Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2801

Search results for: biogas plant

2801 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Obiora E. Anisiji, Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas plant, biogas production, bio-reactor, energy, fermentation, rate of production, temperature, therm

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2800 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari


The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India. This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: biogas, green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity, batch system

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2799 Production of Biogas

Authors: J. O. Alabi


Biogas is a clean burning, easily produced natural fuel that is an important source of energy for cooking and heating in rural areas and third world countries. Anaerobic bacteria inside biodigesters break down biomass to produce biogas. (Which is 70% methane)? Currently there is no simple way to compress and store biogas. So, in order to use biogas as a source of energy, a direct feed from biodigeser to the store tap or heater must be made. Any excess biogas is vented into the atmosphere, which is wasteful and car have a negative effect on the environment, we have been tasked with designing a system that will be able to compress biogas using an off-grid power supply, making the biogas portable and makes through the use of large-scale, shared biodigester. Our final design is a system that maximizes simplicity and safety while minimizing cost.

Keywords: biogas, biodigesters, natural fuel, bionanotechnology

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2798 Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions

Authors: Jingxiao Liang, David Rooneyman


Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.

Keywords: biogas, CO2, MDEA, separation

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2797 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

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2796 Mathematical Modelling of Biogas Dehumidification by Using of Counterflow Heat Exchanger

Authors: Staņislavs Gendelis, Andris Jakovičs, Jānis Ratnieks, Aigars Laizāns, Dāvids Vardanjans


Dehumidification of biogas at the biomass plants is very important to provide the energy efficient burning of biomethane at the outlet. A few methods are widely used to reduce the water content in biogas, e.g. chiller/heat exchanger based cooling, usage of different adsorbents like PSA, or the combination of such approaches. A quite different method of biogas dehumidification is offered and analyzed in this paper. The main idea is to direct the flow of biogas from the plant around it downwards; thus, creating additional insulation layer. As the temperature in gas shell layer around the plant will decrease from ~ 38°C to 20°C in the summer or even to 0°C in the winter, condensation of water vapor occurs. The water from the bottom of the gas shell can be collected and drain away. In addition, another upward shell layer is created after the condensate drainage place on the outer side to further reducing heat losses. Thus, counterflow biogas heat exchanger is created around the biogas plant. This research work deals with the numerical modelling of biogas flow, taking into account heat exchange and condensation on cold surfaces. Different kinds of boundary conditions (air and ground temperatures in summer/winter) and various physical properties of constructions (insulation between layers, wall thickness) are included in the model to make it more general and useful for different biogas flow conditions. The complexity of this problem is fact, that the temperatures in both channels are conjugated in case of low thermal resistance between layers. MATLAB programming language is used for multiphysical model development, numerical calculations and result visualization. Experimental installation of a biogas plant’s vertical wall with an additional 2 layers of polycarbonate sheets with the controlled gas flow was set up to verify the modelling results. Gas flow at inlet/outlet, temperatures between the layers and humidity were controlled and measured during a number of experiments. Good correlation with modelling results for vertical wall section allows using of developed numerical model for an estimation of parameters for the whole biogas dehumidification system. Numerical modelling of biogas counterflow heat exchanger system placed on the plant’s wall for various cases allows optimizing of thickness for gas layers and insulation layer to ensure necessary dehumidification of the gas under different climatic conditions. Modelling of system’s defined configuration with known conditions helps to predict the temperature and humidity content of the biogas at the outlet.

Keywords: biogas dehumidification, numerical modelling, condensation, biogas plant experimental model

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2795 The Effect of System Parameters on the Biogas Production from Poultry Rendering Plant Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: N. Lovanh, J. Loughrin, G. Ruiz-Aguilar


Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system parameters on methane production from anaerobic digesters utilizing poultry rendering plant wastewater was carried out. Anaerobic batch reactors and continuous flow system subjected to different operation conditions (i.e., flow rate, temperature, and etc.) containing poultry rendering wastewater were set up to evaluate methane potential from each scenario. Biogas productions were sampled and monitored by gas chromatography and photoacoustic gas analyzer over six months of operation. The results showed that methane productions increased as the temperature increased. However, there is an upper limit to the increase in the temperature on the methane production. Flow rates and type of systems (batch vs. plug-flow regime) also had a major effect on methane production. Constant biogas production was observed in plug-flow system whereas batch system produced biogas quicker and tapering off toward the end of the six-month study. Based on these results, it is paramount to consider operating conditions and system setup in optimizing biogas production from agricultural wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, methane, poultry rendering wastewater, biotechnology

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2794 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: chemical composition, fiber contents, biogas, nitrogen, harvesting time

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2793 Economic Evaluation of Biogas and Biomethane from Animal Manure

Authors: Shahab Shafayyan, Tara Naderi


Biogas is the product of decomposition of organic materials. A variety of sources, including animal wastes, municipal solid wastes, sewage and agricultural wastes may be used to produce biogas in an anaerobic process. The main forming material of biogas is methane gas, which can be used directly in a variety of ways, such as heating and as fuel, which is very common in a number of countries, such as China and India. In this article, the cost of biogas production from animal fertilizers, and its refined form, bio methane gas has been studied and it is shown that it can be an alternative for natural gas in terms of costs, in the near future. The cost of biogas purification to biomethane is more than three times the cost of biogas production for an average unit. Biomethane production costs, calculated for a small unit, is about $9/MMBTU and for an average unit is about $5.9/MMBTU.

Keywords: biogas, biomethane, anaerobic digestion, economic evaluation

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2792 Insights into the Annotated Genome Sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 Isolated from a Thermophilic Rural Biogas Producing Plant

Authors: Irena Maus, Katharina Gabriella Cibis, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Geizecler Tomazetto, Daniel Wibberg, Helmut König, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter


Within the agricultural sector, the production of biogas from organic substrates represents an economically attractive technology to generate bioenergy. Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biomass decomposition and biogas production. Recently, species belonging to the phylum Thermotogae were detected in thermophilic biogas-production plants utilizing renewable primary products for biomethanation. To analyze adaptive genome features of representative Thermotogae strains, Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 was isolated from a rural thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) and completely sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq system. Sequencing and assembly of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome yielded a circular chromosome with a size of 2,053,097 bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. Functional annotation of the complete genome sequence revealed that the thermophilic strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to facilitate growth of this microorganism on arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, fructose, raffinose, ribose, cellobiose, lactose, xylose, xylan, lactate and mannitol. Acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are supposed to be end products of the fermentation process. The latter gene products are metabolites for methanogenic archaea, the key players in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness of dominant biogas community members within selected digester systems to D. tunisiensis L3, metagenome sequences from corresponding communities were mapped on the L3 genome. These fragment recruitments revealed that metagenome reads originating from a thermophilic biogas plant covered 95% of D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence. In conclusion, availability of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence and insights into its metabolic capabilities provide the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genome features involved in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products.

Keywords: genome sequence, thermophilic biogas plant, Thermotogae, Defluviitoga tunisiensis

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2791 Determinants of Rural Household Effective Demand for Biogas Technology in Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Mesfin Nigussie


The objectives of the study were to identify factors affecting rural households’ willingness to install biogas plant and amount willingness to pay in order to examine determinants of effective demand for biogas technology. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 120 respondents for the study. The binary probit regression model was employed to identify factors affecting rural households’ decision to install biogas technology. The probit model result revealed that household size, total household income, access to extension services related to biogas, access to credit service, proximity to water sources, perception of households about the quality of biogas, perception index about attributes of biogas, perception of households about installation cost of biogas and availability of energy source were statistically significant in determining household’s decision to install biogas. Tobit model was employed to examine determinants of rural household’s amount of willingness to pay. Based on the model result, age of the household head, total annual income of the household, access to extension service and availability of other energy source were significant variables that influence willingness to pay. Providing due considerations for extension services, availability of credit or subsidy, improving the quality of biogas technology design and minimizing cost of installation by using locally available materials are the main suggestions of this research that help to create effective demand for biogas technology.

Keywords: biogas technology, effective demand, probit model, tobit model, willingnes to pay

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2790 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: energy and mass conservation, specific growth rate, thermophilic bacteria, temperature, rate of bio gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2789 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Energy Production from a Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant in Central Mexico

Authors: Joel Bonales, Venecia Solorzano, Carlos Garcia


A great percentage of the wastewater generated in developing countries don’t receive any treatment, which leads to numerous environmental impacts. In response to this, a paradigm change in the current wastewater treatment model based on large scale plants towards a small and medium scale based model has been proposed. Nevertheless, small scale wastewater treatment (SS-WTTP) with novel technologies such as anaerobic digesters, as well as the utilization of derivative co-products such as biogas, still presents diverse environmental impacts which must be assessed. This study consisted in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed to a SS-WWTP which treats wastewater from a small commercial block in the city of Morelia, Mexico. The treatment performed in the SS-WWTP consists in anaerobic and aerobic digesters with a daily capacity of 5,040 L. Two different scenarios were analyzed: the current plant conditions and a hypothetical energy use of biogas obtained in situ. Furthermore, two different allocation criteria were applied: full impact allocation to the system’s main product (treated water) and substitution credits for replacing Mexican grid electricity (biogas) and clean water pumping (treated water). The results showed that the analyzed plant had bigger impacts than what has been reported in the bibliography in the basis of wastewater volume treated, which may imply that this plant is currently operating inefficiently. The evaluated impacts appeared to be focused in the aerobic digestion and electric generation phases due to the plant’s particular configuration. Additional findings prove that the allocation criteria applied is crucial for the interpretation of impacts and that that the energy use of the biogas obtained in this plant can help mitigate associated climate change impacts. It is concluded that SS-WTTP is a environmentally sound alternative for wastewater treatment from a systemic perspective. However, this type of studies must be careful in the selection of the allocation criteria and replaced products, since these factors have a great influence in the results of the assessment.

Keywords: biogas, life cycle assessment, small scale treatment, wastewater treatment

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2788 Experimental Research of Biogas Production by Using Sewage Sludge and Chicken Manure Bioloadings with Wood Biochar Additive

Authors: P. Baltrenas, D. Paliulis, V. Kolodynskij, D. Urbanas


Bioreactor; special device, which is used for biogas production from various organic material under anaerobic conditions. In this research, a batch bioreactor with a mechanical mixer was used for biogas production from sewage sludge and chicken manure bioloadings. The process of anaerobic digestion was mesophilic (35 °C). Produced biogas was stoted in a gasholder and the concentration of its components was measured with INCA 4000 biogas analyser. Also, a specific additive (pine wood biochar) was applied to prepare bioloadings. The application of wood biochar in bioloading increases the CH₄ concentration in the produced gas by 6-7%. The highest concentrations of CH₄ were found in biogas produced during the decomposition of sewage sludge bioloadings. The maximum CH₄ reached 77.4%. Studies have shown that the application of biochar in bioloadings also reduces average CO₂ and H₂S concentrations in biogas.

Keywords: biochar, biogas, bioreactor, sewage sludge

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2787 Development of Simple-To-Apply Biogas Kinetic Models for the Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Maize Husk

Authors: Owamah Hilary, O. C. Izinyon


Many existing biogas kinetic models are difficult to apply to substrates they were not developed for, as they are substrate specific. Biodegradability kinetic (BIK) model and maximum biogas production potential and stability assessment (MBPPSA) model were therefore developed in this study for the anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and maize husk. Biodegradability constant (k) was estimated as 0.11d-1 using the BIK model. The results of maximum biogas production potential (A) obtained using the MBPPSA model corresponded well with the results obtained using the popular but complex modified Gompertz model for digesters B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5. The (If) value of MBPPSA model also showed that digesters B-3, B-4, and B-5 were stable, while B-1 and B-2 were unstable. Similar stability observation was also obtained using the modified Gompertz model. The MBPPSA model can therefore be used as alternative model for anaerobic digestion feasibility studies and plant design.

Keywords: biogas, inoculum, model development, stability assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2786 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇


Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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2785 Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: D. Hephzibah, P. Kumaran, N. M. Saifuddin


Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment methods have been established in various publications as a promising technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery. In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization, sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, microwave pre-treatment, sewage sludge

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2784 Enhancing Inhibition on Phytopathogens by Complex Using Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang-Bo Yu, Li-Bo Guan, Sheng-Dao Shan


Biogas slurry was mixed with six commercial fungicides and screening against 11 phytopathogens was carried out. Results showed that inhibition of biogas slurry was different for the test strains and no significant difference between treatments of Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia cerealis, F. graminearum and Septoria tritici was observed. However, significant differences were found among Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sonali, F. oxysporum F. sp. melonis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The approach described here presents a promising alternative to current manipulation although some issues still need further examination. This study could contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture and better utilization of biogas slurry.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas slurry, phytopathogen, sustainable agriculture

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2783 Biogas Potential of Deinking Sludge from Wastepaper Recycling Industry: Influence of Dewatering Degree and High Calcium Carbonate Content

Authors: Moses Kolade Ogun, Ina Korner


To improve on the sustainable resource management in the wastepaper recycling industry, studies into the valorization of wastes generated by the industry are necessary. The industry produces different residues, among which is the deinking sludge (DS). The DS is generated from the deinking process and constitutes a major fraction of the residues generated by the European pulp and paper industry. The traditional treatment of DS by incineration is capital intensive due to energy requirement for dewatering and the need for complementary fuel source due to DS low calorific value. This could be replaced by a biotechnological approach. This study, therefore, investigated the biogas potential of different DS streams (different dewatering degrees) and the influence of the high calcium carbonate content of DS on its biogas potential. Dewatered DS (solid fraction) sample from filter press and the filtrate (liquid fraction) were collected from a partner wastepaper recycling company in Germany. The solid fraction and the liquid fraction were mixed in proportion to realize DS with different water content (55–91% fresh mass). Spiked samples of DS using deionized water, cellulose and calcium carbonate were prepared to simulate DS with varying calcium carbonate content (0– 40% dry matter). Seeding sludge was collected from an existing biogas plant treating sewage sludge in Germany. Biogas potential was studied using a 1-liter batch test system under the mesophilic condition and ran for 21 days. Specific biogas potential in the range 133- 230 NL/kg-organic dry matter was observed for DS samples investigated. It was found out that an increase in the liquid fraction leads to an increase in the specific biogas potential and a reduction in the absolute biogas potential (NL-biogas/ fresh mass). By comparing the absolute biogas potential curve and the specific biogas potential curve, an optimal dewatering degree corresponding to a water content of about 70% fresh mass was identified. This degree of dewatering is a compromise when factors such as biogas yield, reactor size, energy required for dewatering and operation cost are considered. No inhibitory influence was observed in the biogas potential of DS due to the reported high calcium carbonate content of DS. This study confirms that DS is a potential bioresource for biogas production. Further optimization such as nitrogen supplementation due to DS high C/N ratio can increase biogas yield.

Keywords: biogas, calcium carbonate, deinking sludge, dewatering, water content

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2782 Reactors with Effective Mixing as a Solutions for Micro-Biogas Plant

Authors: M. Zielinski, M. Debowski, P. Rusanowska, A. Glowacka-Gil, M. Zielinska, A. Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, J. Kazimierowicz


Technologies for the micro-biogas plant with heating and mixing systems are presented as a part of the Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications (Record Biomap). The main objective of the Record Biomap project is to build a network of operators and scientific institutions interested in cooperation and the development of promising technologies in the sector of small and medium-sized biogas plants. The activities carried out in the project will bridge the gap between research and market and reduce the time of implementation of new, efficient technological and technical solutions. Reactor with simultaneously mixing and heating system is a concrete tank with a rectangular cross-section. In the reactor, heating is integrated with the mixing of substrate and anaerobic sludge. This reactor is solution dedicated for substrates with high solids content, which cannot be introduced to the reactor with pumps, even with positive displacement pumps. Substrates are poured to the reactor and then with a screw pump, they are mixed with anaerobic sludge. The pumped sludge, flowing through the screw pump, is simultaneously heated by a heat exchanger. The level of the fermentation sludge inside the reactor chamber is above the bottom edge of the cover. Cover of the reactor is equipped with the screw pump driver. Inside the reactor, an electric motor is installed that is driving a screw pump. The heated sludge circulates in the digester. The post-fermented sludge is collected using a drain well. The inlet to the drain well is below the level of the sludge in the digester. The biogas is discharged from the reactor by the biogas intake valve located on the cover. The technology is very useful for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass and substrates with high content of dry mass (organic wastes). The other technology is a reactor for micro-biogas plant with a pressure mixing system. The reactor has a form of plastic or concrete tank with a circular cross-section. The effective mixing of sludge is ensured by profiled at 90° bottom of the tank. Substrates for fermentation are supplied by an inlet well. The inlet well is equipped with a cover that eliminates odour release. The introduction of a new portion of substrates is preceded by pumping of digestate to the disposal well. Optionally, digestate can gravitationally flow to digestate storage tank. The obtained biogas is discharged into the separator. The valve supplies biogas to the blower. The blower presses the biogas from the fermentation chamber in such a way as to facilitate the introduction of a new portion of substrates. Biogas is discharged from the reactor by valve that enables biogas removal but prevents suction from outside the reactor.

Keywords: biogas, digestion, heating system, mixing system

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2781 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass

Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza


The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available. As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level. The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.

Keywords: biogas production, risks, risk assessment, biosystems engineering

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2780 How to Capitalize on BioCNG at a Wastewater Plant

Authors: William G. "Gus" Simmons


Municipal and industrial wastewater plants across our country utilize anaerobic digestion as either primary treatment or as a means of waste sludge treatment and reduction. The emphasis on renewable energy and clean energy over the past several years, coupled with increasing electricity costs and increasing consumer demands for efficient utility operations has led to closer examination of the potential for harvesting the energy value of the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. Although some facilities may have already come to the belief that harvesting this energy value is not practical or a top priority as compared to other capital needs and initiatives at the wastewater plant, we see that many are seeing biogas, and an opportunity for additional revenues, go up in flames as they continue to flare. Conversely, few wastewater plants under progressive and visionary leadership have demonstrated that harvesting the energy value from anaerobic digestion is more than “smoke and hot air”. From providing thermal energy to adjacent or on-campus operations to generating electricity and/or transportation fuels, these facilities are proving that energy harvesting can not only be profitable, but sustainable. This paper explores ways in which wastewater treatment plants can increase their value and import to the communities they serve through the generation of clean, renewable energy; also presented the processes in which these facilities moved from energy and cost sinks to sparks of innovation and pride in the communities in which they operate.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, harvesting energy, biogas, renewable energy, sustainability

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2779 Temperature Susceptibility for Optimal Biogas Production

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, Pbharat Saikumar, Thinley Dorji


Earth is going to be a planet where no further life can sustain if people continue to pollute the environment. We need energy and fuels everyday for heating and lighting purposes in our life. It’s high time we know this problem and take measures at-least to reduce pollution and take alternative measures for everyday livelihood. Biogas is one of them. It is very essential to define and control the parameters for optimization of biogas production. Biogas plants can be made of different size, but it is very vital to make a biogas which will be cost effective, with greater efficiency (more production) and biogas plants that will sustain for a longer period of time for usage. In this research, experiments were carried out only on cow dung and Chicken manure depending on the substrates people out there (Bhutan) used. The experiment was done within 25 days and was tested for different temperatures and found out which produce more amount. Moreover, it was also statistically tested for their dependency and non-dependency which gave clear idea more on their production.

Keywords: digester, mesophilic temperature, organic manure, statistical analysis, thermophilic temperature, t-test

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2778 Scaling-Down an Agricultural Waste Biogas Plant Fermenter

Authors: Matheus Pessoa, Matthias Kraume


Scale-Down rules in process engineering help us to improve and develop Industrial scale parameters into lab scale. Several scale-down rules available in the literature like Impeller Power Number, Agitation device Power Input, Substrate Tip Speed, Reynolds Number and Cavern Development were investigated in order to stipulate the rotational speed to operate an 11 L working volume lab-scale bioreactor within industrial process parameters. Herein, xanthan gum was used as a fluid with a representative viscosity of a hypothetical biogas plant, with H/D = 1 and central agitation, fermentation broth using sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp as substrate. The results showed that the cavern development strategy was the best method for establishing a rotational speed for the bioreactor operation, while the other rules presented values out of reality for this article proposes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cavern development, scale down rules, xanthan gum

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2777 Enhancement in Digester Efficiency and Numerical Analysis for Optimal Design Parameters of Biogas Plant Using Design of Experiment Approach

Authors: Rajneesh, Priyanka Singh


Biomass resources have been one of the main energy sources for mankind since the dawn of civilization. There is a vast scope to convert these energy sources into biogas which is a clean, low carbon technology for efficient management and conversion of fermentable organic wastes into a cheap and versatile fuel and bio/organic manure. Thus, in order to enhance the performance of anaerobic digester, an optimizing analysis of resultant parameters (organic dry matter (oDM) content, methane percentage, and biogas yield) has been done for a plug flow anaerobic digester having mesophilic conditions (20-40°C) with the wet fermentation process. Based on the analysis, correlations for oDM, methane percentage, and biogas yield are derived using multiple regression analysis. A statistical model is developed to correlate the operating variables using the design of experiment approach by selecting central composite design (CCD) of a response surface methodology. Results shown in the paper indicates that as the operating temperature increases the efficiency of digester gets improved provided that the pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) remains constant. Working in an optimized range of carbon-nitrogen ratio for the plug flow digester, the output parameters show a positive change with the variation of dry matter content (DM).

Keywords: biogas, digester efficiency, design of experiment, plug flow digester

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2776 Analysis of the Impact and Effectiveness of Government Funded Small-Scale Biogas Projects in Giyani Municipality, Limpopo

Authors: Lindiwe Ngcobo


The aim of the study is to describe and understand the benefits and costs of having biogas digesters at both household and society level. On a household level, the purpose is to understand how rural households benefit from the biogas digesters, for example, by converting animal and human waste through biogas digesters, and at what costs the benefits are realized. At a societal level, the purpose is to understand the costs and benefits of biogas digesters relative to the situation of rural communities who do not have flush toilets and have no appropriate waste disposal services while they incur electricity costs. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of biogas digesters on electricity availability and waste management. The results showed that beneficiaries spent less on electricity using household waste, and also waste disposal costs were eliminated from household expenses. A move to biogas energy production can be beneficial to rural households. It is economically and environmentally friendly. Small-scale farmers need to be introduced to agricultural innovations that can assist them in producing nutritious crops at a low cost. This can be a good opportunity to start an agribusiness that focuses on organic crops. Extensions and training institutions have to play a part in supporting households to develop entrepreneurial skills. Cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits of biogas exceed the costs of the biogas projects. This implies that this technology should be promoted in rural households. Government financial incentives must be put in place to motivate a generation of organic Agri-prenuers.

Keywords: Agri-prenuers, biogas digester, biogas energy, disposal costs

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2775 Biogas Production from Lake Bottom Biomass from Forest Management Areas

Authors: Dessie Tegegne Tibebu, Kirsi Mononen, Ari Pappinen


In areas with forest management, agricultural, and industrial activity, sediments and biomass are accumulated in lakes through drainage system, which might be a cause for biodiversity loss and health problems. One possible solution can be utilization of lake bottom biomass and sediments for biogas production. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of lake bottom materials for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion and to study the effect of pretreatment methods for feed materials on biogas yield. In order to study the potentials of biogas production lake bottom materials were collected from two sites, Likokanta and Kutunjärvi lake. Lake bottom materials were mixed with straw-horse manure to produce biogas in a laboratory scale reactor. The results indicated that highest yields of biogas values were observed when feeds were composed of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixture-while with above 50% lake bottom materials in the feed biogas production decreased. CH4 content from Likokanta lake materials with straw-horse manure and Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw-horse manure were similar values when feed consisted of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixtures. However, feeds with lake bottom materials above 50%, the CH4 concentration started to decrease, impairing gas process. Pretreatment applied on Kutunjärvi lake materials showed a slight negative effect on the biogas production and lowest CH4 concentration throughout the experiment. The average CH4 production (ml g-1 VS) from pretreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (208.9 ml g-1 VS) and untreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (182.2 ml g-1 VS) were markedly higher than from Likokanta lake materials with straw horse manure (157.8 ml g-1 VS). According to the experimental results, utilization of 100% lake bottom materials for biogas production is likely to be impaired negatively. In the future, further analyses to improve the biogas yields, assessment of costs and benefits is needed before utilizing lake bottom materials for the production of biogas.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, lake bottom materials, sediments, pretreatment

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2774 Technology Assessment of the Collection of Cast Seaweed and Use as Feedstock for Biogas Production- The Case of SolrøD, Denmark

Authors: Rikke Lybæk, Tyge Kjær


The Baltic Sea is suffering from nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, which causes eutrophication of the maritime environment and hence threatens the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea area. The intensified quantity of nutrients in the water has created challenges with the growth of seaweed being discarded on beaches around the sea. The cast seaweed has led to odor problems hampering the use of beach areas around the Bay of Køge in Denmark. This is the case in, e.g., Solrød Municipality, where recreational activities have been disrupted when cast seaweed pile up on the beach. Initiatives have, however, been introduced within the municipality to remove the cast seaweed from the beach and utilize it for renewable energy production at the nearby Solrød Biogas Plant, thus being co-digested with animal manure for power and heat production. This paper investigates which type of technology application’s have been applied in the effort to optimize the collection of cast seaweed, and will further reveal, how the seaweed has been pre-treated at the biogas plant to be utilized for energy production the most efficient, hereunder the challenges connected with the content of sand. Heavy metal contents in the seaweed and how it is managed will also be addressed, which is vital as the digestate is utilized as soil fertilizer on nearby farms. Finally, the paper will outline the energy production scheme connected to the use of seaweed as feedstock for biogas production, as well as the amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer produced. The theoretical approach adopted in the paper relies on the thinking of Circular Bio-Economy, where biological materials are cascaded and re-circulated etc., to increase and extend their value and usability. The data for this research is collected as part of the EU Interreg project “Cluster On Anaerobic digestion, environmental Services, and nuTrients removAL” (COASTAL Biogas), 2014-2020. Data gathering consists of, e.g., interviews with relevant stakeholders connected to seaweed collection and operation of the biogas plant in Solrød Municipality. It further entails studies of progress and evaluation reports from the municipality, analysis of seaweed digestion results from scholars connected to the research, as well as studies of scientific literature to supplement the above. Besides this, observations and photo documentation have been applied in the field. This paper concludes, among others, that the seaweed harvester technology currently adopted is functional in the maritime environment close to the beachfront but inadequate in collecting seaweed directly on the beach. New technology hence needs to be developed to increase the efficiency of seaweed collection. It is further concluded that the amount of sand transported to Solrød Biogas Plant with the seaweed continues to pose challenges. The seaweed is pre-treated for sand in a receiving tank with a strong stirrer, washing off the sand, which ends at the bottom of the tank where collected. The seaweed is then chopped by a macerator and mixed with the other feedstock. The wear down of the receiving tank stirrer and the chopper are, however, significant, and new methods should be adopted.

Keywords: biogas, circular bio-economy, Denmark, maritime technology, cast seaweed, solrød municipality

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2773 Sustainable Biogas Upgrading: Characterization of Adsorption Properties of Tuff

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino, Franco Cotana


This paper presents experimental results from the analysis of Tuff for CO2 and H2S removal from biogas. Synthetic zeolites, commonly used for biogas upgrading, are characterized by excellent performance in terms of carbon dioxide adsorption, however, cost and environmental footprint represent a negative contribute to their sustainability. Natural zeolites contained in Tuff, a totally inexpensive byproduct of the construction industry, show very interesting selective adsorption properties, associated with its availability in regions, as central Italy, where biogas production from small scale plants is rapidly increasing. An in-house experimental device was assembled to measure the adsorption capacity of Tuff as a function of partial CO2 pressure for different temperatures (i.e. adsorption isotherms). Results show performances as high as 66% with respect to commercial zeolites (13X). A sensitivity analysis of different regeneration processes is also presented. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic zeolites was finally performed using biogas samples obtained from different types of feedstock and characterized by varying CO2 and H2S content.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, CO2 adsorption, sustainable energy, tuff

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2772 Environment-Friendly Biogas Technology: Comparative Analysis of Benefits as Perceived by Biogas Users and Non-User Livestock Farmers of Tehsil Jhang

Authors: Anees Raza, Liu Chunyan


Renewable energy technologies are need of the time and are already making the big impact in the climatic outlook of the world. Biogas technology is one of those, and it has a lot of benefits for its users. It is cost effective because it is produced from the raw material which is available free of cost to the livestock farmers. Bio-slurry, a by-product of biogas, is being used as fertilizer for the crops production and increasing soil fertility. There are many other household benefits of technology. Research paper discusses the benefits of biogas as perceived by the biogas users as well as non-users of Tehsil Jhang. Data were collected from 60 respondents (30 users and 30 non-users) selected purposively through validated and pre-tested interview schedule from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Household benefits like ‘makes cooking easy,’ ‘Less breathing issues for working women in kitchens’ and ‘Use of bio-slurry as organic fertilizer’ had the highly significant relationship between them with t-values of 3.24, 4.39 and 2.80 respectively. Responses of the respondents about environmental benefits of biogas technology showed that ‘less air pollution’ had a significant relationship between them while ‘less temperature rise up than due to the burning of wood /dung’ had the non-significant relationship in the responses of interviewed respondents. It was clear from the research that biogas users were becoming influential in convincing non-users to adopt this technology due to its noticeable benefits. Research area where people were depending on wood to be used as fire fuel could be helped in reduction of cutting of trees which will help in controlling deforestation and saving the environment.People should be encouraged in using of biogas technology through providing them subsidies and low mark up loans.

Keywords: biogas technology, deforestation, environmental benefits, renewable energy

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