as an example of instrument operation. The first demonstrates the ability to monitor a rapid yeast growth in a contaminated sample through the increase of headspace carbon dioxide. Another experiment shows the dissolution transient with a non-saturated liquid medium in presence of a carbon dioxide rich headspace atmosphere.

Keywords: TDLAS, carbon dioxide, cups, headspace, measurement

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13 Comparison of Inexpensive Cell Disruption Techniques for an Oleaginous Yeast

Authors: Scott Nielsen, Luca Longanesi, Chris Chuck

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Palm oil is obtained from the flesh and kernel of the fruit of oil palms and is the most productive and inexpensive oil crop. The global demand for palm oil is approximately 75 million metric tonnes, a 29% increase in global production of palm oil since 2016. This expansion of oil palm cultivation has resulted in mass deforestation, vast biodiversity destruction and increasing net greenhouse gas emissions. One possible alternative is to produce a saturated oil, similar to palm, from microbes such as oleaginous yeast. The yeasts can be cultured on sugars derived from second-generation sources and do not compete with tropical forests for land. One highly promising oleaginous yeast for this application is Metschnikowia pulcherrima. However, recent techno-economic modeling has shown that cell lysis and standard lipid extraction are major contributors to the cost of the oil. Typical cell disruption techniques to extract either single cell oils or proteins have been based around bead-beating, homogenization and acid lysis. However, these can have a detrimental effect on lipid quality and are energy-intensive. In this study, a vortex separator, which produces high sheer with minimal energy input, was investigated as a potential low energy method of lysing cells. This was compared to four more traditional methods (thermal lysis, acid lysis, alkaline lysis, and osmotic lysis). For each method, the yeast loading was also examined at 1 g/L, 10 g/L and 100 g/L. The quality of the cell disruption was measured by optical cell density, cell counting and the particle size distribution profile comparison over a 2-hour period. This study demonstrates that the vortex separator is highly effective at lysing the cells and could potentially be used as a simple apparatus for lipid recovery in an oleaginous yeast process. The further development of this technology could potentially reduce the overall cost of microbial lipids in the future.

Keywords: palm oil substitute, metschnikowia pulcherrima, cell disruption, cell lysis

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12 Monte Carlo and Biophysics Analysis in a Criminal Trial

Authors: Luca Indovina, Carmela Coppola, Carlo Altucci, Riccardo Barberi, Rocco Romano

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In this paper a real court case, held in Italy at the Court of Nola, in which a correct physical description, conducted with both a Monte Carlo and biophysical analysis, would have been sufficient to arrive at conclusions confirmed by documentary evidence, is considered. This will be an example of how forensic physics can be useful in confirming documentary evidence in order to reach hardly questionable conclusions. This was a libel trial in which the defendant, Mr. DS (Defendant for Slander), had falsely accused one of his neighbors, Mr. OP (Offended Person), of having caused him some damages. The damages would have been caused by an external plaster piece that would have detached from the neighbor’s property and would have hit Mr DS while he was in his garden, much more than a meter far away from the facade of the building from which the plaster piece would have detached. In the trial, Mr. DS claimed to have suffered a scratch on his forehead, but he never showed the plaster that had hit him, nor was able to tell from where the plaster would have arrived. Furthermore, Mr. DS presented a medical certificate with a diagnosis of contusion of the cerebral cortex. On the contrary, the images of Mr. OP’s security cameras do not show any movement in the garden of Mr. DS in a long interval of time (about 2 hours) around the time of the alleged accident, nor do they show any people entering or coming out from the house of Mr. DS in the same interval of time. Biophysical analysis shows that both the diagnosis of the medical certificate and the wound declared by the defendant, already in conflict with each other, are not compatible with the fall of external plaster pieces too small to be found. The wind was at a level 1 of the Beaufort scale, that is, unable to raise even dust (level 4 of the Beaufort scale). Therefore, the motion of the plaster pieces can be described as a projectile motion, whereas collisions with the building cornice can be treated using Newtons law of coefficients of restitution. Numerous numerical Monte Carlo simulations show that the pieces of plaster would not have been able to reach even the garden of Mr. DS, let alone a distance over 1.30 meters. Results agree with the documentary evidence (images of Mr. OP’s security cameras) that Mr. DS could not have been hit by plaster pieces coming from Mr. OP’s property.

Keywords: biophysics analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, Newton’s law of restitution, projectile motion

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11 Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Speed Skaters Measured in a Closed Wind Tunnel

Authors: Ola Elfmark, Lars M. Bardal, Luca Oggiano, H˚avard Myklebust

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Team pursuit is a relatively new event in international long track speed skating. For a single speed skater the aerodynamic drag will account for up to 80% of the braking force, thus reducing the drag can greatly improve the performance. In a team pursuit the interactions between athletes in near proximity will also be essential, but is not well studied. In this study, systematic measurements of the aerodynamic drag, body posture and relative positioning of speed skaters have been performed in the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in order to investigate the aerodynamic interaction between two speed skaters. Drag measurements of static speed skaters drafting, leading, side-by-side, and dynamic drag measurements in a synchronized and unsynchronized movement at different distances, were performed. The projected frontal area was measured for all postures and movements and a blockage correction was performed, as the blockage ratio ranged from 5-15% in the different setups. The static drag measurements where performed on two test subjects in two different postures, a low posture and a high posture, and two different distances between the test subjects 1.5T and 3T where T being the length of the torso (T=0.63m). A drag reduction was observed for all distances and configurations, from 39% to 11.4%, for the drafting test subject. The drag of the leading test subject was only influenced at -1.5T, with the biggest drag reduction of 5.6%. An increase in drag was seen for all side-by-side measurements, the biggest increase was observed to be 25.7%, at the closest distance between the test subjects, and the lowest at 2.7% with ∼ 0.7 m between the test subjects. A clear aerodynamic interaction between the test subjects and their postures was observed for most measurements during static measurements, with results corresponding well to recent studies. For the dynamic measurements, the leading test subject had a drag reduction of 3% even at -3T. The drafting showed a drag reduction of 15% when being in a synchronized (sync) motion with the leading test subject at 4.5T. The maximal drag reduction for both the leading and the drafting test subject were observed when being as close as possible in sync, with a drag reduction of 8.5% and 25.7% respectively. This study emphasize the importance of keeping a synchronized movement by showing that the maximal gain for the leading and drafting dropped to 3.2% and 3.3% respectively when the skaters are in opposite phase. Individual differences in technique also appear to influence the drag of the other test subject.

Keywords: aerodynamic interaction, drag force, frontal area, speed skating

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10 Recommendations for Data Quality Filtering of Opportunistic Species Occurrence Data

Authors: Camille Van Eupen, Dirk Maes, Marc Herremans, Kristijn R. R. Swinnen, Ben Somers, Stijn Luca

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In ecology, species distribution models are commonly implemented to study species-environment relationships. These models increasingly rely on opportunistic citizen science data when high-quality species records collected through standardized recording protocols are unavailable. While these opportunistic data are abundant, uncertainty is usually high, e.g., due to observer effects or a lack of metadata. Data quality filtering is often used to reduce these types of uncertainty in an attempt to increase the value of studies relying on opportunistic data. However, filtering should not be performed blindly. In this study, recommendations are built for data quality filtering of opportunistic species occurrence data that are used as input for species distribution models. Using an extensive database of 5.7 million citizen science records from 255 species in Flanders, the impact on model performance was quantified by applying three data quality filters, and these results were linked to species traits. More specifically, presence records were filtered based on record attributes that provide information on the observation process or post-entry data validation, and changes in the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed using the Maxent algorithm with and without filtering. Controlling for sample size enabled us to study the combined impact of data quality filtering, i.e., the simultaneous impact of an increase in data quality and a decrease in sample size. Further, the variation among species in their response to data quality filtering was explored by clustering species based on four traits often related to data quality: commonness, popularity, difficulty, and body size. Findings show that model performance is affected by i) the quality of the filtered data, ii) the proportional reduction in sample size caused by filtering and the remaining absolute sample size, and iii) a species ‘quality profile’, resulting from a species classification based on the four traits related to data quality. The findings resulted in recommendations on when and how to filter volunteer generated and opportunistically collected data. This study confirms that correctly processed citizen science data can make a valuable contribution to ecological research and species conservation.

Keywords: citizen science, data quality filtering, species distribution models, trait profiles

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9 Crowdsensing Project in the Brazilian Municipality of Florianópolis for the Number of Visitors Measurement

Authors: Carlos Roberto De Rolt, Julio da Silva Dias, Rafael Tezza, Luca Foschini, Matteo Mura

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The seasonal population fluctuation presents a challenge to touristic cities since the number of inhabitants can double according to the season. The aim of this work is to develop a model that correlates the waste collected with the population of the city and also allow cooperation between the inhabitants and the local government. The model allows public managers to evaluate the impact of the seasonal population fluctuation on waste generation and also to improve planning resource utilization throughout the year. The study uses data from the company that collects the garbage in Florianópolis, a Brazilian city that presents the profile of a city that attracts tourists due to numerous beaches and warm weather. The fluctuations are caused by the number of people that come to the city throughout the year for holidays, summer time vacations or business events. Crowdsensing will be accomplished through smartphones with access to an app for data collection, with voluntary participation of the population. Crowdsensing participants can access information collected in waves for this portal. Crowdsensing represents an innovative and participatory approach which involves the population in gathering information to improve the quality of life. The management of crowdsensing solutions plays an essential role given the complexity to foster collaboration, establish available sensors and collect and process the collected data. Practical implications of this tool described in this paper refer, for example, to the management of seasonal tourism in a large municipality, whose public services are impacted by the floating of the population. Crowdsensing and big data support managers in predicting the arrival, permanence, and movement of people in a given urban area. Also, by linking crowdsourced data to databases from other public service providers - e.g., water, garbage collection, electricity, public transport, telecommunications - it is possible to estimate the floating of the population of an urban area affected by seasonal tourism. This approach supports the municipality in increasing the effectiveness of resource allocation while, at the same time, increasing the quality of the service as perceived by citizens and tourists.

Keywords: big data, dashboards, floating population, smart city, urban management solutions

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8 CO₂ Capture by Membrane Applied to Steel Production Process

Authors: Alexandra-Veronica Luca, Letitia Petrescu

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Steel production is a major contributor to global warming potential. An average value of 1.83 tons of CO₂ is emitted for every ton of steel produced, resulting in over 3.3 Mt of CO₂ emissions each year. The present paper is focused on the investigation and comparison of two O₂ separation methods and two CO₂ capture technologies applicable to the iron and steel industry. The O₂ used in steel production comes from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) using distillation or from air separation using membranes. The CO₂ capture technologies are represented by a two-stage membrane separation process and the gas-liquid absorption using methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA). Process modeling and simulation tools, as well as environmental tools, are used in the present study. The production capacity of the steel mill is 4,000,000 tones/year. In order to compare the two CO₂ capture technologies in terms of efficiency, performance and sustainability, the following cases have been investigated: Case 1: steel production using O₂ from ASU and no CO₂ capture; Case 2: steel production using O₂ from ASU and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture; Case 3: steel production using O₂ from ASU and membranes for CO₂ capture; Case 4: steel production using O₂ from membrane separation method and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture and Case 5: steel production using membranes for air separation and CO₂ capture. The O₂ separation rate obtained in the distillation technology was about 96% and about 33% in the membrane technology. Similarly, the O₂ purity resulted in the conventional process (i.e., distillation) is higher compared to the O₂ purity obtained in the membrane unit (e.g., 99.50% vs. 73.66%). The air flow-rate required for membrane separation is about three times higher compared to the air flow-rate for cryogenic distillation (e.g., 549,096.93 kg/h vs. 189,743.82 kg/h). A CO₂ capture rate of 93.97% was obtained in the membrane case while the CO₂ capture rate for the gas-liquid absorption was 89.97%. A quantity of 6,626.49 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 95.45% is separated from the total 23,352.83 kg/h flue-gas in the membrane process while with absorption 6,173.94 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 98.79% is obtained from 21,902.04 kg/h flue-gas and 156,041.80 kg/h MDEA is recycled. The simulation results, performed using ChemCAD process simulator software, lead to the conclusion that membrane-based technology can be a suitable alternative for CO₂ removal for steel production. An environmental evaluation using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was also performed. Considering the electricity consumption, performance and environmental indicators, Case 3 can be considered the most effective. The environmental evaluation, performed using GaBi software, shows that membrane technology can lead to lower environmental emissions if membrane production is based on benzene derived from toluene hydrodealkilation, and chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced using mixed technologies.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, gas-liquid absorption, Life Cycle Assessment, membrane separation, steel production

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7 6-Degree-Of-Freedom Spacecraft Motion Planning via Model Predictive Control and Dual Quaternions

Authors: Omer Burak Iskender, Keck Voon Ling, Vincent Dubanchet, Luca Simonini

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This paper presents Guidance and Control (G&C) strategy to approach and synchronize with potentially rotating targets. The proposed strategy generates and tracks a safe trajectory for space servicing missions, including tasks like approaching, inspecting, and capturing. The main objective of this paper is to validate the G&C laws using a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) setup with realistic rendezvous and docking equipment. Throughout this work, the assumption of full relative state feedback is relaxed by onboard sensors that bring realistic errors and delays and, while the proposed closed loop approach demonstrates the robustness to the above mentioned challenge. Moreover, G&C blocks are unified via the Model Predictive Control (MPC) paradigm, and the coupling between translational motion and rotational motion is addressed via dual quaternion based kinematic description. In this work, G&C is formulated as a convex optimization problem where constraints such as thruster limits and the output constraints are explicitly handled. Furthermore, the Monte-Carlo method is used to evaluate the robustness of the proposed method to the initial condition errors, the uncertainty of the target's motion and attitude, and actuator errors. A capture scenario is tested with the robotic test bench that has onboard sensors which estimate the position and orientation of a drifting satellite through camera imagery. Finally, the approach is compared with currently used robust H-infinity controllers and guidance profile provided by the industrial partner. The HIL experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy is a potential candidate for future space servicing missions because 1) the algorithm is real-time implementable as convex programming offers deterministic convergence properties and guarantee finite time solution, 2) critical physical and output constraints are respected, 3) robustness to sensor errors and uncertainties in the system is proven, 4) couples translational motion with rotational motion.

Keywords: dual quaternion, model predictive control, real-time experimental test, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft autonomy, space servicing

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6 Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds

Authors: Silvia Gastaldello, Maria Grillo, Luca Tassoni, Claudio Maran, Stefano Balbo

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Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH assay, natural matrices, vegetal proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 200