Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 174

Search results for: standardization

174 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Standardization of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum sinaicum Hochst

Authors: Taghreed A. Ibrahim, Atef A. El-Hela, Hala M. El-Hefnawy

Abstract:

The chromatographic profile of methanol extract of Hypericum sinaicum was determined using HPLC-DAD. Apigenin was used as an external standard in the development and validation of the HPLC method. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be successfully applied for standardization of Hypericum sinaicum methanol extract.

Keywords: quality control, standardization, falvonoids, methanol extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
173 Preliminary Study of Standardization and Validation of Micronuclei Technique to Assess the DNA Damages Cause for the X-Rays

Authors: L. J. Díaz, M. A. Hernández, A. K. Molina, A. Bermúdez, C. Crane, V. M. Pabón

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One of the most important biological indicators that show the exposure to the radiation is the micronuclei (MN). This technique is using to determinate the radiation effects in blood cultures as a biological control and a complement to the physics dosimetry. In Colombia the necessity to apply this analysis has emerged due to the current biological indicator most used is the chromosomal aberrations (CA), that is why it is essential the MN technique’s standardization and validation to have enough tools to improve the radioprotection topic in the country. Besides, this technique will be applied on the construction of a dose-response curve, that allow measure an approximately dose to irradiated people according to MN frequency found. Inside the steps that carried out to accomplish the standardization and validation is the statistic analysis from the lectures of “in vitro” peripheral blood cultures with different analysts, also it was determinate the best culture medium and conditions for the MN can be detected easily.

Keywords: micronuclei, radioprotection, standardization, validation

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172 Meanings and Concepts of Standardization in Systems Medicine

Authors: Imme Petersen, Wiebke Sick, Regine Kollek

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In systems medicine, high-throughput technologies produce large amounts of data on different biological and pathological processes, including (disturbed) gene expressions, metabolic pathways and signaling. The large volume of data of different types, stored in separate databases and often located at different geographical sites have posed new challenges regarding data handling and processing. Tools based on bioinformatics have been developed to resolve the upcoming problems of systematizing, standardizing and integrating the various data. However, the heterogeneity of data gathered at different levels of biological complexity is still a major challenge in data analysis. To build multilayer disease modules, large and heterogeneous data of disease-related information (e.g., genotype, phenotype, environmental factors) are correlated. Therefore, a great deal of attention in systems medicine has been put on data standardization, primarily to retrieve and combine large, heterogeneous datasets into standardized and incorporated forms and structures. However, this data-centred concept of standardization in systems medicine is contrary to the debate in science and technology studies (STS) on standardization that rather emphasizes the dynamics, contexts and negotiations of standard operating procedures. Based on empirical work on research consortia that explore the molecular profile of diseases to establish systems medical approaches in the clinic in Germany, we trace how standardized data are processed and shaped by bioinformatics tools, how scientists using such data in research perceive such standard operating procedures and which consequences for knowledge production (e.g. modeling) arise from it. Hence, different concepts and meanings of standardization are explored to get a deeper insight into standard operating procedures not only in systems medicine, but also beyond.

Keywords: data, science and technology studies (STS), standardization, systems medicine

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171 Development of Industry Sector Specific Factory Standards

Authors: Peter Burggräf, Moritz Krunke, Hanno Voet

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Due to shortening product and technology lifecycles, many companies use standardization approaches in product development and factory planning to reduce costs and time to market. Unlike large companies, where modular systems are already widely used, small and medium-sized companies often show a much lower degree of standardization due to lower scale effects and missing capacities for the development of these standards. To overcome these challenges, the development of industry sector specific standards in cooperations or by third parties is an interesting approach. This paper analyzes which branches that are mainly dominated by small or medium-sized companies might be especially interesting for the development of factory standards using the example of the German industry. For this, a key performance indicator based approach was developed that will be presented in detail with its specific results for the German industry structure.

Keywords: factory planning, factory standards, industry sector specific standardization, production planning

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170 Linearization and Process Standardization of Construction Design Engineering Workflows

Authors: T. R. Sreeram, S. Natarajan, C. Jena

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Civil engineering construction is a network of tasks involving varying degree of complexity and streamlining, and standardization is the only way to establish a systemic approach to design. While there are off the shelf tools such as AutoCAD that play a role in the realization of design, the repeatable process in which these tools are deployed often is ignored. The present paper addresses this challenge through a sustainable design process and effective standardizations at all stages in the design workflow. The same is demonstrated through a case study in the context of construction, and further improvement points are highlighted.

Keywords: syste, lean, value stream, process improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
169 Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams

Authors: Fernanda M. Bastos, Teógenes A. da Silva

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Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.

Keywords: extrapolation chamber, low energy x-rays, x-ray dosimetry, X-ray metrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
168 European Standardization in Nanotechnologies and Relation with International Work: The Standardization Can Help Industry and Regulators in Developing Safe Products

Authors: Patrice Conner

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Nanotechnologies have enormous potential to contribute to human flourishing in responsible and sustainable ways. They are rapidly developing field of science, technology and innovation. As enabling technologies, their full scope of applications is potentially very wide. Major implications are expected in many areas, e.g. healthcare, information and communication technologies, energy production and storage, materials science/chemical engineering, manufacturing, environmental protection, consumer products, etc. However, nanotechnologies are unlikely to realize their full potential unless their associated societal and ethical issues are adequately attended. Namely nanotechnologies and nanoparticles may expose humans and the environment to new health risks, possibly involving quite different mechanisms of interference with the physiology of human and environmental species. One of the building blocks of the ‘safe, integrated and responsible’ approach is standardization. Both the Economic and Social Committee and the European Parliament have highlighted the importance to be attached to standardization as a means to accompany the introduction on the market of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, and a means to facilitate the implementation of regulation. ISO and CEN have respectively started in 2005 and 2006 to deal with selected topics related to this emerging and enabling technology. In the beginning of 2010, EC DG ‘Enterprise and Industry’ addressed the mandate M/461 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI for standardization activities regarding nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Thus CEN/TC 352 ‘Nanotechnologies’ has been asked to take the leadership for the coordination in the execution of M/461 (46 topics to be standardized) and to contact relevant European and International Technical committees and interested stakeholders as appropriate (56 structures have been identified). Prior requests from M/461 deal with characterization and exposure of nanomaterials and any matters related to Health, Safety and Environment. Answers will be given to: - What are the structures and how they work? - Where are we right now and how work is going from now onwards? - How CEN’s work and targets deal with and interact with global matters in this field?

Keywords: characterization, environmental protection, exposure, health risks, nanotechnologies, responsible and sustainable ways, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
167 Impact of Mass Customization for 3D Geographic Information Systems under Turbulent Environments

Authors: Abdo Shabah

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Mass customization aims to produce customized goods (allowing economies of scope) at lower cost (to achieve economies of scale) using multiple strategies (modularization and postponement). Through a simulation experiment of organizations under turbulent environment, we aim to compare standardization and mass customization of services and assess the impact of different forms of mass customization (early and late postponement) on performance, quality and consumer satisfaction, on the use of modular dynamic 3D Geographic Information System. Our hypothesis is that mass customization performs better and achieves better quality in turbulent environment than standardization, but only when using early postponement strategies. Using mixed methods study, we try to confirm our hypothesis.

Keywords: mass customization, postponement, experiment, performance, quality, satisfaction, 3D GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
166 Defining Polysubstance Use in Adolescents: A Literary Review

Authors: Cailyn Green

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This research investigated the lack of standardization that exists in the field of polysubstance use. This standardization has to do with a uniform way of defining when and if polysubstance is taking place. This research is important to the field of substance abuse as it makes future researchers aware of this lack of uniformity in a commonly used word in the field. By investigating, we make researchers aware of these discrepancies to encourage a uniform definition to be created and used. The methodology for this research was a literary review. This literature review consisted of four peer-reviewed and published journal articles in four different journals. These articles focused on adolescents and their polysubstance use. The research question asked what time frame was used to determine if a client's substance use can be classified as polysubstance use when they reported using two or more substances. The results identify that there is no uniform working definition of the time frame for polysubstance to take place.

Keywords: addiction, adolescence, literary review, polysubstance

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165 Development of a Standardization Methodology Assessing the Comfort Performance for Hanok

Authors: Mi-Hyang Lee, Seung-Hoon Han

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Korean traditional residences have been built with deep design issues for various values such as social, cultural, and environmental influences to be started from a few thousand years ago, but its meaning is being vanished due to the different lifestyles these days. It is necessary, therefore, to grasp the meaning of the Korea traditional building called Hanok and to get Korean people understand its real advantages. The purpose of this study is to propose a standardization methodology for evaluating comfort features towards Korean traditional houses. This paper is also trying to build an official standard evaluation system and to integrate aesthetic and psychological values induced from Hanok. Its comfort performance values could be divided into two large categories that are physical and psychological, and fourteen methods have been defined as the Korean Standards (KS). For this research, field survey data from representative Hanok types were collected for each method. This study also contains a qualitative in-depth analysis of the Hanok comfort index by the professions using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and has examined the effect of the methods. As a result, this paper could define what methods can provide trustful outcomes and how to evaluate the own strengths in aspects of spatial comfort of Hanok using suggested procedures towards the spatial configuration of the traditional dwellings. This study has finally proposed an integrated development of a standardization methodology assessing the comfort performance for Korean traditional residences, and it is expected that they could evaluate inhabitants of the residents and interior environmental conditions especially structured by wood materials like Hanok.

Keywords: Hanok, comfort performance, human condition, analytical hierarchy process

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164 Need for Standardization of Manual Inspection in Small and Medium-Scale Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Adithya Nadig

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In the field of production, characterization of surface roughness plays a vital role in assessing the quality of a manufactured product. The defined parameters for this assessment, each, have their own drawbacks in describing a profile surface. From the purview of small-scale and medium-scale industries, an increase in time spent for manual inspection of a product for various parameters adds to the cost of the product. In order to reduce this, a uniform and established standard is necessary for quantifying a profile of a manufactured product. The inspection procedure in the small and medium-scale manufacturing units at Jigani Industrial area, Bangalore, was observed. The parameters currently in use in those industries are described in the paper and a change in the inspection method is proposed.

Keywords: efficiency of quality assessment, manual areal profiling technique, manufacturing in small and medium-scale industries product-oriented inspection, standardization of manual inspection, surface roughness characterization

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163 Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering Platform Used for the Development of Bulgarian E-Customs

Authors: Ivan Stanev, Maria Koleva

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Described are challenges to the Bulgarian e-Customs (BeC) related to low level of interoperability and standardization, inefficient use of available infrastructure, lack of centralized identification and authorization, extremely low level of software process automation, and insufficient quality of data stored in official registers. The technical requirements for BeC are prepared with a focus on domain independent common platform, specialized customs and excise components, high scalability, flexibility, and reusability. The Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering (KBASE) Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) is selected as an instrument covering BeC requirements for standardization, programming automation, knowledge interpretation and cloud computing. BeC stage 3 results are presented and analyzed. BeC.S3 development trends are identified.

Keywords: service oriented architecture, cloud computing, knowledge based automated software engineering, common platform for automated programming, e-customs

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162 The First Step to Standardization of Iranian Buffalo Milk: Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Farnoosh Attar

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Nowadays, buffalo’s milk due to has highly nutritional properties, has a special place among consumers and its application for the production of dairy products due to the high technological properties is increasing day by day. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of Iranian buffalo’s milk were compared with cow's milk. According to chemical analysis, the amount of fat, protein, and total solid was higher in buffalo milk than cow's milk (respectively, 8.2%, 4.73%, and 15.92% compared with 3.5%, 3.25%, and 12.5%). Also, the percentage of cholesterol buffalo’s milk was less than in cow's milk. In contrast, no significant difference between the pH, acidity, and specific gravity was observed. The size of buffalo milk fat globules was larger than cow's milk. In addition, the profile of buffalo free fatty acids milk showed the relatively high distribution of long chain saturated fatty acids. The presence of four major bands related to αs casein, β casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin with quite higher intensity than cow’s milk was also observed. The results obtained will provide a reference investigation to improve the developing of buffalo milk standard.

Keywords: buffalo milk, physicochemical characterization, standardization, dairy products

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
161 Industrial Ecology Perspectives of Food Supply Chains: A Framework of Analysis

Authors: Luciano Batista, Sylvia Saes, Nuno Fouto, Liam Fassam

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This paper introduces the theoretical and methodological basis of an analytical framework conceived with the purpose of bringing industrial ecology perspectives into the core of the underlying disciplines supporting analyses in studies concerned with environmental sustainability aspects beyond the product cycle in a supply chain. Given the pressing challenges faced by the food sector, the framework focuses upon waste minimization through industrial linkages in food supply chains. The combination of industrial ecology practice with basic LCA elements, the waste hierarchy model, and the spatial scale of industrial symbiosis allows the standardization of qualitative analyses and associated outcomes. Such standardization enables comparative analysis not only between different stages of a supply chain, but also between different supply chains. The analytical approach proposed contributes more coherently to the wider circular economy aspiration of optimizing the flow of goods to get the most out of raw materials and cuts wastes to a minimum.

Keywords: by-product synergy, food supply chain, industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis

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160 Establishment of Standardized Bill of Material for Korean Urban Rail Transit System

Authors: J. E. Jung, J. M. Yang, J. W. Kim

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The railway market across the world has been standardized with the globalization strategy of Europe. On the other hand, the Korean urban railway system is operated by 10 operators which have established their standards and independently managed BOMs. When operators manage different BOMs, lack of system compatibility prevents them from sharing information and hinders work linkage and efficiency. Europe launched a large-scale railway project in 1993 when the European Union went into effect. In particular, the recent standardization efforts of the EU-funded MODTRAIN project are similar to the approach of the urban rail system standardization research that is underway in Korea. This paper looks into the BOMs of Koran urban rail transit operators and suggests the standard BOM for the rail transit system in Korea by reviewing rail vehicle technologies and the MODTRAIN project of Europe. The standard BOM is structured up to the key device level or module level, and it allows vehicle manufacturers and component manufacturers to manage their lower-level BOMs and share them with each other and with operators.

Keywords: BOM, Korean rail, urban rail, standardized

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
159 Evaluating the Performance of Existing Full-Reference Quality Metrics on High Dynamic Range (HDR) Video Content

Authors: Maryam Azimi, Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Yuanyuan Dong, Mahsa T. Pourazad, Panos Nasiopoulos

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While there exists a wide variety of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) quality metrics, only a limited number of metrics are designed specifically for the High Dynamic Range (HDR) content. With the introduction of HDR video compression standardization effort by international standardization bodies, the need for an efficient video quality metric for HDR applications has become more pronounced. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the existing full-reference LDR and HDR video quality metrics on HDR content and identify the most effective one for HDR applications. To this end, a new HDR video data set is created, which consists of representative indoor and outdoor video sequences with different brightness, motion levels and different representing types of distortions. The quality of each distorted video in this data set is evaluated both subjectively and objectively. The correlation between the subjective and objective results confirm that VIF quality metric outperforms all to their tested metrics in the presence of the tested types of distortions.

Keywords: HDR, dynamic range, LDR, subjective evaluation, video compression, HEVC, video quality metrics

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158 Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian

Authors: Gani Pllana

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In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.

Keywords: common words, Albanian language, technical terminology, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
157 Relationship between Quality Improvement Strategies on the Basis of Different Management Activities

Authors: Manjinder Singh, Anish Sachdeva

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Research on total quality management (TQM), total productive maintenance (TPM), international organization for standardization (ISO) and six sigma generally investigate the implementation and impact of these programs in isolation. However, none of these quality improvement programs is self-sufficient and they may not be powerful enough to deliver the improvements and innovations that are required nowadays to ensure the survival and growth of a firm. They are not mutually exclusive and inconsistent. On the contrary, they need complementary support and may reinforce mutually to make use of their complementarity, inducement of side-effects in favor of other quality improvement program, mutual simulation and exploitation of shared values. In this paper, first of all, the various management activities were identified which are normally under focus when any quality improvement program is implemented in any organization. Then TOPSIS methodology was applied to establish the ranking of various quality improvement programs (total quality management, total productive maintenance, ISO and six sigma which were brought to the corporate boardroom to improve the quality) with respect to different management activities (operations related activities, quality related activities, maintenance related activities, organizational related activities, human related activities and finance related activities).

Keywords: total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), TOPSIS, international organization for standardization (ISO)

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156 Introduction of Knowledge Management in a Public Sector Organization in India

Authors: Siddharth Vashisth, Varun Mathur

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This review provides an overview of the impact that implementation of various Knowledge Management (KM) strategies has had on the growth of a department in a Public Sector Company in India. In a regulated utility controlled by the government, the growth of an organization such as Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) had depended largely on the efficiencies of the systems and its people. However, subsequent to the de-regularization & to the entry of the private competition, the need for a ‘systematic templating’ of knowledge was recognized. This necessitated the introduction of Knowledge Management Centre (KMC). Projects & Pipelines Department (P&P) of HPCL introduced KMC that contributed significantly towards KM by adopting various strategies such as standardization, leveraging information system, competency enhancement, and improvements & innovations. These strategies gave both tangible as well as intangible benefits towards KM. Knowledge, technology & people are the three pillars that need to be catered for effective knowledge management in any organization. In HPCL, the initiative of KMC has served as an intermediary between these three major pillars as each activity of the strategy was centered on them and contributed significantly to their growth and up-gradation, ensuring overall growth of KM in the department.

Keywords: knowledge, knowledge management, public sector organization, standardization, technology, people, skill, information system, innovation, competency, impact

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155 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil

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In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
154 Standardization of Solar Water Pumping System for Remote Areas in Indonesia

Authors: Danar Agus Susanto, Hermawan Febriansyah, Meilinda Ayundyahrini

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The availability of spring water to meet people demand is often a problem, especially in tropical areas with very limited surface water sources, or very deep underground water. Although the technology and equipment of pumping system are available and easy to obtain, but in remote areas, the availability of pumping system is difficult, due to the unavailability of fuel or the lack of electricity. Solar Water Pumping System (SWPS) became one of the alternatives that can overcome these obstacles. In the tropical country, sunlight can be obtained throughout the year, even in remote areas. SWPS were already widely built in Indonesia, but many encounter problems during operations, such as decreased of efficiency; pump damaged, damaged of controllers or inverters, and inappropriate photovoltaic performance. In 2011, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) issued the IEC standard 62253:2011 titled Photovoltaic pumping systems - Design qualification and performance measurements. This standard establishes design qualifications and performance measurements related to the product of a solar water pumping system. National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN) as the national standardization body in Indonesia, has not set the standard related to solar water pumping system. This research to study operational procedures of SWPS by adopting of IEC Standard 62253:2011 to be Indonesia Standard (SNI). This research used literature study and field observation for installed SWPS in Indonesia. Based on the results of research on SWPS already installed in Indonesia, IEC 62253: 2011 standard can improve efficiency and reduce operational failure of SWPS. SWPS installed in Indonesia still has GAP of 51% against parameters in IEC standard 62253: 2011. The biggest factor not being met is related to operating and maintenance handbooks for personnel that included operation and repair procedures. This may result in operator ignorance in installing, operating and maintaining the system. The Photovoltaic (PV) was also the most non-compliance factor of 71%, although there are 22 Indonesia Standard (SNI) for PV (modules, installation, testing, and construction). These research samples (installers, manufacturers/distributors, and experts) agreed on the parameter in the IEC standard 62253: 2011 able to improve the quality of SWPS in Indonesia. Recommendations of this study, that is required the adoption of IEC standard 62253:2011 into SNI to support the development of SWPS for remote areas in Indonesia.

Keywords: efficiency, inappropriate installation, remote areas, solar water pumping system, standard

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153 A Unified Webcam Proctoring Solution on Edge

Authors: Saw Thiha, Jay Rajasekera

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A boom in video conferencing generated millions of hours of video data daily to be analyzed. However, such enormous data pose certain scalability issues to be analyzed efficiently, let alone do it in real-time, as online conferences can involve hundreds of people and can last for hours. This paper proposes an efficient online proctoring solution that can analyze the online conferences real-time on edge devices such as Android, iOS, and desktops. Since the computation can be done upfront on the devices where online conferences take place, it can scale well without requiring intensive resources such as GPU servers and complex cloud infrastructure. According to the linear models, face orientation does indeed impact the perceived eye openness. Also, the proposed z score facial landmark standardization was proven to be functional in detecting face orientation and contributed to classifying eye blinks with single eyelid distance computation while achieving a better f1 score and accuracy than the Eye Aspect Ratio (EAR) threshold method. Last but not least, the authors implemented the solution natively in the MediaPipe framework and open-sourced it along with the reproducible experimental results on GitHub. The solution provides face orientation, eye blink, facial activity, and translation detections out of the box and is highly customizable and extensible.

Keywords: android, desktop, edge computing, blink, face orientation, facial activity and translation, MediaPipe, open source, real-time, video conference, web, iOS, Z score facial landmark standardization

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152 Design of a New Architecture of IDS Called BiIDS (IDS Based on Two Principles of Detection)

Authors: Yousef Farhaoui

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An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security.In this paper we present different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection).

Keywords: intrusion detection, architectures, characteristic, tools, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
151 Development and Optimization of German Diagnostical Tests in Mathematics for Vocational Training

Authors: J. Thiele

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Teachers working at vocational Colleges are often confronted with the problem, that many students graduated from different schools and therefore each had a different education. Especially in mathematics many students lack fundamentals or had different priorities at their previous schools. Furthermore, these vocational Colleges have to provide Graduations for many different working-fields, with different core themes. The Colleges are interested in measuring the different Education levels of their students and providing assistance for those who need to catch up. The Project mathe-meistern was initiated to remedy this problem at vocational Colleges. For this purpose, online-tests were developed. The aim of these tests is to evaluate basic mathematical abilities of the students. The tests are online Multiple-Choice-Tests with a total of 65 Items. They are accessed online with a unique Transaction-Number (TAN) for each participant. The content is divided in several Categories (Arithmetic, Algebra, Fractions, Geometry, etc.). After each test, the student gets a personalized summary depicting their strengths and weaknesses in mathematical Basics. Teachers can visit a special website to examine the results of their classes or single students. In total 5830 students did participate so far. For standardization and optimization purposes the tests are being evaluated, using the classic and probabilistic Test-Theory regarding Objectivity, Reliability and Validity, annually since 2015. This Paper is about the Optimization process considering the Rasch-scaling and Standardization of the tests. Additionally, current results using standardized tests will be discussed. To achieve this Competence levels and Types of errors of students attending vocational Colleges in Nordrheinwestfalen, Germany, were determined, using descriptive Data and Distractorevaluations.

Keywords: diagnostical tests in mathematics, distractor devaluation, test-optimization, test-theory

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150 Evaluation of Liquid Fermentation Strategies to Obtain a Biofertilizer Based on Rhizobium sp.

Authors: Andres Diaz Garcia, Ana Maria Ceballos Rojas, Duvan Albeiro Millan Montano

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This paper describes the initial technological development stages in the area of liquid fermentation required to reach the quantities of biomass of the biofertilizer microorganism Rhizobium sp. strain B02, for the application of the unitary stages downstream at laboratory scale. In the first stage, the adjustment and standardization of the fermentation process in conventional batch mode were carried out. In the second stage, various fed-batch and continuous fermentation strategies were evaluated in 10L-bioreactor in order to optimize the yields in concentration (Colony Forming Units/ml•h) and biomass (g/l•h), to make feasible the application of unit operations downstream of process. The growth kinetics, the evolution of dissolved oxygen and the pH profile generated in each of the strategies were monitored and used to make sequential adjustments. Once the fermentation was finished, the final concentration and viability of the obtained biomass were determined and performance parameters were calculated with the purpose of select the optimal operating conditions that significantly improved the baseline results. Under the conditions adjusted and standardized in batch mode, concentrations of 6.67E9 CFU/ml were reached after 27 hours of fermentation and a subsequent noticeable decrease was observed associated with a basification of the culture medium. By applying fed-batch and continuous strategies, significant increases in yields were achieved, but with similar concentration levels, which involved the design of several production scenarios based on the availability of equipment usage time and volume of required batch.

Keywords: biofertilizer, liquid fermentation, Rhizobium sp., standardization of processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
149 Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India

Authors: A. V. Chandewar, Sanjay Bais

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Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.

Keywords: toxicological standardization, heavy metals, microbial contamination, haematinic herbal formulations

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148 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams

Abstract:

Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

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147 Securing Web Servers by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Authors: Yousef Farhaoui

Abstract:

An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security. We present in this paper different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection) for securing web servers and applications by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS).

Keywords: intrusion detection, architectures, characteristic, tools, security, web server

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146 Leaf Image Processing: Review

Authors: T. Vijayashree, A. Gopal

Abstract:

The aim of the work is to classify and authenticate medicinal plant materials and herbs widely used for Indian herbal medicinal preparation. The quality and authenticity of these raw materials are to be ensured for the preparation of herbal medicines. These raw materials are to be carefully screened, analyzed and documented due to mistaken of look-alike materials which do not have medicinal characteristics.

Keywords: authenticity, standardization, principal component analysis, imaging processing, signal processing

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145 The Return of the Rejected Kings: A Comparative Study of Governance and Procedures of Standards Development Organizations under the Theory of Private Ordering

Authors: Olia Kanevskaia

Abstract:

Standardization has been in the limelight of numerous academic studies. Typically described as ‘any set of technical specifications that either provides or is intended to provide a common design for a product or process’, standards do not only set quality benchmarks for products and services, but also spur competition and innovation, resulting in advantages for manufacturers and consumers. Their contribution to globalization and technology advancement is especially crucial in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and telecommunications sector, which is also characterized by a weaker state-regulation and expert-based rule-making. Most of the standards developed in that area are interoperability standards, which allow technological devices to establish ‘invisible communications’ and to ensure their compatibility and proper functioning. This type of standard supports a large share of our daily activities, ranging from traffic coordination by traffic lights to the connection to Wi-Fi networks, transmission of data via Bluetooth or USB and building the network architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). A large share of ICT standards is developed in the specialized voluntary platforms, commonly referred to as Standards Development Organizations (SDOs), which gather experts from various industry sectors, private enterprises, governmental agencies and academia. The institutional architecture of these bodies can vary from semi-public bodies, such as European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), to industry-driven consortia, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The past decades witnessed a significant shift of standard setting to those institutions: while operating independently from the states regulation, they offer a rather informal setting, which enables fast-paced standardization and places technical supremacy and flexibility of standards above other considerations. Although technical norms and specifications developed by such nongovernmental platforms are not binding, they appear to create significant regulatory impact. In the United States (US), private voluntary standards can be used by regulators to achieve their policy objectives; in the European Union (EU), compliance with harmonized standards developed by voluntary European Standards Organizations (ESOs) can grant a product a free-movement pass. Moreover, standards can de facto manage the functioning of the market when other regulative alternatives are not available. Hence, by establishing (potentially) mandatory norms, SDOs assume regulatory functions commonly exercised by States and shape their own legal order. The purpose of this paper is threefold: First, it attempts to shed some light on SDOs’ institutional architecture, focusing on private, industry-driven platforms and comparing their regulatory frameworks with those of formal organizations. Drawing upon the relevant scholarship, the paper then discusses the extent to which the formulation of technological standards within SDOs constitutes a private legal order, operating in the shadow of governmental regulation. Ultimately, this contribution seeks to advise whether a state-intervention in industry-driven standard setting is desirable, and whether the increasing regulatory importance of SDOs should be addressed in legislation on standardization.

Keywords: private order, standardization, standard-setting organizations, transnational law

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