Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: micronutrients

43 Evaluation of the Behavior of Micronutrients in Salty Soils of Low Cheliff

Authors: N. Degui, Y. Daoud


The study investigates the assessment of micronutrient bioavailability and behavior in saline soils based on the determination of three cations and one anion on three soil profiles affected by secondary salinization in Lower Cheliff. The chemical fractionation method was used for the speciation study (different forms) of micronutrients in these soils. The results show that total form quantities of cations are height than norms in agricultural soils, thus the quantities of anion are lows. At the other hand, the quantities of available forms are lows. Statistical analysis reveals that cationic micronutrients localize preferentially in the coarse fraction of the soil in salty conditions and that sodicity causes a decrease in the iron reserve in the soil. The pH range ‘7.49 - 8.76’ represents a constraint for the complexation of micronutrients by organic matter. The study concluded that quantities of total and available forms of micronutrients in salty soils are influenced by soil properties such as: pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium.

Keywords: chemical fractionation, micronutrients, salty soils, speciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
42 Development of a Rice Fortification Technique Using Vacuum Assisted Rapid Diffusion for Low Cost Encapsulation of Fe and Zn

Authors: R. A. C. H. Seneviratne, M. Gunawardana, R. P. N. P. Rajapakse


To address the micronutrient deficiencies in the Asian region, the World Food Program in its current mandate highlights the requirement of employing efficient fortification of micronutrients in rice, under the program 'Scaling-up Rice Fortification in Asia'. The current industrial methods of rice fortification with micronutrients are not promising due to poor permeation or retention of fortificants. This study was carried out to develop a method to improve fortification of micronutrients in rice by removing the air barriers for diffusing micronutrients through the husk. For the purpose, soaking stage of paddy was coupled with vacuum (- 0.6 bar) for different time periods. Both long and short grain varieties of paddy (BG 352 and BG 358, respectively) initially tested for water uptake during hot soaking (70 °C) under vacuum (28.5 and 26.15%, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of non-vacuum conditions (25.24 and 25.45% respectively), exhibiting the effectiveness of water diffusion into the rice grains through the cleared pores under negative pressure. To fortify the selected micronutrients (iron and zinc), paddy was vacuum-soaked in Fe2+ or Zn2+ solutions (500 ppm) separately for one hour, and continued soaking for another 3.5 h without vacuum. Significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of Fe2+ and Zn2+ were observed throughout the soaking period, in both short and long grain varieties of rice compared to rice treated without vacuum. To achieve the recommended limits of World Food Program standards for fortified iron (40-48 mg/kg) and zinc (60-72 mg/kg) in rice, soaking was done with different concentrations of Fe2+ or Zn2+ for varying time periods. For both iron and zinc fortifications, hot soaking (70 °C) in 400 ppm solutions under vacuum (- 0.6 bar) during the first hour followed by 2.5 h under atmospheric pressure exhibited the optimum fortification (Fe2+: 46.59±0.37 ppm and Zn2+: 67.24±1.36 ppm) with a greater significance (P < 0.05) compared to the controls (Fe2+: 38.84±0.62 ppm and Zn2+: 52.55±0.55 ppm). This finding was further confirmed by the XRF images, clearly showing a greater fixation of Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the rice grains under vacuum treatment. Moreover, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among both Fe2+ and Zn2+ contents in fortified rice even after polishing and washing, confirming their greater retention. A seven point hedonic scale showed that the overall acceptability for both iron and zinc fortified rice were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the parboiled rice without fortificants. With all the drawbacks eliminated, per kilogram cost will be less than US$ 1 for both iron and zinc fortified rice. The new method of rice fortification studied and developed in this research, can be claimed as the best method in comparison to other rice fortification methods currently deployed.

Keywords: fortification, vacuum assisted diffusion, micronutrients, parboiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
41 Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation

Authors: S. Jaikeaw, S. Chavadej


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.

Keywords: hydrogen and methane production, ethanol wastewater, a two-stage upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) system, mesophillic temperature, microbial concentration (MLVSS), micronutrients

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40 Effects of Macro and Micro Nutrients on Growth and Yield Performances of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Authors: K. M. S. Weerasinghe, A. H. K. Balasooriya, S. L. Ransingha, G. D. Krishantha, R. S. Brhakamanagae, L. C. Wijethilke


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 120 million metric tons and ranks first as a processing crop. The average tomato productivity in Sri Lanka (11 metric tons/ha) is much lower than the world average (24 metric tons/ha).To meet the tomato demand for the increasing population the productivity has to be intensified through the agronomic-techniques. Nutrition is one of the main factors which govern the growth and yield of tomato and the main nutrient source soil affect the plant growth and quality of the produce. Continuous cropping, improper fertilizer usage etc., cause widespread nutrient deficiencies. Therefore synthetic fertilizers and organic manures were introduced to enhance plant growth and maximize the crop yields. In this study, effects of macro and micronutrient supplementations on improvement of growth and yield of tomato were investigated. Selected tomato variety is Maheshi and plants were grown in Regional Agricultural and Research Centre Makadura under the Department of Agriculture recommended (DOA) macro nutrients and various combination of Ontario recommended dosages of secondary and micro fertilizer supplementations. There were six treatments in this experiment and each treatment was replicated in three times and each replicate consisted of six plants. Other than the DOA recommendation, five combinations of Ontario recommended dosage of secondary and micronutrients for tomato were also used as treatments. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All cultural practices were carried out according to the DOA recommendations. The mean data was subjected to the statistical analysis using SAS package and mean separation (Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level) procedures. Secondary and micronutrients containing treatments significantly increased most of the growth parameters. Plant height, plant girth, number of leaves, leaf area index etc. Fruits harvested from pots amended with macro, secondary and micronutrients performed best in terms of total yield; yield quality; to pots amended with DOA recommended dosage of fertilizer for tomato. It could be due to the application of all essential macro and micro nutrients that rise in photosynthetic activity, efficient translocation and utilization of photosynthates causing rapid cell elongation and cell division in actively growing region of the plant leading to stimulation of growth and yield were caused. The experiment revealed and highlighted the requirements of essential macro, secondary and micro nutrient fertilizer supplementations for tomato farming. The study indicated that, macro and micro nutrient supplementation practices can influence growth and yield performances of tomato fruits and it is a promising approach to get potential tomato yields.

Keywords: macro and micronutrients, tomato, SAS package, photosynthates

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39 Direct and Residual Effects of Boron and Zinc on Growth and Nutrient Status of Rice and Wheat Crop

Authors: M. Saleem, M. Shahnawaz, A. W. Gandahi, S. M. Bhatti


The micronutrients boron and zinc deficiencies are extensive in the areas of rice-wheat cropping system. Optimum levels of these nutrients in soil are necessary for healthy crop growth. Since rice and wheat are major staple food of worlds’ populace, the higher yields and nutrition status of these crops has direct effect on the health of human being and economy of the country. A field study was conducted to observe the direct and residual effect of two selected micronutrients boron (B) and zinc (Zn)) on rice and wheat crop growth and its grain nutrient status. Each plot received either B or Zn at the rates of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg B ha⁻¹, and 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg Zn ha⁻¹, combined B and Zn application at 1 kg B and 5 kg Zn ha⁻¹, 2 kg B and 10 kg Zn ha⁻¹. Colemanite ore were used as source of B and zinc sulfate for Zn. The second season wheat crop was planted in the same plots after the interval period of 30 days and during this time gap soil was fallow. Boron and Zn application significantly enhanced the plant height, number of tillers, Grains panicle⁻¹ seed index fewer empty grains panicle⁻¹ and yield of rice crop at all defined levels as compared to control. The highest yield (10.00 tons/ha) was recorded at 2 Kg B, 10 Kg Zn ha⁻¹ rates. Boron and Zn concentration in grain and straw significantly increased. The application of B also improved the nutrition status of rice as B, protein and total carbohydrates content of grain augmented. The analysis of soil samples collected after harvest of rice crop showed that the B and Zn content in post-harvest soil samples was high in colemanite and zinc sulfate applied plots. The residual B and Zn were also effectual for the second season wheat crop, as the growth parameters plant height, number of tillers, earhead length, weight 1000 grains, B and Zn content of grain significantly improved. The highest wheat grain yield (4.23 tons/ha) was recorded at the residual rates of 2 kg B and 10 kg Zn ha⁻¹ than the other treatments. This study showed that one application of B and Zn can increase crop yields for at least two consecutive seasons and the mineral colemanite can confidently be used as source of B for rice crop because very small quantities of these nutrients are consumed by first season crop and remaining amount was present in soil which were used by second season wheat crop for healthy growth. Consequently, there is no need to apply these micronutrients to the following crop when it is applied on the previous one.

Keywords: residual boron, zinc, rice, wheat

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38 Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center

Authors: Andi Tenri Ayu Rahman, Citrakesumasari, Devintha Virani


Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.

Keywords: zinc, breastmilk, mother, baby

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37 Dietary Diversification and Nutritional Education: A Strategy to Improve Child Food Security Status in the Rural Mozambique

Authors: Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis


Nutrient deficiencies due to a diet low in quantitative and qualitative terms, are prevalent throughout the developing world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Children and women of childbearing age are especially vulnerable. Limited availability, access and intake of animal foods at home and lack of knowledge about their value in the diet and the role they play in health, contribute to poor diet quality. Poor bioavailability of micronutrients in diets based on foods high in fiber and phytates, the low content of some micronutrients in these foods are further factors to consider. Goats are deeply embedded in almost every Sub-Saharan African rural culture, generally kept for their milk, meat, hair or leather. Goats have played an important role in African social life, especially in food security. Goat meat has good properties for human wellbeing, with a special role in lower income households. It has a high-quality protein (20 protein g/100 meat g) including all essential amino acids, good unsaturated/satured fatty acids relationship, and it is an important B-vitamin source with high micronutrients bioavailability. Mozambique has major food security problems, with poor food access and utilization, undiversified diets, chronic poverty and child malnutrition. Our objective was to design a nutritional intervention based on a dietary diversification, nutritional education, cultural beliefs and local resources, aimed to strengthen food security of children at Barrio Broma village (15°43'58.78"S; 32°46'7.27"E) in Chitima, Mozambique. Two surveys were conducted first of socio-productive local databases and then to 100 rural households about livelihoods, food diversity and anthropometric measurements in children under 5 years. Our results indicate that the main economic activity is goat production, based on a native breed with two deliveries per year in the absence of any management. Adult goats weighted 27.2±10.5 kg and raised a height of 63.5±3.8 cm. Data showed high levels of poverty, with a food diversity score of 2.3 (0-12 points), where only 30% of households consume protein and 13% iron, zinc, and B12 vitamin. The main constraints to food security were poor access to water and low income to buy food. Our dietary intervention was based on improving diet quality by increasing the access to dried goat meat, fresh vegetables, and legumes, and its utilization by a nutritional education program. This proposal was based on local culture and living conditions characterized by the absence of electricity power and drinkable water. The drying process proposed would secure the food maintenance under local conditions guaranteeing food safety for a longer period. Additionally, an ancient local drying technique was rescued and used. Moreover, this kind of dietary intervention would be the most efficient way to improve the infant nutrition by delivering macro and micronutrients on time to these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: child malnutrition, dietary diversification, food security, goat meat

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36 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz


Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: Durum wheat, Gpc-B1, MAS, Triticum durum, Yr-36

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
35 Influence of Environment-Friendly Organic Wastes on the Properties of Sandy Soil under Growing Zea mays L. in Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed Rashad, Mohamed Hafez, Mohamed Emran, Emad Aboukila, Ibrahim Nassar


Environment-friendly organic wastes of Brewers' spent grain, a byproduct of the brewing process, have recently used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and plant production. In this work, treatments of 1% (T1) and 2% (T2) of spent grains, 1% (C1) and 2% (C2) of compost and mix of both sources (C1T1) were used and compared to the control for growing Zea mays L. on sandy soil under arid Mediterranean climate. Soils were previously incubated at 65% saturation capacity for a month. The most relevant soil physical and chemical parameters were analysed. Water holding capacity and soil organic matter (OM) increased significantly along the treatments with the highest values in T2. Soil pH decreased along the treatments and the lowest pH was in C1T1. Bicarbonate decreased by 69% in C1T1 comparing to control. Total nitrogen (TN) and available P varied significantly among all treatments and T2, C1T1 and C2 treatments increased 25, 17 and 11 folds in TN and 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 folds in P, respectively related to control. Available K showed the highest values in C1T1. Soil micronutrients increased significantly along all treatments with the highest values in T2. After corn germination, significant variation was observed in the velocity of germination coefficients (VGC) among all treatments in the order of C1T1>T2>T1>C2>C1>control. The highest records of final germination and germination index were in C1T1 and T2. The spent grains may compensate deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in newly reclaimed sandy soils without adverse effects to sustain crop production with a rider that excessive or continuous use need to be circumvented.

Keywords: corn and squash germination, environmentally friendly organic wastes, soil carbon sequestration, spent grains as soil amendment, water holding capacity

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34 A Plant-Insect Association for Enhancing Survival of an Ecosystem Engineer Termite Species in a Semi-Arid Savanna

Authors: G. Nampa, M. Ndlovu


Mutualistic relationships amongst organisms drive diversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, few mutual associations have been documented in the semi-arid savannas of Africa. The levels and benefits of association between Carissa bispinosa, a medium-sized evergreen thorny shrub, and Trinervitermes trinervoides, an ecosystem engineer termite species, were studied at a semi-arid savanna setting in Nylsvley nature reserve, South Africa. It was hypothesized that there would be a close plant-insect association since termite mounds provide nutrients for plant growth and, in return, the thorny shrubs protect mounds from predation and also provide a temperature buffer. Comparative plant and mounds measurements were taken from associated and isolated occurrences seasonally. Soil particle size, macro- and micronutrients were also evaluated from mounds and the adjacent topsoil matrix General Additive Mixed Models were used to assess internal mound temperatures in relation to prevailing ambient and plant shade temperatures. Findings revealed that plants growing on mounds were significantly taller with a wider canopy and remained greener in the dry season with more fruits. On the other hand, termite mounds under plants were less prone to be damaged by aardvarks and pangolins and had a significantly wider diameter than exposed mounds. All soil macronutrients except for calcium and phosphorous were enriched in mounds relative to the matrix. Only Manganese was enriched in mounds while the other micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn and B) were not. Termite mounds under plants maintained a better constant and higher mean internal temperature during winter compared to exposed mounds. To our best knowledge, the study has revealed a previously undocumented survival mechanism that termites use to escape extreme temperatures and predation in semi-arid savannas.

Keywords: mound, mutualism, soil nutrients, termites, thermoregulation

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33 Seasonal Variability of Picoeukaryotes Community Structure Under Coastal Environmental Disturbances

Authors: Benjamin Glasner, Carlos Henriquez, Fernando Alfaro, Nicole Trefault, Santiago Andrade, Rodrigo De La Iglesia


A central question in ecology refers to the relative importance that local-scale variables have over community composition, when compared with regional-scale variables. In coastal environments, strong seasonal abiotic influence dominates these systems, weakening the impact of other parameters like micronutrients. After the industrial revolution, micronutrients like trace metals have increased in ocean as pollutants, with strong effects upon biotic entities and biological processes in coastal regions. Coastal picoplankton communities had been characterized as a cyanobacterial dominated fraction, but in recent years the eukaryotic component of this size fraction has gained relevance due to their high influence in carbon cycle, although, diversity patterns and responses to disturbances are poorly understood. South Pacific upwelling coastal environments represent an excellent model to study seasonal changes due to a strong influence in the availability of macro- and micronutrients between seasons. In addition, some well constrained coastal bays of this region have been subjected to strong disturbances due to trace metal inputs. In this study, we aim to compare the influence of seasonality and trace metals concentrations, on the community structure of planktonic picoeukaryotes. To describe seasonal patterns in the study area, satellite data in a 6 years time series and in-situ measurements with a traditional oceanographic approach such as CTDO equipment were performed. In addition, trace metal concentrations were analyzed trough ICP-MS analysis, for the same region. For biological data collection, field campaigns were performed in 2011-2012 and the picoplankton community was described by flow cytometry and taxonomical characterization with next-generation sequencing of ribosomal genes. The relation between the abiotic and biotic components was finally determined by multivariate statistical analysis. Our data show strong seasonal fluctuations in abiotic parameters such as photosynthetic active radiation and superficial sea temperature, with a clear differentiation of seasons. However, trace metal analysis allows identifying strong differentiation within the study area, dividing it into two zones based on trace metals concentration. Biological data indicate that there are no major changes in diversity but a significant fluctuation in evenness and community structure. These changes are related mainly with regional parameters, like temperature, but by analyzing the metal influence in picoplankton community structure, we identify a differential response of some plankton taxa to metal pollution. We propose that some picoeukaryotic plankton groups respond differentially to metal inputs, by changing their nutritional status and/or requirements under disturbances as a derived outcome of toxic effects and tolerance.

Keywords: Picoeukaryotes, plankton communities, trace metals, seasonal patterns

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32 Well-Being of Elderly with Nanonutrients

Authors: Naqvi Shraddha Rathi


During the aging process, physical frailty may develop. A more sedentary lifestyle, a reduction in metabolic cell mass and, consequently, lower energy expenditure and dietary intake are important contributors to the progression of frailty. A decline in intake is in turn associated with the risk of developing a suboptimal nutritional state or multiple micro nutrient deficiencies.The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nano scale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm.

Keywords: aging, cells frailty, micronutrients, biochemical reactivity

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31 Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad J. Arif, Muhammad Arshad, Usman Shoukat


In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.

Keywords: entomophagous insects, macro and micro nutrients, tri-trophic, wheat aphid

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30 Repurposing Dairy Manure Solids as a Non- Polluting Fertilizer and the Effects on Nutrient Recovery in Tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum)

Authors: Devon Simpson


Recycled Manure Solids (RMS), attained via centrifugation from Canadian dairy farms, were synthesized into a non-polluting fertilizer by bonding micronutrients (Fe, Zn, and Mn) to cellulose fibers and then assessed for the effectiveness of nutrient recovery in tomatoes. Manure management technology is critical for improving the sustainability of agroecosystems and has the capacity to offer a truly circular economy. The ability to add value to manure byproducts offers an opportunity for economic benefits while generating tenable solutions to livestock waste. The dairy industry is under increasing pressure from new environmental protections such as government restrictions on manure applications, limitations on herd size as well as increased product demand from a growing population. Current systems use RMS as bedding, so there is a lack of data pertaining to RMS use as a fertilizer. This is because of nutrient distribution, where most nutrients are retained in the liquid effluent of the solid-liquid separation. A literature review on the physical and chemical properties of dairy manure further revealed more data for raw manure than centrifuged solids. This research offers an innovative perspective and a new avenue of exploration in the use of RMS. Manure solids in this study were obtained directly from dairy farms in Salmon Arm and Abbotsford, British Columbia, and underwent physical, chemical, and biological characterizations pre- and post-synthesis processing. Samples were sent to A&L labs Canada for analysis. Once characterized and bonded to micronutrients, the effect of synthesized RMS on nutrient recovery in tomatoes was studied in a greenhouse environment. The agricultural research package ‘agricolae’ for R was used for experimental design and data analysis. The growth trials consisted of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) that allowed for analysis of variance (ANOVA). The primary outcome was to measure nutrient uptake, and this was done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (IC-PMS) to analyze the micronutrient content of both the tissue and fruit of the tomatoes. It was found that treatments containing bonded dairy manure solids had an increased micronutrient concentration. Treatments with bonded dairy manure solids also saw an increase in yield, and a brix analysis showed higher sugar content than the untreated control and a grower standard.

Keywords: aoecosystems, dairy manure, micronutrient fertilizer, manure management, nutrient recovery, nutrient recycling, recycled manure solids, regenerative agricugrlture, sustainable farming

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29 Assessment of Dietary Intake of Pregnant Women

Authors: Tuleshova Gulnara, Abduldayeva Aigul


The goal is based on the studying the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children and women of reproductive age to develop evidence-based recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of programs to prevent micronutrient deficiency. Subject: In our study we used a representative, random sample, carried out with the cluster method in the precinct of the principle areas of medical care for children 5 years of old. If the site has at least 60 children under 5 years of old, each second child was sampled, and if more than 60 children - each third child (first child selected by random sampling). The total number of investigated persons was within 80-86 women of reproductive age and children - within 80-92 people. Results: The studies found that the average prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months was 35.2%, with the most susceptible to iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6-23 months (53.3%). The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women was 39.0% among pregnant women - 43.8%. In children, the prevalence of folate deficiency was the highest (27.6%). Among non-pregnant women, frequent prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 37.0%. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was higher among children living in Astana (37.4%) compared with the medium-republican level (23.2%).

Keywords: nutrition, pregnant women, micronutrients, macronutrients

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28 Inadequacy of Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake in Children Aged 12-23 Months Old: An Urban Study in Central Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Dewi Fatmaningrum, Ade Wiradnyani


Background: Optimal feeding, include optimal micronutrient intake, becomes one of the ways to overcome the long-term consequences of undernutrition. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake were important for rapid growth and development of the children. Objectives: To assess macro and micronutrient intake of children aged 12-23 months old and nutrients inadequacy from intake of children aged 12-23 months old. Methods: This survey was a cross-sectional study, simple random sampling was performed to select respondents. Total sample of this study was 83 children aged 12-23 months old in Paseban Village, Senen Sub-district, Central Jakarta. The data was collected via interview and hemoglobin measurement of children. Results: The highest prevalence of inadequacy was iron intake (52.4%) compared to other micronutrients, 11.98% children had inadequate energy intake. There were 62.6% anemic children in the study area in which divided into anemic (37.3%) and severe anemic (25.3%). Conclusion: Micronutrient inadequacy occurred more frequently than macronutrient inadequacy in the study area. The higher the percentage of iron inadequacy gets, the higher the percentage of anemia among children is observed.

Keywords: micronutrient, macronutrient, children under five, urban setting

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27 Optimization of Microencapsulation of β-Carotene by Complex Coacervation Technique Using Casein and Gum Tragacanth

Authors: Gargi Ghoshal, Ashay Jain


Microencapsulation of β-carotene was optimized by complex coacervation technique using casein/gum tragacanth (CAS/GT) coating as a function of pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps), total biopolymer concentration, core material load, zeta potential, and ionic strength. This study was aimed to understand the influence of experimental parameters on the coacervation kinetics, the coacervate yield, and entrapment efficiency. At a Pr:Ps = 2:1, an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found 4.35, at which the intensity of electrostatic interaction was maximum. At these ratios of coating, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate yield and entrapment efficiency was the highest. Varying the Pr: Ps shifted the value of optimum pH. This incident was due to the level of charge compensation of the CAS/GT complexes. Finally, electrostatic interaction and formation of coacervates between CAS and GT were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. The size and surface properties of coacervates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resultant formulation (β-carotene loaded microcapsules) was evaluated for in vitro release study and antioxidant activity. Stability of encapsulated β-carotene was also evaluated under three levels of temperature (5, 25 and 40 °C) for 3 months. Encapsulation strongly increased the stability of micronutrients. Our results advocate potential of microcapsules as a novel carrier for the safeguard and sustained release of micronutrient.

Keywords: β-carotene, casein, complex coacervation, controlled release, gum tragacanth, microcapsules

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26 Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content

Authors: M. López-Moreno, L. Lugo Avilés, F. Román, J. Lugo Rosas, J. Hernández-Viezcas Jr., Peralta-Videa, J. Gardea-Torresdey


Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results cost-effective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.

Keywords: compost, Coriandrum sativum, nutrients, waste sludge

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25 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav


Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

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24 Medical Nutritional Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with Tuberculosis and Severe Malnutrition: A Case Report

Authors: Lista Andriyati, Nurpudji A Taslim


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have potential nutritional and metabolic problems. HIV is a virus that attacks cells T helper and impairs the function of immune cells. Infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient, results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition has destructive effects on the immune system and host defense mechanisms. Effective and proper nutritional therapies are important to improve medical outcomes and quality of life, which is associated with functional improvement. A case of 38-years old man admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and was diagnosed HIV infection and relapse lung TB with severe malnutrition, fever, oral candidiasis, anemia (6.3 g/dL), severe hypoalbuminemia (1.9 g/dL), severe hypokalemia (2.2 mmol/L), immune depletion (1085 /µL) and elevated liver enzyme (ALT 1198/AST 375 U/L). Nutritional intervention by giving 2300 kcal of energy, protein 2 g/IBW/day, carbohydrate 350 g, fat 104 g through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Supplementations administered are zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, and snakehead fish extract high content of protein albumin (Pujimin®). After 46 days, there are clinical and metabolic improvement in Hb (6.3 to 11.2 g/dL), potassium (2.2 to 3.4 mmol/L), albumin (1.9 to 2.3 g/dL), ALT 1198 to 47/AST 375 to 68 U/L) and improved awareness. In conclusion, nutritional therapy in HIV infection with adequate macronutrients and micronutrients fulfillment and immunonutrition is very important to avoid cachexia and to improve nutritional status and immune disfunction.

Keywords: HIV, hypoalbuminemia, malnutrition, tuberculosis

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23 The Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Levels on Risk of Offspring Neural Tube Defects in Egypt

Authors: Eman M. El-Sayed, Sahar A. Abdelaziz, Maha M. Saber Abd El Latif


Neural tube defects (NTD) are important causes of infant mortality. Poor nutrition was essential factor for central nervous system deformation. Mothers gave NTD offspring had abnormal serum levels of micronutrients. The present research was designed to study the effect of maternal micronutrient levels and oxidative stress on the incidence of NTD in offspring. The study included forty mothers; twenty of them of 30.9+7.28 years had conceived fetuses with NTD were considered as cases; and twenty mothers of 28.2 + 7.82 years with healthy neonates. We determined serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by using radioimmunoassays. Also, serum zinc was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While serum copper and iron were measured colorimetrically and serum ceruloplasmin was analyzed by radialimmunodiffusion. Cases showed significantly lower levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc (P< 0.0005, 0.01, 0.01 respectively) than that of the control. Concentrations of copper, ceruloplasmin, and iron were markedly increased in cases as compared to controls (P < 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the current study clearly indicated the etiology of NTD cannot be explained with one strict etiologic mechanism, on the contrary, an interaction among maternal nutritional factors and oxidative stress would explain these anomalies. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc supplementations should be considered for further decrease in the occurrence of NTD. Preventing excess iron during pregnancy favors better pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: ceruloplasmin, copper, folic acid, iron, neural tube defects, oxidative stress, vitamin b12, zinc

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22 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Controlling of Autism in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari


Objectives: The prevalence of Autism in the world has taken on a growing trend. Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that is identified at the age of three. Studies have been shown that nutritional management can control nutritional deficiencies in Autism. This review study aimed to assess the role of nutritional management strategies for Autism in children has been made. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 68 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 15 articles with criteria such as including dietary pattern, nutritional deficiencies and Autism controlling were selected. Results: The studies showed that intake of vitamins D, E, and calcium because of restricted diet (casein and gluten free) in autistic children is less than typically developing children (TYP) (p value ≤ 0.001) and as a result of restrictions on the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, vitamin C and magnesium intake is less than TYP children (p value ≤ 0.001). Autistic children also get omega-3 less than TYP children. Studies have shown that food sources rich in omega-3 can improve behavioral indicators, especially in reducing hyperactivity (95% CI = -2.2 - 5.2). Zinc deficiency in these children leads to a high serum level of mercury, lead and cadmium. As a result of the repetitive dietary pattern, Sodium intake in autistic children is more than TYP children (p value < 0.001).Because of low food variety in autistic children, healthy eating index (HEI) is less than TYP children (p value = 0.008).Food selectivity in Autism due to repetitive and restricted dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Because of restricted (casein and gluten free) and repetitive dietary pattern, the intake of some micronutrients are denied in autistic children. The nutritional strategy programs appear to help controlling of Autism.

Keywords: autism, food selectivity, nutrient intake, nutritional strategies

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21 Distributing Complementary Food Supplement - Yingyangbao Reducing the Anemia in Young Children in a County of Sichuan Province after Wenchuan Earthquake

Authors: Lijuan Wang, Junsheng Huo, Jing Sun, Wenxian Li, Jian Huang, Lin Ling, Yiping Zhou, Chengyu Huang, Jifang Hu


Backgrounds and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of highly nutrient-dense complementary food supplement-Yingyangbao, at the time of 3 months after Wenchuan earthquake, on the anemia of young children in a county in Sichuan province. Methods: The young children aged 6-23 months in the county were fed one sachet Yingyangbao per day. Yingyangbao were distributed for 15 months for free. The children entering 6 months age would be included. The length, weight and hemoglobin of the children aged 6-29 months were assessed at baseline (n=257) and Yingyangbao intervention for 6 (n=218) and 15 months (n=253) by cluster sampling. Growth status has not been described in the paper. The analysis was conducted based on 6-11, 12-17, 18-23 and 24-29 months. Results: It showed that the hemoglobin concentration in each group among the 4 groups increased by 4.9, 6.4, 8.0, 9.5 g/L after 6 months and 12.7, 11.4, 16.7, 15.7 g/L after 15 months compared to the baseline, respectively. The total anemia prevalence in each group was significantly lower after 6 and 15 months than the baseline (P<0.001), except the 6-11 months group after 6 months because of fewer Yingyangbao consumption. Total moderate anemia rate decreased from 18.3% to 5.5% after 6 months, and kept decreasing to 0.8% after another 9 months. The hemoglobin concentration was significantly correlated with the amount of Yingyangbao consumption(P<0.001) The anemia rate was significantly different based on the Yingyangbao compliance (P<0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that Yingyangbao which contains quality protein, vitamins and micronutrients intervened 15 months could be effective for the improvement of anemia of young children. The study provides the support that the application of the complementary food supplements to reduce the anemia of young children in the emergency of natural disaster.

Keywords: young children, anemia, nutrition intervention, complementary food supplements, Yingyangbao

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20 Evaluation of Goji By-Product as a Value-Added Ingredient for the Functional Food Industry

Authors: Sanaa Ragaee, Paragyani Bora, Wee Teng Tan, Xin Hu


Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) is a member of the family Solanaceae which is grown widely in China, Tibet, and other parts of Asia. Its fruits are 1–2 cm-long, bright orange-red ellipsoid berries and it has a long tradition as a food and medicinal plant. Goji berries are believed to boost immune system properties. The berries are considered an excellent source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and several bioactive components. Studies have shown effects of goji fruit on aging, neuroprotection, general well-being, fatigue/endurance, metabolism/energy expenditure, glucose control in diabetics and glaucoma, antioxidant properties, immunomodulation and anti-tumor activity. Goji berries are being used to prepare Goji beverage, and the remaining solid material is considered as by-product. The by-product is currently unused and disposed as waste despite its potential as a value-added food ingredient. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate nutritional properties of Goji by-product and its potential applications in the baking industry. The Goji by-product was freeze dried and ground to pass through 1 mm screen prior to evaluation and food use. The Goji by-product was found to be a rich source of fiber (54%) and free phenolic components (1,307 µg/g), protein (13.6%), ash (3.3%) and fat (10%). Incorporation of the Goji by-product in muffins and cookies at various levels (10-40%) significantly improved the nutritional quality of the baked products. The baked products were generally accepted and highly rated by panelists at 20% replacement level. The results indicate the potential of Goji by-product as a value-added ingredient in particular as a source of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: Goji, by-product, phenolics, fibers, baked products

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19 Concurrent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Lactating Mothers and Their Infants 6-23 Months of Age in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P. O’Connor, Tefera Belachew, Nora M. O’Brien


Micronutrient deficiencies of ferritin, zinc and haemoglobin are prevalent among the mothers and their infants in developing countries. But little attention has been given to these vulnerable groups. No study has been done on co-existence of the deficiencies among lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants in two different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants (aged 6-23 months) who were living in two different agro-ecological zones. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood test for Zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation and Chi square test were used to determine the association among nutritional status and agro ecological zones. Results: Iron deficiency was found in 44.4% of the infants and 19.8% of the mothers. Zinc deficiency was found in 72.2% of the infants and 67.3% of the mothers. Of the study subject 52.5% of the infants and 19.1% of the mothers were anaemic, and 29.6% of the infants and 10.5% of the mothers had iron deficiency anaemia. Among the mothers with iron deficiency, 81.2% and 56.2% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron respectively. Similarly, among the zinc deficient mothers, 75.2% and 45.3% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the infants on status of ferritin, zinc and anaemia (P < 0.001). There is also statistically significant association between micronutrient deficiency and agro-ecological zones among the mothers (p < 0.001) but not with their infants. Deficiency in one, two, or three, micronutrients was observed in 48.1%, 16.7% and 9.9% of the mothers and 35.8%, 29.0%, and 23.5%, of their infants respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that iron and zinc deficiencies are the prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among the lactating mothers and their infants, with variation of the magnitude across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers’ and their infants’ needs.

Keywords: ferritin/iron, zinc, anaemia, agroecology, malnutrition

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18 Sleep Disturbance in Indonesian School-Aged Children and Its Relationship to Nutritional Aspect

Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini


Background: Sleep is essential for children because it provides enhancement for the neural system activities that give physiologic effects for the body to support growth and development. One of the modifiable factors that relates with sleep is nutrition, which includes nutritional status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Nutritional status represents the balance between nutritional intake and expenditure, while iron and magnesium are micronutrients that are related to sleep regulation. The aim of this study is to identify prevalence of sleep disturbance among Indonesian children and to evaluate its relation with aspect to nutrition. Methods : A cross-sectional study involving children aged 5 to 7-years-old in an urban primary health care between 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Related data includes anthropometric status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Iron and magnesium intake was obtained by 24-hours food recall procedure. Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used as the diagnostic tool for sleep disturbance, with score under 39 indicating presence of problem. Results: Out of 128 school-aged children included in this study, 28 (23,1%) of them were found to have sleep disturbance. The majority of children had good nutritional status, with only 15,7% that were severely underweight or underweight, and 12,4% that were identified as stunted. On the contrary, 99 children (81,8%) were identified to have inadequate magnesium intake and 56 children (46,3%) with inadequate iron intake. Our analysis showed there was no significant relation between all of the nutritional status indicators and sleep disturbance (p>0,05%). Moreover, inadequate iron and magnesium intake also failed to prove significant relation with sleep disturbance in this population. Conclusion: Almost fourth of school-aged children in Indonesia were found to have sleep disturbance and further study are needed to overcome this problem. According to our finding, there is no correlation between nutritional status, iron intake, magnesium intake, and sleep disturbance.

Keywords: iron intake, magnesium intake, nutritional status, school-aged children, sleep disturbance

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17 In vitro Analysis of the Effect of Supplementation Oils on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyvibrio Fibrisolvense

Authors: B. D. Ravindra, A. K. Tyagi, C. Kathirvelan


Some micronutrients in food (milk and meat), called ‘functional food components’ exert beneficial effects other than their routine nutrient function and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid of ruminant origin, an example of this category. However, recently the fear of hypercholesterolemia due to saturated fats has led to the avoidance of dietary fat especially of animal origin despite its advantages such as lowering blood cholesterol, immuno-modulation and anticarcinogenic property due to the presence of CLA. The dietary increase of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) is one of the feeding strategies for increasing the CLA concentration in milk. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the one potential rumen bacteria, which has high potential to isomerize LA to CLA. The study was conducted to screen the different oils for CLA production, selected based on their LA concentration. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens culture (strain 49, MZ3, 30/10) were isolated from the rumen liquor of fistulated Buffalo (age ≈ 3 years; weight ≈ 250 kg) were used in in-vitro experiments, further work was carried out with three oils viz., sunflower, mustard and soybean oil at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 g/L of media) to study the growth of bacteria and CLA production at different incubation period (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 h). In the present study, growth of the bacteria was decreased linearly with increase in concentration of three oils. However, highest decrease in growth was recorded at the concentration of 0.30 g of three oils per litre of the media. Highest CLA production was 51.96, 42.08 and 25.60 µg/ml at 0.25 g and it decreased to 48.19, 39.35 and 23.41 µg/ml at 0.3 g supplementation of sunflower, soybean, and mustard oil per litre of the media, respectively at 18 h incubation period. The present study indicates the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria involves in the biohydrogenation process, and LA rich sunflower meal can be used to improve the CLA production in rumen and thereby increasing the CLA concentration of milk.

Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, CLA, fatty acids, sunflower oil

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16 In vivo Iron Availability and Profile Lipid Composition in Anemic Rats Fed on Diets with Black Rice Bran Extract

Authors: Nurlaili E. P., Astuti M., Marsono Y., Naruki S.


Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. Nutritional anemia caused mainly by iron deficiency is the most recognized nutritional problem in both countries as well as affluent societies. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has become the most important cereal crop for the improvement of human health due to the starch, protein, oil, and the majority of micronutrients, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, the iron availability and profile lipid were evaluated for the extracts from Cibeusi varieties (black rices) of ancient rice brans. Results: The quality of K, B, R, E diets groups shows the same effect on the growth of rats. This indicate that groups is as efficiently utilized by the body as E diets. Hematocrit and MCHC levels of rats fed K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). MCV and MCH levels of rats K, B, R were significantly (P< 0.05) with E groups but rats K, B, R were not significantly (P< 0.05). The iron content in the serum of rats fed with K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). The highest level of iron in the serum was founded in the B group. The iron content in the liver of rats fed with K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). The highest level of iron in the liver was founded in the R group. HDL cholesterol levels were significantly (P< 0.05) between rats of fed B, E with K, R, but K and R were not significantly (P< 0.05). LDL cholesterol levels of rats fed K and E significantly (P< 0.05) with B and R. Conclusions: the bran of pigmented rice varieties has, with some exceptions, greater antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. The results also show that pigmented rice extracts acted as pro-oxidants in the lipid peroxidation assay, possibly by mechanisms described for the pro-oxidant activities of tocopherol and ascorbic. Pigmented rice bran extracts more effectively increases iron stores and reduces the prevalence of iron deficiency. And reduces cholesterol, TG and LDL cholesterol and increses HDL cholesterol.

Keywords: anemia, black rice bran extract, iron, profile lipid

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15 Authentication and Traceability of Meat Products from South Indian Market by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: J. U. Santhosh Kumar, V. Krishna, Sebin Sebastian, G. S. Seethapathy, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker


Food is one of the basic needs of human beings. It requires the normal function of the body part and a healthy growth. Recently, food adulteration increases day by day to increase the quantity and make more benefit. Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. Particularly in the meat industry, products from animals are susceptible targets for fraudulent labeling due to the economic profit that results from selling cheaper meat as meat from more profitable and desirable species. This work presents an overview of the main PCR-based techniques applied to date to verify the authenticity of beef meat and meat products from beef species. We were analyzed 25 market beef samples in South India. We examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. We found all sample were sold as beef meat as Bos Taurus. However, interestingly Male meats are more valuable high price compare to female meat, due to this reason most of the markets samples are susceptible. We were used sex determination gene of cattle like TSPY(Y-encoded, testis-specific protein TSPY is a Y-specific gene). TSPY homologs exist in several mammalian species, including humans, horses, and cattle. This gene is Y coded testis protein genes, which only amplify the male. We used multiple PCR products form species-specific “fingerprints” on gel electrophoresis, which may be useful for meat authentication. Amplicons were obtained only by the Cattle -specific PCR. We found 13 market meat samples sold as female beef samples. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of meat products.

Keywords: authentication, meat products, species-specific, TSPY

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14 Effect of Windrow Management on Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Swine Manure Composting

Authors: Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Kimberly Cook, Phil Silva, Byung-Taek Oh


In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large concentrated volumes of animal manure produced from livestock operations and the limited amount of available nearby agricultural land areas necessitated the need for volume reduction of these animal wastes. Composting of these animal manures is a viable option for biomass and pathogenic reduction in the environment. Nevertheless, composting also increases the potential loss of available nutrients for crop production as well as unwanted emission of anthropogenic air pollutants due to the loss of ammonia and other compounds via volatilization. In this study, we examine the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from swine manure windrows to evaluate the benefit of biomass reduction in conjunction with the potential loss of available nutrients. The feedstock for the windrows was obtained from swine farm in Kentucky where swine manure was mixed with wood shaving as absorbent material. Static flux chambers along with photoacoustic gas analyzer were used to monitor ammonia and nitrous oxide concentrations during the composting process. The results show that ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes were quite high during the initial composting process and after the turning of each compost pile. Over the period of roughly three months of composting, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased by about 90%. Although composting of animal waste is quite beneficial for biomass reduction, composting may not be economically feasible from an agronomical point of view due to time, nutrient loss (N loss), and potential environmental pollution (ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess and validate the economics and environmental impact of animal (swine) manure composting (e.g., crop yield or impact on climate change).

Keywords: windrow, swine manure, ammonia, nitrous oxide, fluxes, management

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