Search results for: pasteurization
19 Model Predictive Controller for Pasteurization Process
Authors: Tesfaye Alamirew Dessie
Abstract:Our study focuses on developing a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) and evaluating it against a traditional PID for a pasteurization process. Utilizing system identification from the experimental data, the dynamics of the pasteurization process were calculated. Using best fit with data validation, residual, and stability analysis, the quality of several model architectures was evaluated. The validation data fit the auto-regressive with exogenous input (ARX322) model of the pasteurization process by roughly 80.37 percent. The ARX322 model structure was used to create MPC and PID control techniques. After comparing controller performance based on settling time, overshoot percentage, and stability analysis, it was found that MPC controllers outperform PID for those parameters.
Keywords: MPC, PID, ARX, pasteurizationProcedia PDF Downloads 36
18 Modelling Heat Transfer Characteristics in the Pasteurization Process of Medium Long Necked Bottled Beers
Authors: S. K. Fasogbon, O. E. Oguegbu
Abstract:Pasteurization is one of the most important steps in the preservation of beer products, which improves its shelf life by inactivating almost all the spoilage organisms present in it. However, there is no gain saying the fact that it is always difficult to determine the slowest heating zone, the temperature profile and pasteurization units inside bottled beer during pasteurization, hence there had been significant experimental and ANSYS fluent approaches on the problem. This work now developed Computational fluid dynamics model using COMSOL Multiphysics. The model was simulated to determine the slowest heating zone, temperature profile and pasteurization units inside the bottled beer during the pasteurization process. The results of the simulation were compared with the existing data in the literature. The results showed that, the location and size of the slowest heating zone is dependent on the time-temperature combination of each zone. The results also showed that the temperature profile of the bottled beer was found to be affected by the natural convection resulting from variation in density during pasteurization process and that the pasteurization unit increases with time subject to the temperature reached by the beer. Although the results of this work agreed with literatures in the aspects of slowest heating zone and temperature profiles, the results of pasteurization unit however did not agree. It was suspected that this must have been greatly affected by the bottle geometry, specific heat capacity and density of the beer in question. The work concludes that for effective pasteurization to be achieved, there is a need to optimize the spray water temperature and the time spent by the bottled product in each of the pasteurization zones.
Keywords: modeling, heat transfer, temperature profile, pasteurization process, bottled beerProcedia PDF Downloads 150
17 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung
Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa
Abstract:This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.
Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increaseProcedia PDF Downloads 244
16 Enhancing of Biogas Production from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste with Pasteurization
Authors: Mahmoud Hassan Onsa, Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam
Abstract:Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse the anaerobic digestion and biogas production. The paper presents the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production with and without pasteurization using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at two proportions, 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio digester1with 62% dry matter at the beginning and without pasteurization and 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio-digester2 with 10% dry matter and pasteurization. The paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 2.9 mL/g dry matter/day (from bio-digester2) together with a high quality biogas of 87.4% methane content which is useful for combustion and energy production and healthy bio-fertilizer but biodigester1 gave 1.68 mL/g dry matter/day with methane content 85% which is useful for combustion, energy production and can be considered as new technology of dryer bio-digesters.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen contentProcedia PDF Downloads 644
15 Moderate Electric Field and Ultrasound as Alternative Technologies to Raspberry Juice Pasteurization Process
Authors: Cibele F. Oliveira, Debora P. Jaeschke, Rodrigo R. Laurino, Amanda R. Andrade, Ligia D. F. Marczak
Abstract:Raspberry is well-known as a good source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanin. Some studies pointed out the importance of these bioactive compounds consumption, which is related to the decrease of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The most consumed raspberry products are juices, yogurts, ice creams and jellies and, to ensure the safety of these products, raspberry is commonly pasteurized, for enzyme and microorganisms inactivation. Despite being efficient, the pasteurization process can lead to degradation reactions of the bioactive compounds, decreasing the products healthy benefits. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies application on the pasteurization process of raspberry juice and compare the results with conventional pasteurization process. For this, phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content and physical-chemical parameters (pH, color changes, titratable acidity) of the juice were evaluated before and after the treatments. Moreover, microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms, molds and yeast were performed in the samples before and after the treatments, to verify the potential of these technologies to inactivate microorganisms. All the pasteurization processes were performed in triplicate for 10 min, using a cylindrical Pyrex® vessel with a water jacket. The conventional pasteurization was performed at 90 °C using a hot water bath connected to the extraction cell. The US assisted pasteurization was performed using 423 and 508 W cm-2 (75 and 90 % of ultrasound intensity). It is important to mention that during US application the temperature was kept below 35 °C; for this, the water jacket of the extraction cell was connected to a water bath with cold water. MEF assisted pasteurization experiments were performed similarly to US experiments, using 25 and 50 V. Control experiments were performed at the maximum temperature of US and MEF experiments (35 °C) to evaluate only the effect of the aforementioned technologies on the pasteurization. The results showed that phenolic compounds concentration in the juice was not affected by US and MEF application. However, it was observed that the US assisted pasteurization, performed at the highest intensity, decreased anthocyanin content in 33 % (compared to in natura juice). This result was possibly due to the cavitation phenomena, which can lead to free radicals formation and accumulation on the medium; these radicals can react with anthocyanin decreasing the content of these antioxidant compounds in the juice. Physical-chemical parameters did not present statistical differences for samples before and after the treatments. Microbiological analyses results showed that all the pasteurization treatments decreased the microorganism content in two logarithmic cycles. However, as values were lower than 1000 CFU mL-1 it was not possible to verify the efficacy of each treatment. Thus, MEF and US were considered as potential alternative technologies for pasteurization process, once in the right conditions the application of the technologies decreased microorganism content in the juice and did not affected phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as physical-chemical parameters. However, more studies are needed regarding the influence of MEF and US processes on microorganisms’ inactivation.
Keywords: MEF, microorganism inactivation, anthocyanin, phenolic compoundsProcedia PDF Downloads 189
14 Effect of Antioxidants Addition in Combination with Milk Re Pasteurization on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Condensed Yoghurt
Authors: Mahmoud Abu-Ghoush, Murad Al Holy
Abstract:Our main goal in this project is to study the causes and finding solutions for both the hydrolytic and the oxidative rancidity that can be produced during condensed yoghurt production. The re pasteurization of the pasteurized milk and the addition of different types of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and propyl gallate) were used to achieve this goal. Chemical, physical, microbial and sensory tests were done to evaluate the product. It was found that there were significant differences between the different treatments and the control regarding the peroxide value. This means that the addition of both types of antioxidants have a positive effect in decreasing the rancidity value. However, it was found that there were some samples have hydrolytic rancidity flavour without any type of oxidative rancidity (low peroxide value). To overcome this problem the re pasteurization step was used to destroy all the vegetative form of microbes. It was found that this treatment was very useful in controlling the rancidity flavour according to the sensory evaluation of the condensed yoghurt products for several batches. The best condensed yoghurt which contains 0.25% ascorbic acid exhibited the highest sensory properties values. Also, it has the ability in lowering the oxidative rancidity in the combination with the re pasteurization step of the pasteurized milk. This suggests that a higher quality and stable condensed yoghurt can be obtained upon using this combination. These results may help producers in selecting the best treatment methods to overcome the rancidity flavor in this type of condensed yoghurt.
Keywords: antioxidants, condensed yoghurt, repasturization, condensed milkProcedia PDF Downloads 215
13 Reduction of the Microbial Load of Biocontaminated Bovine Milk Using Grounding with Copper Wire
Authors: Claudivan Costa de Lima, Angelo da Silva Monteiro
Abstract:With the aim of evaluating the effects of grounding with copper wire on the reduction of the microbial load of biocontaminated milk samples and on their acidification over time, two complementary experiments were carried out. In the first, the treatments consisted of: i) raw milk sample (control), ii) slow pasteurization, iii) grounding with copper wire and, iv) contact with copper ring. Analyzes of total, thermoresistant and mesophilic coliforms were performed 30 minutes after the application of these treatments. In the second experiment, under the same conditions as the first, measurements of pH and Dornic acidity were performed at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h from the installation of the experiment. Pasteurization eliminated almost all groups of bacteria present in the milk samples while grounding only allowed reductions in the population of thermotolerant coliforms and mesophiles, both greater than 95%, maintaining, however, unchanged the amounts of total coliforms. The copper ring, in turn, had no effect on the microbiological parameters studied. The reduction in the population of mesophiles in grounded milk samples, contrary to what happened with pasteurized milk, was not enough to inhibit the acidification process over the experimental period.
Keywords: pasteurization, low frequency electric current, thermotolerant coliforms, mesophiles in bovine milkProcedia PDF Downloads 15
12 Development and Evaluation of Whey-Based Drink: An Approach to Protect Environmental Pollution
Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari, Nuzhat Huma, Aqsa Qayyum
Abstract:Whey is a valuable by-product of dairy industry comprising of precious nutrients lactose, protein, vitamins and minerals for the human food but considered as a pollutant due to its biological activity. So, there is a need to develop nutritious whey products to overcome the problem of environmental pollution. This project was planned to develop a whey drink at different pasteurization temperatures and its quality was evaluated during storage. The result indicated that pH, acidity, total soluble solids and lactose content changed significantly (p < 0.01) due to lactic acid production during storage. Non-significant (p > 0.05) effects were detected on the protein and ash content of whey drink. Fat and viscosity changed significantly with respect to storage only. Sensory evaluation of whey drink revealed that both treatments remained acceptable while whey drink pasteurized at 75°C/30 minutes (WD2) gained more sensory score compared to whey drink pasteurized at 65°C/30minutes (WD1).
Keywords: pasteurization, sensory evaluation, storage, wheyProcedia PDF Downloads 206
11 Using Hybrid Method for Inactivation of Microorganism and Enzymes in a Berry Juice
Authors: Golnoosh Torabian, P. Valtchev, F. Dehghani
Abstract:The need for efficient nutraceutical products has been dramatically changing the approach of the industrial processes. The development of novel mild processes is highly demanded for the production of such products; especially when both quality and safety need to be guaranteed during their long shelf life. Within this research, for the first time, we investigated the effect of supercritical carbon dioxide treatment for the inactivation of microbes and enzymes in a berry juice possessing therapeutic effect. We demonstrated that a complete inactivation of microbes can be achieved at optimized conditions of treatment. However, the bottle neck of the process was represented by the unpromising inactivation of the degradative enzyme by supercritical carbon dioxide treatment. However, complete enzyme inactivation was achieved by applying two strategies: the first was optimizing juicing method by adding a mechanical step and the second strategy was addition of natural inhibitors to the juice. Overall these results demonstrate that our hybrid process has a significant effect on the inactivation of microorganism and enzymes in the fresh juice. The developed process opens the possibility for the evolution of new products with optimal nutritional and sensorial characteristics, as well as offering a competitive cost and an environmentally friendly alternative for pasteurization and extension of shelf life in a wide range of natural therapeutic products.
Keywords: hybrid method, berry juice, pasteurization, enzymes inactivationProcedia PDF Downloads 129
10 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation
Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi
Abstract:In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.
Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milkProcedia PDF Downloads 380
9 Study of the Effect of Voltage and PH on the Inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in Tomato Juice by Ohmic Process
Authors: Arash Dara, Mahsa Mokhtari, Nafiseh Zamindar
Abstract:The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal resistance, temperature, voltage, and pH changes in an ohmic heating system on reducing the logarithmic number of Byssochlamys fulva species (PTCC 5062) in tomato juice water and to investigate the quantitative properties of tomato juice in the ohmic heating pasteurization system. The percentage of thermal degradation by ohmic heating was determined in tomato juice for the kinetics of Byssochlamys fulva in ohmic chamber at the temperatures of 88, 93, and 98°C, with two voltages of 30 and 40 volts and two pH levels of 3.5 and 4.5; this was done using Weibull frequency distribution model. Three different parameters (pH = 3.5, two voltages of 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) and (pH = 4.5, two voltages 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) in three replications were considered in the ohmic system. Heating time for the temperature of 88°C was 20 minutes once every 2 minutes, while for the temperature of 93°C, it was 10 minutes once every 1 minute. At the temperature of 98°C, the first time was 0.5 minutes, and for other times, sampling was done every 1 minute. In each condition, the qualitative characteristics, including acidity, Brix, and pH, were measured before and after the ohmic process in the tomato juice. This study demonstrates that the differences in pH and voltage due to different temperatures in the ohmic process can greatly affect the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva fungus and the qualitative characteristics of the tomato juice. This is the first study using the Weibull frequency method to model the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in tomato juice. Variation in parameters such as temperature, voltage, and pH can prevent the presence of Byssochlamys fulva in the pasteurized juices.
Keywords: pasteurization, ohmic heating process, Byssochlamys fulva, tomato juice, heat resistance, voltage, pHProcedia PDF Downloads 76
8 Liquid Food Sterilization Using Pulsed Electric Field
Authors: Tanmaya Pradhan, K. Midhun, M. Joy Thomas
Abstract:Increasing the shelf life and improving the quality are important objectives for the success of packaged liquid food industry. One of the methods by which this can be achieved is by deactivating the micro-organisms present in the liquid food through pasteurization. Pasteurization is done by heating, but some serious disadvantages such as the reduction in food quality, flavour, taste, colour, etc. were observed because of heat treatment, which leads to the development of newer methods instead of pasteurization such as treatment using UV radiation, high pressure, nuclear irradiation, pulsed electric field, etc. In recent years the use of the pulsed electric field (PEF) for inactivation of the microbial content in the food is gaining popularity. PEF uses a very high electric field for a short time for the inactivation of microorganisms, for which we require a high voltage pulsed power source. Pulsed power sources used for PEF treatments are usually in the range of 5kV to 50kV. Different pulse shapes are used, such as exponentially decaying and square wave pulses. Exponentially decaying pulses are generated by high power switches with only turn-on capacity and, therefore, discharge the total energy stored in the capacitor bank. These pulses have a sudden onset and, therefore, a high rate of rising but have a very slow decay, which yields extra heat, which is ineffective in microbial inactivation. Square pulses can be produced by an incomplete discharge of a capacitor with the help of a switch having both on/off control or by using a pulse forming network. In this work, a pulsed power-based system is designed with the help of high voltage capacitors and solid-state switches (IGBT) for the inactivation of pathogenic micro-organism in liquid food such as fruit juices. The high voltage generator is based on the Marx generator topology, which can produce variable amplitude, frequency, and pulse width according to the requirements. Liquid food is treated in a chamber where pulsed electric field is produced between stainless steel electrodes using the pulsed output voltage of the supply. Preliminary bacterial inactivation tests were performed by subjecting orange juice inoculated with Escherichia Coli bacteria. With the help of the developed pulsed power source and the chamber, the inoculated orange has been PEF treated. The voltage was varied to get a peak electric field up to 15kV/cm. For a total treatment time of 200µs, a 30% reduction in the bacterial count has been observed. The detailed results and analysis will be presented in the final paper.
Keywords: Escherichia coli bacteria, high voltage generator, microbial inactivation, pulsed electric field, pulsed forming line, solid-state switchProcedia PDF Downloads 81
7 Fault Diagnosis of Manufacturing Systems Using AntTreeStoch with Parameter Optimization by ACO
Authors: Ouahab Kadri, Leila Hayet Mouss
Abstract:In this paper, we present three diagnostic modules for complex and dynamic systems. These modules are based on three ant colony algorithms, which are AntTreeStoch, Lumer & Faieta and Binary ant colony. We chose these algorithms for their simplicity and their wide application range. However, we cannot use these algorithms in their basement forms as they have several limitations. To use these algorithms in a diagnostic system, we have proposed three variants. We have tested these algorithms on datasets issued from two industrial systems, which are clinkering system and pasteurization system.
Keywords: ant colony algorithms, complex and dynamic systems, diagnosis, classification, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 227
6 Effect of Two Different Method for Juice Processing on the Anthocyanins and Polyphenolics of Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
Authors: Onur Ercan, Buket Askin, Erdogan Kucukoner
Abstract:Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, bluegold) has become popular beverage due to their nutritional values such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In the study, the effects of pressing, mashing, enzymatic treatment, and pasteurization on anthocyanins, colour, and polyphenolics of blueberry juice (BJ) were studied. The blueberry juice (BJ) was produced with two different methods that direct juice extraction (DJE) and mash treatment process (MTP) were applied. After crude blueberry juice (CBJ) production, the samples were first treated with commercial enzymes [Novoferm-61 (Novozymes A/S) (2–10 mL/L)], to break down the hydrocolloid polysaccharides, mainly pectin and starch. The enzymes were added at various concentrations. The highest transmittance (%) was obtained for Novoferm-61 at a concentration of 2 mL/L was 66.53%. After enzymatic treatment, clarification trials were applied to the enzymatically treated BJs with adding various amounts of bentonite (10%, w/v), gelatin (1%, w/v) and kiselsol (15%, v/v). The turbidities of the clarified samples were then determined. However, there was no significant differences between transmittances (%) for samples. For that, only enzymatic treatment was applied to the blueberry juice processing (DDBJ, depectinized direct blueberry juice). Based on initial pressing process made to evaluate press function, it was determined that pressing fresh blueberries with no other processing did not render adequate juice due to lack of liquefaction. Therefore, the blueberries were mash into small pieces (3 mm) and then enzymatic treatments and clarification trials were performed. Finally, both BJ samples were pasteurized. Compositional analyses, colour properties, polyphenols and antioxidant properties were compared. Enzymatic treatment caused significant reductions in ACN content (30%) in Direct Blueberry Juice Processing (DBJ), while there was a significant increasing in Mash Treatment Processing (MTP). Overall anthocyanin levels were higher intreated samples after each processing step in MTP samples, but polyphenolic levels were slightly higher for both processes (DBJ and MTP). There was a reduction for ACNs and polyphenolics only after pasteurization. It has a result that the methods for tried to blueberry juice is suitable into obtain fresh juice. In addition, we examined fruit juice during processing stages; anthocyanin, phenolic substance content and antioxidant activity are higher, and yield is higher in fruit juice compared to DBJ method in MTP method, the MTP method should be preferred in processing juice of blueberry into fruit juice.
Keywords: anthocyanins, blueberry, depectinization, polyphenolsProcedia PDF Downloads 23
5 Energy Analysis of an Ejector Based Solar Assisted Trigeneration System for Dairy Application
Authors: V. Ravindra, P. A. Saikiran, M. Ramgopal
Abstract:This paper presents an energy analysis of a solar assisted trigeneration system using an Ejector for dairy applications. The working fluid in the trigeneration loop is Supercritical CO₂. The trigeneration system is a combination of Brayton cycle and ejector based vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The heating and cooling outputs are used for simultaneous pasteurization and chilling of the milk. The electrical power is used to drive the auxiliary equipment in the dairy plant. A numerical simulation is done with Engineering Equation Solver (EES), and a parametric analysis is performed by varying the operating variables over a meaningful range. The results show that the overall performance index decreases with increase in ambient temperature. For an ejector based system, the compressor work and cooling output are significant output quantities. An increase in total mass flow rate of the refrigerant (primary + secondary) results in an increase in the compressor work and cooling output.
Keywords: trigeneration, solar thermal, supercritical CO₂, ejectorProcedia PDF Downloads 65
4 Effects of Packaging Method, Storage Temperature and Storage Time on the Quality Properties of Cold-Dried Beef Slices
Authors: Elif Aykın Dinçer, Mustafa Erbaş
Abstract:The effects of packaging method (modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and aerobic packaging (AP)), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of cold-dried beef slices were investigated. Beef slices were dried at 10°C and 3 m/s after pasteurization with hot steam and then packaged in order to determine the effect of different storage conditions. As the storage temperature and time increased, it was determined that the amount of CO2 decreased in the MAP packed samples and that the amount of O2 decreased while the amount of CO2 increased in the AP packed samples. The water activity value of stored beef slices decreased from 0.91 to 0.88 during 90 days of storage. The pH, TBARS and NPN-M values of stored beef slices were higher in the AP packed samples and pH value increased from 5.68 to 5.93, TBARS increased from 25.25 to 60.11 μmol MDA/kg and NPN-M value increased from 4.37 to 6.66 g/100g during the 90 days of storage. It was determined that the microbiological quality of MAP packed samples was higher and the mean counts of TAMB, TPB, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, LAB and yeast-mold were 4.10, 3.28, 3.46, 2.99 and 3.14 log cfu/g, respectively. As a result of sensory evaluation, it was found that the quality of samples packed MAP and stored at low temperature was higher and the shelf life of samples was 90 days at 4°C and 75 days at 25°C for MAP treatment, and 60 days at 4°C and 45 days at 25°C for AP treatment.
Keywords: cold drying, dried meat, packaging, storageProcedia PDF Downloads 85
3 Conservativeness of Functional Proteins in Bovine Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Technology
Authors: Sulhee Lee, Geon Kim, Young-Seo Park
Abstract:Unlike the traditional milk sterilization methods (LTLT, HTST, or UHT), pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is a non-thermal pasteurization process. This technology minimizes energy required for heat treatment in food processing, changes in sensory properties, and physical losses. In this study, structural changes of bovine milk proteins, the amount of immunoproteins such as IgG, and their storability by PEF treatment were examined. When the changes of protein content in PEF-treated milk were examined using HPLC, the amounts of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin were reduced over 40% each, whereas those of κ-casein and β-casein did not change. The amount of α-casein in HTST milk was reduced to 50%. When PEF was applied to milk at the energy level of 250 kJ, the amounts of IgG, IgA, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin, and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) decreased by 43, 41, 35, 63, and 45%, respectively. When milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the level of 150 kJ, the concentrations of IgG, IgA, β-LG, lactoferrin, and α-LA were 56.6, 10.6, 554, 2.8 and 660.1 μg/mL, respectively. When the bovine milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the energy level of 180 kJ, storability of immunoproteins of milk was the highest and the concentrations of IgG, IgA, and β-LG decreased by 79.5, 6.5, and 134.5 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with the initial concentrations of those proteins. When bovine milk was stored at 4℃ after sterilization through HTST sterilizer followed by PEF process at the energy level of 200 kJ, the amount of lactoferrin decreased 7.3% after 36 days of storage, whereas that of lactoferrin of raw milk decreased 16.4%. Our results showed that PEF treatment did not change the protein structure nor induce protein denaturation in milk significantly when compared with LTLT or HTST sterilization. Also, LTLT or HTST process in combination with PEF were more effective than LTLT only or HTST only process in the conservation of immunoproteins in bovine milk.
Keywords: pulsed electric field, bovine milk, immunoproteins, sterilizationProcedia PDF Downloads 258
2 Development of a Process Method to Manufacture Spreads from Powder Hardstock
Authors: Phakamani Xaba, Robert Huberts, Bilainu Oboirien
Abstract:It has been over 200 years since margarine was discovered and manufactured using liquid oil, liquified hardstock oils and other oil phase & aqueous phase ingredients. Henry W. Bradley first used vegetable oils in liquid state and around 1871, since then; spreads have been traditionally manufactured using liquified oils. The main objective of this study was to develop a process method to produce spreads using spray dried hardstock fat powders as a structing fats in place of current liquid structuring fats. A high shear mixing system was used to condition the fat phase and the aqueous phase was prepared separately. Using a single scraped surface heat exchanger and pin stirrer, margarine was produced. The process method was developed for to produce spreads with 40%, 50% and 60% fat . The developed method was divided into three steps. In the first step, fat powders were conditioned by melting and dissolving them into liquid oils. The liquified portion of the oils were at 65 °C, whilst the spray dried fat powder was at 25 °C. The two were mixed using a mixing vessel at 900 rpm for 4 minutes. The rest of the ingredients i.e., lecithin, colorant, vitamins & flavours were added at ambient conditions to complete the fat/ oil phase. The water phase was prepared separately by mixing salt, water, preservative, acidifier in the mixing tank. Milk was also separately prepared by pasteurizing it at 79°C prior to feeding it into the aqueous phase. All the water phase contents were chilled to 8 °C. The oil phase and water phase were mixed in a tank, then fed into a single scraped surface heat exchanger. After the scraped surface heat exchanger, the emulsion was fed in a pin stirrer to work the formed crystals and produce margarine. The margarine produced using the developed process had fat levels of 40%, 50% and 60%. The margarine passed all the qualitative, stability, and taste assessments. The scores were 6/10, 7/10 & 7.5/10 for the 40%, 50% & 60% fat spreads, respectively. The success of the trials brought about differentiated knowledge on how to manufacture spreads using non micronized spray dried fat powders as hardstock. Manufacturers do not need to store structuring fats at 80-90°C and even high in winter, instead, they can adapt their processes to use fat powders which need to be stored at 25 °C. The developed process method used one scrape surface heat exchanger instead of the four to five currently used in votator based plants. The use of a single scraped surface heat exchanger translated to about 61% energy savings i.e., 23 kW per ton of product. Furthermore, it was found that the energy saved by implementing separate pasteurization was calculated to be 6.5 kW per ton of product produced.
Keywords: margarine emulsion, votator technology, margarine processing, scraped sur, fat powdersProcedia PDF Downloads 37
1 Medical and Dietary Potentials of Mare's Milk in Liver Diseases
Authors: Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Abay Zhangabilov, Saule Aitbaeva, Galymzhan Meirambekov
Abstract:Mare’s milk (saumal) contains in total about 40 biological components necessary for the human body. The most significant among them are amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, enzymes (lysozyme, amylase), more minerals and vitamins which are well balanced with each other. In Kazakhstan, Company "Eurasia Invest Ltd.” produces a freeze-dried saumal in form of powder by the use of modern German innovative technology by means of evaporating at low temperature (-35°C) with an appropriate pasteurization. Research of freeze-dried biomilk for the qualitative content showed that main ingredients of freshly drown milk are being preserved. We are currently studying medical and dietary properties of freeze-dried mare's milk for diseases of the digestive system, including for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) viral etiology. The studied group consisted of 14 patients with NASH, and 7 patients with LC viral etiology of Class A severity degree as per Child-Pugh. Patients took freeze-dried saumal, preliminary dissolved in boiled warm water (24 g. powder per 200 ml water) 3-4 times a day for a month in conjunction with basic therapy. The results were compared to a control group (11 patients with NASH and LC) who received only basic therapy without mare’s milk. Results of preliminary research showed an improvement of subjective and objective conditions of all patients, but more significant improvement of clinical symptoms and syndromes were observed in the treatment group compared to the control one. Patients with NASH significantly over time compared to the beginning of therapy decreased asthenic and dyspeptic syndromes (p<0,01). Hepatomegaly, identified on the basis of ultrasound prior to treatment was observed in 92,8±2,4% of patients, and after combination therapy hepatomegaly the rate decreased by 14,3%, amounting to 78,5±2,8%. Patients with LC also noted the improvement of asthenic (p<0,01) and dyspeptic (p<0,05) syndromes and hemorrhagic syndrome (nosebleeds and bleeding gums when brushing your teeth, p<0,05), and jaundice. Laboratory study also showed improvement in the research group, but more significant changes were observed in the experimental group. Group of patients with NASH showed a significant improvement of index in cytolysis in conjunction with a combination therapy (p<0,05). In the control group, these indicators were also improved, but they were not statistically reliable (p>0,05). Markers of liver failure were additionally studied during the study of laboratory parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis, in particular, bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin index (PTI). Combined therapy with the use of basic treatment and mare's milk showed a significant improvement in cytolysis and bilirubin (p<0,05). In our opinion, a very important and interesting fact is that, in conjunction with basic therapy, the use of mare's milk revealed an improvement of liver function in the form of normalized PTI and albumin in patients with liver cirrhosis viral etiology. Results of this work have shown therapeutic efficiency of the use of mare's milk in complex treatment of patients with liver disease and require further in-depth study.
Keywords: liver cirrhosis, non-alcohol steatohepatitis, saumal, mare’s milkProcedia PDF Downloads 163