Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4229

Search results for: fluid contact movement

4229 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou

Abstract:

When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
4228 Evaluation of Critical Rate in Mature Oil Field with Dynamic Oil Rim Fluid Contacts in the Niger Delta

Authors: Stanley Ibuchukwu Onwukwe

Abstract:

Most reservoir in mature oil fields are vulnerable to challenges of water and/or gas coning as the size of their oil column reduces due to long period of oil production. These often result to low oil production and excessive water and/or gas production. Since over 50 years of oil production in the Niger delta, it is apparent that most of the oil fields in the region have reached their mature stages, thereby susceptible to coning tendencies. As a result of these, a good number of wells have been shut-in and abandoned, with significant amount of oil left unproduced. Analysis of the movement of fluid contacts in the reservoir is a significant aspect of reservoir studies and can assist in the management of coning tendencies and production performance of reservoirs in a mature field. This study, therefore, seeks to evaluate the occurrence of coning through the movement of fluid contacts (GOC and OWC) and determine the critical rate for controlling coning tendencies in mature oil field. This study applies the principle of Nodal analysis to calibrate the thin oil column of a reservoir of a mature field, and was graphically evaluated using the Joshi’s equation of critical rate for gas-oil system and oil-water system respectively. A representative Proxy equation was developed and sensitivity analysis carried out to determine the trend of critical rate as the oil column is been depleted. The result shows the trend in the movement of the GOC and OWC, and the critical rate, beyond which will result in excessive water and gas production, resulting to decreasing oil production from the reservoir. This result of this study can be used as a first pass assessment in the development of mature oil field reservoirs anticipated to experience water and/or gas coning during production.

Keywords: coning, fluid contact movement, mature oil field, oil production

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
4227 The Influence of Ice Topography on Sliding over Ice

Authors: Ernests Jansons, Karlis Agris Gross

Abstract:

Winter brings snow and ice in the Northern Europe and with it the need to move safely over ice. It has been customary to select an appropriate material surface for movement over ice, but another way to influence the interaction with ice is to modify the ice surface. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of ice topography on initiating movement over ice and on sliding velocity over ice in the laboratory and real-life conditions. The ice was prepared smooth, scratched or with solidified ice-droplets to represent the surface of ice after ice rain. In the laboratory, the coefficient of friction and the sliding velocity were measured, but the sliding velocity measured at the skeleton push-start facility. The scratched ice surface increased the resistance to movement and also showed the slowest sliding speed. Sliding was easier on the smooth ice and ice covered with frozen droplets. The contact surface was measured to determine the effect of contact area with sliding. Results from laboratory tests will be compared to loading under heavier loads to show the influence of load on sliding over different ice surfaces. This outcome provides a useful indicator for pedestrians and road traffic on the safety of movement over different ice surfaces as well as a reference for those involved with winter sports.

Keywords: contact area, friction, ice topography, sliding velocity

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4226 Increasing the Forecasting Fidelity of Current Collection System Operating Capability by Means of Contact Pressure Simulation Modelling

Authors: Anton Golubkov, Gleb Ermachkov, Aleksandr Smerdin, Oleg Sidorov, Victor Philippov

Abstract:

Current collection quality is one of the limiting factors when increasing trains movement speed in the rail sector. With the movement speed growth, the impact forces on the current collector from the rolling stock and the aerodynamic influence increase, which leads to the spread in the contact pressure values, separation of the current collector head from the contact wire, contact arcing and excessive wear of the contact elements. The upcoming trend in resolving this issue is the use of the automatic control systems providing stabilization of the contact pressure value. The present paper considers the features of the contemporary automatic control systems of the current collector’s pressure; their major disadvantages have been stated. A scheme of current collector pressure automatic control has been proposed, distinguished by a proactive influence on undesirable effects. A mathematical model of contact strips wearing has been presented, obtained in accordance with the provisions of the central composition rotatable design program. The analysis of the obtained dependencies has been carried out. The procedures for determining the optimal current collector pressure on the contact wire and the pressure control principle in the pneumatic drive have been described.

Keywords: contact strip, current collector, high-speed running, program control, wear

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4225 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Outflow through a Retinal Hole after Scleral Buckling

Authors: T. Walczak, J. K. Grabski, P. Fritzkowski, M. Stopa

Abstract:

Objectives of the study are i) to perform numerical simulations that permit an analysis of the dynamics of subretinal fluid when an implant has induced scleral intussusception and ii) assess the impact of the physical parameters of the model on the flow rate. Computer simulations were created using finite element method (FEM) based on a model that takes into account the interaction of a viscous fluid (subretinal fluid) with a hyperelastic body (retina). The purpose of the calculation was to investigate the dependence of the flow rate of subretinal fluid through a hole in the retina on different factors such as viscosity of subretinal fluid, material parameters of the retina, and the offset of the implant from the retina’s hole. These simulations were performed for different speeds of eye movement that reflect the behavior of the eye when reading, REM, and saccadic movements. Similar to other works in the field of subretinal fluid flow, it was assumed stationary, single sided, forced fluid flow in the considered area simulating the subretinal space. Additionally, a hyperelastic material model of the retina and parameterized geometry of the considered model was adopted. The calculations also examined the influence the direction of the force of gravity due to the position of the patient’s head on the trend of outflow of fluid. The simulations revealed that fluid outflow from the retina becomes significant with eyeball movement speed of 100°/sec. This speed is greater than in the case of reading but is four times less than saccadic movement. The increase of viscosity of the fluid increased beneficial effect. Further, the simulation results suggest that moderate eye movement speed is optimal and that the conventional prescription of the avoidance of routine eye movement following retinal detachment surgery should be relaxed. Additionally, to verify numerical results, some calculations were repeated with use of meshless method (method of fundamental solutions), which is relatively fast and easy to implement. The paper has been supported by 02/21/DSPB/3477 grant.

Keywords: CFD simulations, FEM analysis, meshless method, retinal detachment

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4224 Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat

Abstract:

A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, thermal, contact angle, high viscosity ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4223 Design and Control of a Knee Rehabilitation Device Using an MR-Fluid Brake

Authors: Mina Beheshti, Vida Shams, Mojtaba Esfandiari, Farzaneh Abdollahi, Abdolreza Ohadi

Abstract:

Most of the people who survive a stroke need rehabilitation tools to regain their mobility. The core function of these devices is a brake actuator. The goal of this study is to design and control a magnetorheological brake which can be used as a rehabilitation tool. In fact, the fluid used in this brake is called magnetorheological fluid or MR that properties can change by variation of the magnetic field. The braking properties can be set as control by using this feature of the fluid. In this research, different MR brake designs are first introduced in each design, and the dimensions of the brake have been determined based on the required torque for foot movement. To calculate the brake dimensions, it is assumed that the shear stress distribution in the fluid is uniform and the fluid is in its saturated state. After designing the rehabilitation brake, the mathematical model of the healthy movement of a healthy person is extracted. Due to the nonlinear nature of the system and its variability, various adaptive controllers, neural networks, and robust have been implemented to estimate the parameters and control the system. After calculating torque and control current, the best type of controller in terms of error and control current has been selected. Finally, this controller is implemented on the experimental data of the patient's movements, and the control current is calculated to achieve the desired torque and motion.

Keywords: rehabilitation, magnetorheological fluid, knee, brake, adaptive control, robust control, neural network control, torque control

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4222 Numerical Investigation of Slot Die Coating Based on VOF Method

Authors: Zhidi Lei, Xixi Cai, Jue Ding, Peifen Weng, Xiaowei Li

Abstract:

In the process of preparing thin films by chemical solution method, the uniformity of gel coating has a great influence on the subsequent film thickness. Based on a coating device, the research tracks the interface development of gas-liquid flow by volume of fluid method (VOF). The effects of fluid viscosity and wall wetting property for the shape and position of the coating window are discussed in the process of slot die coating. The result shows that downstream contact lines gets closer to the corner with the increase of fluid viscosity. When the viscosity increases from 0.2Pa∙s to 0.3Pa∙s, 18.2% of the vortex region area will be reduced. With the static contact angle of upper die head surface (θ_sd) increasing, X_u decreased gradually which cause the instability changes of upstream surface. Also, θ_sd increasing brings the reduction of vortex region.

Keywords: film growth, vortex, VOF, slot die coating

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4221 Investigating what Effects Aviation Fluids Have on the Flatwise Compressive Strength of Nomex® Honeycomb Core Material

Authors: G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg

Abstract:

One of the disadvantages of honeycomb sandwich structure is that they are prone to fluid intrusion. The purpose of this study is to determine if the structural properties of honeycomb core are affected by contact with a fluid. The test specimens were manufactured of fiberglass prepreg for the facesheets and Nomex® honeycomb core for the core material in accordance with ASTM C-365/365M. Test specimens were soaked in several different kinds of fluids, such as aircraft fuel, turbine engine oil, hydraulic fluid, and water for a period of 60 days. A flatwise compressive test was performed, and the test results were analyzed to determine how the contact with aircraft fluids affected the compressive strength of the Nomex® honeycomb core and how the strength was recovered when the specimens were dry. In addition, the investigation of de-bonding between facesheet and core material after soaking were performed to support the study.

Keywords: sandwich structure, honeycomb, environmental degradation, debonding

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4220 Resistance towards Education System through Street Library Movement: A Study in Sukabumi, Indonesia

Authors: M. Inbar Daeribi, Vara Leoni

Abstract:

Street Library Movement has been established and started to grow in some cities in Indonesia as a social movement. In the beginning, this movement emerged as a response to Indonesian lack of reading culture. Nevertheless, this study found out that street library movement is not only a literacy movement for developing reading culture. Furthermore, this movement is also a resistance towards education system in Indonesia. Street library movement is a critical consciousness driven by autonomous working group (community) as counter-public form towards Indonesia’s education condition legitimated by the government. This study, conducted in qualitative method with street library movement in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia as the object of study, will examine resistance forms of this movement and its social impacts. By studying this paper, it can be explained how street library movement served as an engine for social development.

Keywords: street library movement, social movement, resistance, education system

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
4219 Improving the Residence Time of a Rectangular Contact Tank by Varying the Geometry Using Numerical Modeling

Authors: Yamileth P. Herrera, Ronald R. Gutierrez, Carlos, Pacheco-Bustos

Abstract:

This research aims at the numerical modeling of a rectangular contact tank in order to improve the hydrodynamic behavior and the retention time of the water to be treated with the disinfecting agent. The methodology to be followed includes a hydraulic analysis of the tank to observe the fluid velocities, which will allow evidence of low-speed areas that may generate pathogenic agent incubation or high-velocity areas, which may decrease the optimal contact time between the disinfecting agent and the microorganisms to be eliminated. Based on the results of the numerical model, the efficiency of the tank under the geometric and hydraulic conditions considered will be analyzed. This would allow the performance of the tank to be improved before starting a construction process, thus avoiding unnecessary costs.

Keywords: contact tank, numerical models, hydrodynamic modeling, residence time

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4218 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
4217 Effects of Magnetic Field Strength on Fluid Flow Behavior in a Constricted Channel

Authors: Ashkan Javadzadegan, Aitak Javadzadegan, Babak Fakhim

Abstract:

One of possible ways to retard movement of fluid is through applying an external magnetic field. In this regard, this study is focused on the effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field on fluid flow behavior inside a channel with a local symmetric constriction. Also, Ellis Non-Newtonian model is implemented to address the effects of shear-dependent viscosity. According to the results, the flow separation downstream of the constriction can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field and/or manipulating the shear-thinning degree of fluid. It is also demonstrated that pressure drop increases by an increase in the strength of the magnetic field.

Keywords: magnetic field, non-Newtonian, separation, shear thinning

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4216 Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Mustafa Mhawesh, Reza Langari

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.

Keywords: higher order kinematic specifications, human motor coordination, impaired movement, kinematic synthesis

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4215 Visco - Plastic Transition and Transfer of Plastic Material with SGF in case of Linear Dry Friction Contact on Steel Surfaces

Authors: Lucian Capitanu, Virgil Florescu

Abstract:

Often for the laboratory studies, modeling of specific tribological processes raises special problems. One such problem is the modeling of some temperatures and extremely high contact pressures, allowing modeling of temperatures and pressures at which the injection or extrusion processing of thermoplastic materials takes place. Tribological problems occur mainly in thermoplastics materials reinforced with glass fibers. They produce an advanced wear to the barrels and screws of processing machines, in short time. Obtaining temperatures around 210 °C and higher, as well as pressures around 100 MPa is very difficult in the laboratory. This paper reports a simple and convenient solution to get these conditions, using friction sliding couples with linear contact, cylindrical liner plastic filled with glass fibers on plate steel samples, polished and super-finished. C120 steel, which is a steel for moulds and Rp3 steel, high speed steel for tools, were used. Obtaining the pressure was achieved by continuous request of the liner in rotational movement up to its elasticity limits, when the dry friction coefficient reaches or exceeds the hardness value of 0.5 HB. By dissipation of the power lost by friction on flat steel sample, are reached contact temperatures at the metal surface that reach and exceed 230 °C, being placed in the range temperature values of the injection. Contact pressures (in load and materials conditions used) ranging from 16.3-36.4 MPa were obtained depending on the plastic material used and the glass fibers content.

Keywords: plastics with glass fibers, dry friction, linear contact, contact temperature, contact pressure, experimental simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4214 Dynamic Thin Film Morphology near the Contact Line of a Condensing Droplet: Nanoscale Resolution

Authors: Abbasali Abouei Mehrizi, Hao Wang

Abstract:

The thin film region is so important in heat transfer process due to its low thermal resistance. On the other hand, the dynamic contact angle is crucial boundary condition in numerical simulations. While different modeling contains different assumption of the microscopic contact angle, none of them has experimental evidence for their assumption, and the contact line movement mechanism still remains vague. The experimental investigation in complete wetting is more popular than partial wetting, especially in nanoscale resolution when there is sharp variation in thin film profile in partial wetting. In the present study, an experimental investigation of water film morphology near the triple phase contact line during the condensation is performed. The state-of-the-art tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used to get the high-resolution film profile goes down to 2 nm from the contact line. The droplet was put in saturated chamber. The pristine silicon wafer was used as a smooth substrate. The substrate was heated by PI film heater. So the chamber would be over saturated by droplet evaporation. By turning off the heater, water vapor gradually started condensing on the droplet and the droplet advanced. The advancing speed was less than 20 nm/s. The dominant results indicate that in contrast to nonvolatile liquid, the film profile goes down straightly to the surface till 2 nm from the substrate. However, small bending has been observed below 20 nm, occasionally. So, it can be claimed that for the low condensation rate the microscopic contact angle equals to the optically detectable macroscopic contact angle. This result can be used to simplify the heat transfer modeling in partial wetting. The experimental result of the equality of microscopic and macroscopic contact angle can be used as a solid evidence for using this boundary condition in numerical simulation.

Keywords: advancing, condensation, microscopic contact angle, partial wetting

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4213 Electrokinetic Transport of Power Law Fluid through Hydrophobic Micro-Slits

Authors: Ainul Haque, Ameeye Kumar Nayak

Abstract:

Flow enhancement and species transport in a slit hydrophobic microchannel is studied for non-Newtonian fluids with the externally imposed electric field and pressure gradient. The incompressible Poisson-Nernst-Plank equations and the Navier-Stokes equations are approximated by lubrication theory to quantify the flow structure due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The analytical quantification of velocity and pressure of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is made with the numerical results due to the staggered grid based finite volume method for flow governing equations. The resistance force due to fluid friction and shear force along the surface are decreased by the hydrophobicity, enables the faster movement of fluid particles. The resulting flow enhancement factor Ef is increased with the low viscous fluid and provides maximum species transport. Also, the analytical comparison of EOF with pressure driven EOF justifies the flow enhancement due to hydrophobicity and shear impact on flow variation.

Keywords: electroosmotic flow, hydrophobic surface, power-law fluid, shear effect

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4212 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang

Abstract:

This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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4211 The Third Islamic Defend Action: The Completeness Model of Islamic Peace Movement in Indonesia

Authors: Husnul Isa Harahap

Abstract:

On December 2, 2016 occurred mass movements in Indonesia, led by the National Movement of Fatwa Guard, Indonesian Ulema Council (GNPF MUI). This movement is named 212 in accordance with the date, and also called The Third Islamic Defend Action, a continued movement of Islamic defend earlier (November 4, 2016 and October 14, 2016). All three movements have raised the issue of the demand that Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Jakarta governor) also known as Ahok put on trial for allegedly insulting the Quran. The interesting view of this movement is that: first, the great social movement could emerge from a small but sensitive issues. Second, although this movement followed by radical Islamic groups, that movement known as the largest and most peaceful Islamic Movement in Indonesia. Third, the movement succeeded in answer the doubts of many parties that the social movements with large masses can not maintain security, order, and even the cleanliness of the site action. What causes all this happen? First, the emphasis on the use of basic religious elements that Islam is love for peace. Second, the role of leadership that is trusted and based on religious relationship. Third, this movement is well organized and trying reflect Islamic values.

Keywords: Islamic values, social movement, peaceful group, sensitive issue

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4210 Numerical Simulation of the Kurtosis Effect on the EHL Problem

Authors: S. Gao, S. Srirattayawong

Abstract:

In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed for studying the effect of surface roughness profile on the EHL problem. The cylinders contact geometry, meshing and calculation of the conservation of mass and momentum equations are carried out by using the commercial software packages ICEMCFD and ANSYS Fluent. The user defined functions (UDFs) for density, viscosity and elastic deformation of the cylinders as the functions of pressure and temperature have been defined for the CFD model. Three different surface roughness profiles are created and incorporated into the CFD model. It is found that the developed CFD model can predict the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in the EHL problem, including the leading parameters such as the pressure distribution, minimal film thickness, viscosity, and density changes. The obtained results show that the pressure profile at the center of the contact area directly relates to the roughness amplitude. The rough surface with kurtosis value over 3 influences the fluctuated shape of pressure distribution higher than other cases.

Keywords: CFD, EHL, kurtosis, surface roughness

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4209 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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4208 A Monolithic Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Strategy for Partly Submerged Solid in Incompressible Fluid with Mortar Method for Modeling the Contact Surface

Authors: Suman Dutta, Manish Agrawal, C. S. Jog

Abstract:

Accurate computation of hydrodynamic forces on floating structures and their deformation finds application in the ocean and naval engineering and wave energy harvesting. This manuscript presents a monolithic, finite element strategy for fluid-structure interaction involving hyper-elastic solids partly submerged in an incompressible fluid. A velocity-based Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation has been used for the fluid and a displacement-based Lagrangian approach has been used for the solid. The flexibility of the ALE technique permits us to treat the free surface of the fluid as a Lagrangian entity. At the interface, the continuity of displacement, velocity and traction are enforced using the mortar method. In the mortar method, the constraints are enforced in a weak sense using the Lagrange multiplier method. In the literature, the mortar method has been shown to be robust in solving various contact mechanics problems. The time-stepping strategy used in this work reduces to the generalized trapezoidal rule in the Eulerian setting. In the Lagrangian limit, in the absence of external load, the algorithm conserves the linear and angular momentum and the total energy of the system. The use of monolithic coupling with an energy-conserving time-stepping strategy gives an unconditionally stable algorithm and allows the user to take large time steps. All the governing equations and boundary conditions have been mapped to the reference configuration. The use of the exact tangent stiffness matrix ensures that the algorithm converges quadratically within each time step. The robustness and good performance of the proposed method are demonstrated by solving benchmark problems from the literature.

Keywords: ALE, floating body, fluid-structure interaction, monolithic, mortar method

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4207 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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4206 An Investigation on Orthopedic Rehabilitation by Avoiding Thermal Necrosis

Authors: R. V. Dahibhate, A. B. Deoghare, P. M. Padole

Abstract:

Maintaining natural integrity of biosystem is paramount significant for orthopedic surgeon while performing surgery. Restoration is challenging task to rehabilitate trauma patient. Drilling is an inevitable procedure to fix implants. The task leads to rise in temperature at the contact site which intends to thermal necrosis. A precise monitoring can avoid thermal necrosis. To accomplish it, data acquiring instrument is integrated with the drill bit. To contemplate it, electronic feedback system is developed. It not only measures temperature without any physical contact in between measuring device and target but also visualizes the site and monitors correct movement of tool path. In the current research work an infrared thermometer data acquisition system is used which monitors variation in temperature at the drilling site and a camera captured movement of drill bit advancement. The result is presented in graphical form which represents variations in temperature, drill rotation and time. A feedback system helps in keeping drill speed in threshold limit.

Keywords: thermal necrosis, infrared thermometer, drilling tool, feedback system

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4205 Numerical Solution of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flow of a Viscous Fluid in the Presence of Nanoparticles with Fractional Derivatives through a Cylindrical Tube

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah, Asma Rashid Butt, Nauman Raza

Abstract:

Biomagnetic fluids like blood play key role in different applications of medical science and bioengineering. In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid with magnetic particles through a cylindrical tube is investigated. The fluid is electrically charged in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The movement in the fluid is produced due to the cylindrical tube. Initially, the fluid and tube are at rest and at time t=0⁺, the tube starts to move along its axis. To obtain the mathematical model of flow with fractional derivatives fractional calculus approach is used. The solution of the flow model is obtained by using Laplace transformation. The Simon's numerical algorithm is employed to obtain inverse Laplace transform. The hybrid technique, we are employing has less computational effort as compared to other methods. The numerical calculations have been performed with Mathcad software. As the special cases of our problem, the solution of flow model with ordinary derivatives and flow without magnetic particles has been procured. Finally, the impact of non-integer fractional parameter alpha, Hartmann number Ha, and Reynolds number Re on flow and magnetic particles velocity is analyzed and depicted by graphs.

Keywords: viscous fluid, magnetic particles, fractional calculus, laplace transformation

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4204 Transient Response of Elastic Structures Subjected to a Fluid Medium

Authors: Helnaz Soltani, J. N. Reddy

Abstract:

Presence of fluid medium interacting with a structure can lead to failure of the structure. Since developing efficient computational model for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems has broader impact to realistic problems encountered in aerospace industry, ship industry, oil and gas industry, and so on, one can find an increasing need to find a method in order to investigate the effect of fluid domain on structural response. A coupled finite element formulation of problems involving FSI issue is an accurate method to predict the response of structures in contact with a fluid medium. This study proposes a finite element approach in order to study the transient response of the structures interacting with a fluid medium. Since beam and plate are considered to be the fundamental elements of almost any structure, the developed method is applied to beams and plates benchmark problems in order to demonstrate its efficiency. The formulation is a combination of the various structure theories and the solid-fluid interface boundary condition, which is used to represent the interaction between the solid and fluid regimes. Here, three different beam theories as well as three different plate theories are considered to model the solid medium, and the Navier-Stokes equation is used as the theoretical equation governed the fluid domain. For each theory, a coupled set of equations is derived where the element matrices of both regimes are calculated by Gaussian quadrature integration. The main feature of the proposed methodology is to model the fluid domain as an added mass; the external distributed force due to the presence of the fluid. We validate the accuracy of such formulation by means of some numerical examples. Since the formulation presented in this study covers several theories in literature, the applicability of our proposed approach is independent of any structure geometry. The effect of varying parameters such as structure thickness ratio, fluid density and immersion depth, are studied using numerical simulations. The results indicate that maximum vertical deflection of the structure is affected considerably in the presence of a fluid medium.

Keywords: beam and plate, finite element analysis, fluid-structure interaction, transient response

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4203 A Transient Coupled Numerical Analysis of the Flow of Magnetorheological Fluids in Closed Domains

Authors: Wael Elsaady, S. Olutunde Oyadiji, Adel Nasser

Abstract:

The non-linear flow characteristics of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in MR dampers are studied via a coupled numerical approach that incorporates a two-phase flow model. The approach couples the Finite Element (FE) modelling of the damper magnetic circuit, with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field in the damper. The two-phase flow CFD model accounts for the effect of fluid compressibility due to the presence of liquid and gas in the closed domain of the damper. The dynamic mesh model included in ANSYS/Fluent CFD solver is used to simulate the movement of the MR damper piston in order to perform the fluid excitation. The two-phase flow analysis is studied by both Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model and mixture model that are included in ANSYS/Fluent. The CFD models show that the hysteretic behaviour of MR dampers is due to the effect of fluid compressibility. The flow field shows the distributions of pressure, velocity, and viscosity contours. In particular, it shows the high non-Newtonian viscosity in the affected fluid regions by the magnetic field and the low Newtonian viscosity elsewhere. Moreover, the dependence of gas volume fraction on the liquid pressure inside the damper is predicted by the mixture model. The presented approach targets a better understanding of the complicated flow characteristics of viscoplastic fluids that could be applied in different applications.

Keywords: viscoplastic fluid, magnetic FE analysis, computational fluid dynamics, two-phase flow, dynamic mesh, user-defined functions

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4202 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

Abstract:

Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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4201 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya

Abstract:

The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

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4200 The Superhydrophobic Surface Effect on Laminar Boundary Layer Flows

Authors: Chia-Yung Chou, Che-Chuan Cheng, Chin Chi Hsu, Chun-Hui Wu

Abstract:

This study investigates the fluid of boundary layer flow as it flows through the superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface will be assembled into an observation channel for fluid experiments. The fluid in the channel will be doped with visual flow field particles, which will then be pumped by the syringe pump and introduced into the experimentally observed channel through the pipeline. Through the polarized light irradiation, the movement of the particles in the channel is captured by a high-speed camera, and the velocity of the particles is analyzed by MATLAB to find out the particle velocity field changes caused on the fluid boundary layer. This study found that the superhydrophobic surface can effectively increase the velocity near the wall surface, and the faster with the flow rate increases. The superhydrophobic surface also had longer the slip length compared with the plan surface. In the calculation of the drag coefficient, the superhydrophobic surface produces a lower drag coefficient, and there is a more significant difference when the Re reduced in the flow field.

Keywords: hydrophobic, boundary layer, slip length, friction

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