Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13892

Search results for: Federal Reserve System (FED).

13892 The Determination of Operating Reserve in Small Power Systems Based on Reliability Criteria

Authors: H. Falsafi Falsafizadeh, R. Zeinali Zeinali

Abstract:

This paper focuses on determination of total Operating Reserve (OR) level, consisting of spinning and non-spinning reserves, in two small real power systems, in such a way that the system reliability indicator would comply with typical industry standards. For this purpose, the standard used by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) – i.e., 1 day outage in 10 years or 0.1 days/year is relied. The simulation of system operation for these systems that was used for the determination of total operating reserve level was performed by industry standard production simulation software in this field, named PLEXOS. In this paper, the operating reserve which meets an annual Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) of approximately 0.1 days per year is determined in the study year. This reserve is the minimum amount of reserve required in a power system and generally defined as a percentage of the annual peak.

Keywords: frequency control, LOLE, operating reserve, system reliability

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13891 Unified Assessment of Power System Reserve-based Reliability Levels

Authors: B. M. Alshammari, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

This paper presents a unified framework for assessment of reserve-based reliability levels in electric power systems. The unified approach is based on reserve-based analysis and assessment of the relationship between available generation capacities and required demand levels. The developed approach takes into account the load variations as well as contingencies which occur randomly causing some generation and/or transmission capacities to be lost (become unavailable). The calculated reserve based indices, which are important to assess the reserve capabilities of the power system for various operating scenarios are therefore probabilistic in nature. They reflect the fact that neither the load levels nor the generation or transmission capacities are known with absolute certainty. They are rather subjects to random variations and consequently. The calculated reserve-based reliability indices are all subjects to random variations where only expected values of these indices can be evaluated. This paper presents a unified approach to reserve-based reliability assessment of power systems using various reserve assessment criteria. Practical applications are also presented for demonstration purposes to the Saudi electricity power grid.

Keywords: assessment, power system, reserve, reliability

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13890 Federalism, a System of Government: Comparative Study of Australia and Canada

Authors: Rana Tajammal Rashid

Abstract:

Federalism is a political system in which government power and responsibility are divided between a federal legislature and units of the state or provincial legislatures. This system provides the structure for the states having large territory and through that can manage the state affairs and administration easily. Many of the largest countries in the world are federations, like; The United States, Canada, India, Pakistan South Africa, Argentina, and Australia. Every large democratic nation has a federal system of government. This study will explore the feature and good governance of two developed countries Canada and Australia. This study will be helpful to the developing countries like Pakistan, India which have a federal form of structure to run the affairs of the state. In the federal system of Pakistan there are lot of issues and conflicts with the provinces with a comparative study of these two developed countries, i.e., Australia and Canada, our policy and decision maker political actors will understand in which way a state will successfully manage the issues related to federalism. This study will also provide the help to the students of comparative politics that how to analysis the different political system of the developed countries of the world.

Keywords: federalism, features of federalism, types of federalism, history of federalism, Australian federalism, Canadian federalism, federalism developments, executives, federal and provincial autonomy legislative, judicial

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13889 Reliability Assessment for Tie Line Capacity Assistance of Power Systems Based on Multi-Agent System

Authors: Nadheer A. Shalash, Abu Zaharin Bin Ahmad

Abstract:

Technological developments in industrial innovations have currently been related to interconnected system assistance and distribution networks. This important in order to enable an electrical load to continue receive power in the event of disconnection of load from the main power grid. This paper represents a method for reliability assessment of interconnected power systems based. The multi-agent system consists of four agents. The first agent was the generator agent to using as connected the generator to the grid depending on the state of the reserve margin and the load demand. The second was a load agent is that located at the load. Meanwhile, the third is so-called "the reverse margin agent" that to limit the reserve margin between 0-25% depend on the load and the unit size generator. In the end, calculation reliability Agent can be calculate expected energy not supplied (EENS), loss of load expectation (LOLE) and the effecting of tie line capacity to determine the risk levels Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) can use to evaluated the reliability indices by using the developed JADE package. The results estimated of the reliability interconnection power systems presented in this paper. The overall reliability of power system can be improved. Thus, the market becomes more concentrated against demand increasing and the generation units were operating in relation to reliability indices.

Keywords: reliability indices, load expectation, reserve margin, daily load, probability, multi-agent system

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13888 A Conceptual Analysis of Right of Taxpayers to Claim Refund in Nigeria

Authors: Hafsat Iyabo Sa'adu

Abstract:

A salient feature of the Nigerian Tax Law is the right of the taxpayer to demand for a refund where excess tax is paid. Section 23 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 vests Federal Inland Revenue Services with the power to make tax refund as well as set guidelines and requirements for refund process from time to time. In addition, Section 61 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007, empowers the Federal Inland Revenue Services to issue information circular to acquaint stakeholders with the policy on the refund process. A Circular was issued to that effect to correct the position that until after the annual audit of the Service before such excess can be paid to the claimant/taxpayer. But it is amazing that such circular issuance does not feature under the states’ laws. Hence, there is an inconsistencies in the tax paying system in Nigeria. This study, therefore, sets an objective, to examine the trending concept of tax refund in Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective, a doctrinal study went under way, wherein both federal and states laws were consulted including journals and textbooks. At the end of the research, it was revealed that the law should be specific as to the time frame within which to make the refund. It further revealed that it is essential to put up a legal framework for the tax system to recognize excess payment as debt due from the state. This would provide a foundational framework for the relationship between taxpayers and Federal Inland Revenue Service as well as promote effective tax administration in all the states of the federation. Several Recommendations were made especially relating to legislative passage of ‘’Refund Circular Bill at the states levels’ pursuant to the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007.

Keywords: claim, Nigeria, refund, right

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13887 Land Use Dynamics of Ikere Forest Reserve, Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Akintunde Alo

Abstract:

The incessant encroachments into the forest ecosystem by the farmers and local contractors constitute a major threat to the conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity in Nigeria. To propose a viable monitoring system, this study employed Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to assess the changes that occurred for a period of five years (between 2011 and 2016) in Ikere forest reserve. Landsat imagery of the forest reserve was obtained. For the purpose of geo-referencing the acquired satellite imagery, ground-truth coordinates of some benchmark places within the forest reserve was relied on. Supervised classification algorithm, image processing, vectorization and map production were realized using ArcGIS. Various land use systems within the forest ecosystem were digitized into polygons of different types and colours for 2011 and 2016, roads were represented with lines of different thickness and colours. Of the six land-use delineated, the grassland increased from 26.50 % in 2011 to 45.53% in 2016 of the total land area with a percentage change of 71.81 %. Plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis on the other hand reduced from 62.16 % in 2011 to 27.41% in 2016. The farmland and degraded land recorded percentage change of about 176.80 % and 8.70 % respectively from 2011 to 2016. Overall, the rate of deforestation in the study area is on the increase and becoming severe. About 72.59% of the total land area has been converted to non-forestry uses while the remnant 27.41% is occupied by plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis. Interestingly, over 55 % of the plantation area in 2011 has changed to grassland, or converted to farmland and degraded land in 2016. The rate of change over time was about 9.79 % annually. Based on the results, rapid actions to prevail on the encroachers to stop deforestation and encouraged re-afforestation in the study area are recommended.

Keywords: land use change, forest reserve, satellite imagery, geographical information system

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13886 Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Amirhossein Khazali, Mohsen Kalantar

Abstract:

Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.

Keywords: energy and reserve market, energy storage device, stochastic programming, wind generation

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13885 Federal Character Principle and the Challenges of National Integration in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis of Some Federal Appointments under Jonathan and Buhari Administrations

Authors: Simon O. Obadahun, Samuel Otohinoyi

Abstract:

The Nigerian state is heterogeneous both in character and content. Efforts to manage this diversity has so far not yielded the desired result. This paper examines the Federal Character Principle as one of the instruments intended to manage our obvious diversity such that no part of the country is marginalized or feels marginalized or sidelined. The paper observed that the Federal Character Principle have not achieved its set objectives, which is national unity and loyalty. It draws from secondary sources and discovered that there are factors that make an equitable distribution of public appointments difficult which is beyond the powers of the federal character commission. The major argument of this paper is that if the Federal Character Commission as an organization expected to enforce this principle is not restructured and given more power to sanction individuals and organizations that are found of circumventing the relevant guidelines in this regards, the hope of national unity and loyalty will continue to be a mirage.

Keywords: appointments, federalism, federal character, national integration

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13884 Monitoring the Rate of Expansion of Agricultural Fields in Mwekera Forest Reserve Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: K. Kanja, M. Mweemba, K. Malungwa

Abstract:

Due to the rampant population growth coupled with retrenchments currently going on in the Copper mines in Zambia, a number of people are resorting to land clearing for agriculture, illegal settlements as well as charcoal production among other vices. This study aims at assessing the rate of expansion of agricultural fields and illegal settlements in protected areas using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. Zambia’s Mwekera National Forest Reserve was used as a case study. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA), as well as maximum likelihood, supervised classification on four Landsat images as well as an accuracy assessment of the classifications was performed. Over the period under observation, results indicate annual percentage changes to be -0.03, -0.49 and 1.26 for agriculture, forests and settlement respectively indicating a higher conversion of forests into human settlements and agriculture.

Keywords: geographic information system, land cover change, Landsat TM and ETM+, Mwekera forest reserve, remote sensing

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13883 Federalism, Dual Sovereignty, and the Supreme Court of Nigeria

Authors: Edoba Bright Omoregie

Abstract:

Nigeria became a federation in 1954 six years before it gained independence away from British colonial rule. The country has remained a federation since then despite the challenging circumstances of military rule and civil strife which have tasked its federal credentials. Since 1961, when it first decided a federalism dispute, cases over vertical and horizontal powers have inundated the country’s Supreme Court. In its current practice of federalism after democratic rule was resumed in 1999, the country has witnessed a spell of intergovernmental disputes over a good number of federalism issues. Such conflicts have eventually found their way to the Supreme Court for resolution, not as a final appellate court (which it is in other non-federal matters) but as a court of first and final instance following the constitutional provision granting the court such power. However, in April 2014 one of such disputes was denied hearing by the court when it declined original jurisdiction to determine the matter. The suit was instituted by one state of the federation against the federal government and the other 35 states challenging the collection of value added tax (a consumption tax)on certain goods and services within the state. The paper appraises the rationale of the court’s decision and reason that its decision to decline jurisdiction is the result of an avoidable misunderstanding of the dual sovereignty instituted by the federal system of Nigeria as well as a misconception of the role which the court is constitutionally assigned to play in resolving intergovernmental schisms in the federal system.

Keywords: dual sovereignty, federalism, intergovernmental conflict, Supreme Court

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13882 American Criminal Justice Responses to Terrorism in the Post 9/11 Era

Authors: Summer Jackson

Abstract:

September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks exposed weaknesses in federal law enforcement’s ability to proactively counter threats to American homeland security. Following the attacks, legislative reforms and policy changes cleared both bureaucratic and legal obstacles to anti-terrorism efforts. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) transformed into a domestic intelligence agency responsible for preventing future terrorist attacks. Likewise, the passage of the 2001 USA Patriot Act gave federal agents new discretionary powers to more easily collect intelligence on those suspected of supporting terrorism. Despite these changes, there has been only limited scholarly attention paid to terrorism responses by the federal criminal justice system. This study sought to examine the investigative and prosecutorial changes made in the Post-9/11 era. The methodology employed bivariate and multivariate statistics using data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS). This analysis examined how policy changes are reflected in the nature of terrorism investigations, the handling of terrorist defendants by federal prosecutors, and the outcomes of terrorism cases since 2001. The findings indicate significant investigative and prosecutorial changes in the Post-9/11 era. Specifically, this study found terrorism cases involved younger defendants, fewer indictees per case, less use of human intelligence, less complicated attacks, less serious charges, and more plea bargains. Overall, this study highlights the important shifts in responses to terrorism following the 9/11 attacks.

Keywords: terrorism, law enforcement, post-9/11, federal policy

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13881 A Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of the Executive Authorities in Austria

Authors: Meryl Abigail Lucasan

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of the Executive Authorities in Austria, focusing with the Federal President, Cabinet members (Federal Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor and the other Federal Ministers) and the State Government. In this paper, the roles and powers of the executive authorities of Austria will be enumerated and explained; and the behavior of the executive authorities of Austria will be described in detail. In addition, the researcher will provide a survey that was answered by an Austrian citizen through electronic mail to gain more concrete information about the current political condition in Austria. Based on research, Austria has a remarkable political stability. This paper will develop a conceptual framework or a sample paradigm to represent the political system in Austria, focusing on its states and Executive Authorities in achieving political stability.

Keywords: Austrian politics, executive branch of the government, federal government, political stability

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13880 Generational Differences in Leadership and Motivation: A Multilevel Study of Federal Workers

Authors: Sally Selden, Jyoti Aggarwal

Abstract:

The research on generational expectations about leadership is developing, but little scholarship exists on this topic for public sector organizations. Given the size of the federal workforce, this research study fills an important gap in the knowledge base and will inform public organizations how to approach managing and leading a multigenerational workforce. The research objectives of this study are to explore leadership preferences and motivation within generations and to determine whether these qualities differ by type of federal agency (e.g., law enforcement, human services, etc.). This paper will review the research on generational differences, expectations, and leadership with a focus on studies of public organizations. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), this study will examine how leadership and motivation vary by generation in the federal government workforce, controlling for other demographic characteristics. The study will also examine whether generational differences impact satisfaction and performance. The study will utilize the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey.

Keywords: multigenerational workforce, leadership, generational differences, federal workforce

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13879 Internal Audit and the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Operations in Hospitals

Authors: Naziru Suleiman

Abstract:

The ever increasing cases of financial frauds and corporate accounting scandals in recent years have raised more concern on the operation of internal control mechanisms and performance of the internal audit departments in organizations. In most cases the seeming presence of both the internal control system and internal audit in organizations do not prove useful as frauds errors and irregularities are being perpetuated. The aim of this study, therefore, is to assess the role of internal audit in achieving the objectives of internal control system of federal hospitals in Kano State from the perception of the respondents. The study used survey research design and generated data from primary source by means of questionnaire. A total number of 100 copies of questionnaire were administered out of which 68 were duly completed and returned. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the internal validity of the various items in the constructs. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were employed for the analysis of data. The study finds that from the perception of the respondents, internal audit departments in Federal Hospitals in Kano State are effective and that they contribute positively to the overall attainment of the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals. There is no significant difference found on the views of the respondents from the three hospitals. Hence, the study concludes that strong and functional internal audit department is a basic requirement for effectiveness of operations of the internal control system. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that internal audit should continue to ensure that the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals are achieved through proper and adequate evaluation and review of the system.

Keywords: internal audit, internal control, federal hospitals, financial frauds

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13878 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh

Abstract:

The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: composition, density, frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, structure, tree cover

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13877 Marketing of Non Timber Forest Products and Forest Management in Kaffa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia

Authors: Amleset Haile

Abstract:

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Ethiopia, Kaffa as a source of household income. market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to getther information on elements of marketing system–products, product differentiation, value addition, pricing, promotion, distribution, and marketing chains. The study, therefore, was conducted in Kaffa Biosphere reserve of southwest Ethiopia with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to the conservation of the biosphere reserve and to identify factors influencing in the marketing of the NTFP. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from Bonga town and availability of NTFP. Formal survey was carried out on rural households selected using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that Local people practice diverse livelihood activities mainly crops cultivation (cereals and cash crops) and livestock husbandry, gather forest products and off-farm/off-forest activities for surviva. NTFP trade is not a common phenomenon in southwest Ethiopia. The greatest opportunity exists for local level marketing of spices and other non timber forest products. Very little local value addition takes place within the region,and as a result local market players have little control. Policy interventions arc required to enhance the returns to local collectors, which will also contribute to sustainable management of forest resources in Kaffa biosphere reserve.

Keywords: forest management, biosphere reserve, marketing, local people

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13876 Disclosure Extension of Oil and Gas Reserve Quantum

Authors: Ali Alsawayeh, Ibrahim Eldanfour

Abstract:

This paper examines the extent of disclosure of oil and gas reserve quantum in annual reports of international oil and gas exploration and production companies, particularly companies in untested international markets, such as Canada, the UK and the US, and seeks to determine the underlying factors that affect the level of disclosure on oil reserve quantum. The study is concerned with the usefulness of disclosure of oil and gas reserves quantum to investors and other users. Given the primacy of the annual report (10-k) as a source of supplemental reserves data about the company and as the channel through which companies disseminate information about their performance, the annual reports for one year (2009) were the central focus of the study. This comparative study seeks to establish whether differences exist between the sample companies, based on new disclosure requirements by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in respect of reserves classification and definition. The extent of disclosure of reserve is provided and compared among the selected companies. Statistical analysis is performed to determine whether any differences exist in the extent of disclosure of reserve under the determinant variables. This study shows that some factors would affect the extent of disclosure of reserve quantum in the above-mentioned countries, namely: company’s size, leverage and quality of auditor. Companies that provide reserves quantum in detail appear to display higher size. The findings also show that the level of leverage has affected companies’ reserves quantum disclosure. Indeed, companies that provide detailed reserves quantum disclosure tend to employ a ‘high-quality auditor’. In addition, the study found significant independent variable such as Profit Sharing Contracts (PSC). This factor could explain variations in the level of disclosure of oil reserve quantum between the contractor and host governments. The implementation of SEC oil and gas reporting requirements do not enhance companies’ valuation because the new rules are based only on past and present reserves information (proven reserves); hence, future valuation of oil and gas companies is missing for the market.

Keywords: comparison, company characteristics, disclosure, reserve quantum, regulation

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13875 Interest Rate Prediction with Taylor Rule

Authors: T. Bouchabchoub, A. Bendahmane, A. Haouriqui, N. Attou

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation results of Forex predicting model equations in order to give approximately a prevision of interest rates. First, Hall-Taylor (HT) equations have been used with Taylor rule (TR) to adapt them to European and American Forex Markets. Indeed, initial Taylor Rule equation is conceived for all Forex transactions in every States: It includes only one equation and six parameters. Here, the model has been used with Hall-Taylor equations, initially including twelve equations which have been reduced to only three equations. Analysis has been developed on the following base macroeconomic variables: Real change rate, investment wages, anticipated inflation, realized inflation, real production, interest rates, gap production and potential production. This model has been used to specifically study the impact of an inflation shock on macroeconomic director interest rates.

Keywords: interest rate, Forex, Taylor rule, production, European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (FED).

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13874 Land Use Changes and Impact around Maladumba Lake and Forest Reserve, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Abdullahi, S. M. Gumel

Abstract:

This study was carried out to analyze and describe biodiversity changes in representative communities around Maladumba Lake and Forest Reserve (MLFR), Bauchi, Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected through formal and informal interviews of key informants and survey of local communities and government records. There has been a change in biodiversity; some of the cropping systems have become nonexistent whereas others have developed. The main aspect of the changes has been the decline of species diversity due to degradation and over utilization. The changes have also been positive through the introduction and intensification of cropping system. Options have been open for people to manipulate the cropping systems in order to efficiently use the limited resources. Farmers have opted not only to intensify agricultural practices but also to deliberately restore some of the lost species. Reduction in the number of animals per household, adoption of new techniques of land management, changes in the type of crops cultivated and intensive use of the available resources are some of the indicators describing farmers’ efforts to cope with the changes. Sustainability of the farming system and biodiversity has been enhanced through peoples’ efforts that include planting trees and use of fertilizers.

Keywords: cropping systems, historical trends, household, land management, sustainability

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13873 Nascent Federalism in Nepal: An Observational Review in its Evolution

Authors: C. Shekhar Parajulee

Abstract:

Nepal practiced a centralized unitary governing system for a long and has gone through the federal system after the promulgation of the new constitution on 20 September 2015. There is a big paradigm shift in terms of governance after it. Now, there are three levels of governments, one federal government in the center, seven provincial governments and 753 local governments. Federalism refers to a political governing system with multiple tiers of government working together with coordination. It is preferred for self and shared rule. Though it has opened the door for rights of the people, political stability, state restructuring, and sustainable peace and development, there are many prospects and challenges for its proper implementation. This research analyzes the discourses of federalism implementation in Nepal with special reference to one of seven provinces, Gandaki. Federalism is a new phenomenon in Nepali politics and informed debates on it are required for its right evolution. This research will add value in this regard. Moreover, tracking its evolution and the exploration of the attitudes and behaviors of key actors and stakeholders in a new experiment of a new governing system is also important. The administrative and political system of Gandaki province in terms of service delivery and development will critically be examined. Besides demonstrating the performances of the provincial government and assembly, it will analyze the inter-governmental relation of Gandaki with the other two tiers of government. For this research, people from provincial and local governments (elected representatives and government employees), provincial assembly members, academicians, civil society leaders and journalists are being interviewed. The interview findings will be analyzed by supplementing with published documents. Just going into the federal structure is not the solution. As in the case of other provincial governments, Gandaki had also to start from scratch. It gradually took a shape of government and has been functioning sluggishly. The provincial government has many challenges ahead, which has badly hindered its plans and actions. Additionally, fundamental laws, infrastructures and human resources are found to be insufficient at the sub-national level. Lack of clarity in the jurisdiction is another main challenge. The Nepali Constitution assumes cooperation, coexistence and coordination as the fundamental principles of federalism which, unfortunately, appear to be lacking among the three tiers of government despite their efforts. Though the devolution of power to sub-national governments is essential for the successful implementation of federalism, it has apparently been delayed due to the centralized mentality of bureaucracy as well as a political leader. This research will highlight the reasons for the delay in the implementation of federalism. There might be multiple underlying reasons for the slow pace of implementation of federalism and identifying them is very tough. Moreover, the federal spirit is found to be absent in the main players of today's political system, which is a big irony. So, there are some doubts about whether the federal system in Nepal is just a keepsake or a substantive.

Keywords: federalism, inter-governmental relations, Nepal, provincial government

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13872 Identification of Shocks from Unconventional Monetary Policy Measures

Authors: Margarita Grushanina

Abstract:

After several prominent central banks including European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (Fed), Bank of Japan and Bank of England employed unconventional monetary policies in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-2009 the problem of identification of the effects from such policies became of great interest. One of the main difficulties in identification of shocks from unconventional monetary policy measures in structural VAR analysis is that they often are anticipated, which leads to a non-fundamental MA representation of the VAR model. Moreover, the unconventional monetary policy actions may indirectly transmit to markets information about the future stance of the interest rate, which raises a question of the plausibility of the assumption of orthogonality between shocks from unconventional and conventional policy measures. This paper offers a method of identification that takes into account the abovementioned issues. The author uses factor-augmented VARs to increase the information set and identification through heteroskedasticity of error terms and rank restrictions on the errors’ second moments’ matrix to deal with the cross-correlation of the structural shocks.

Keywords: factor-augmented VARs, identification through heteroskedasticity, monetary policy, structural VARs

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13871 Assignment of Airlines Technical Members under Disruption

Authors: Walid Moudani

Abstract:

The Crew Reserve Assignment Problem (CRAP) considers the assignment of the crew members to a set of reserve activities covering all the scheduled flights in order to ensure a continuous plan so that operations costs are minimized while its solution must meet hard constraints resulting from the safety regulations of Civil Aviation as well as from the airlines internal agreements. The problem considered in this study is of highest interest for airlines and may have important consequences on the service quality and on the economic return of the operations. In this communication, a new mathematical formulation for the CRAP is proposed which takes into account the regulations and the internal agreements. While current solutions make use of Artificial Intelligence techniques run on main frame computers, a low cost approach is proposed to provide on-line efficient solutions to face perturbed operating conditions. The proposed solution method uses a dynamic programming approach for the duties scheduling problem and when applied to the case of a medium airline while providing efficient solutions, shows good potential acceptability by the operations staff. This optimization scheme can then be considered as the core of an on-line Decision Support System for crew reserve assignment operations management.

Keywords: airlines operations management, combinatorial optimization, dynamic programming, crew scheduling

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13870 Community Perception of Dynamics and Drivers of Land Cover Change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Northern Benin

Authors: Jesugnon E. A. Kpodo, Aurlus D. Ouindeyama, Jan H. Sommer, Fifanou G. Vodouhe, Kolo Yeo

Abstract:

Local communities are recognized as key actors for sustainable land use and to some extent actors driving land use land cover (LULC) change around protected areas. Understanding drivers responsible for these changes are very crucial for better policy decisions making. This study analyzed perception of 425 local people in 28 villages towards land cover change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve using semi-structured questionnaire. 72.9% of local communities perceive land cover as degrading while 24.5% as improving and only 2.6% as stable during the five last years. Women perceived more land cover degradation than men do (84.1 vs. 67.1%). Local communities identified cultivated land expansion, logging, firewood collection, charcoal production, population growth, and poverty as the key drivers of declined LULC in the study area. Education has emerged as a significant factor influencing respondents’ perceptions of these drivers of LULC changes. Appropriate management measures and government policies should be implemented around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve to control drivers of LULC change.

Keywords: local perceptions, LULC drivers, LULC dynamics, Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, rural livelihoods, sustainable resource management

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13869 Living outside the fence: Opportunities for Neighbouring Communities to Supply Products and Services to the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

Authors: Andrew Rylance, Anna Spenceley

Abstract:

An evaluation was undertaken to understand opportunities for stimulating local enterprise development within the tourism supply chain, linked to a private game reserve in South Africa, the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which neighbors the Kruger National Park. The study focused on understanding the market demand for local products and services from commercial lodges, and the current local supply from enterprises and entrepreneurs in local communities. This article quantifies the value of current procurement spend by lodges on local products and services and estimates their potential future expenditure. The study matches these responses with the availability of products and services in the neighboring communities. It also provides insights into relationships between private lodges, game reserves and local communities in South Africa. It concurs with previous research on tourism supply chains in rural South Africa, and also makes recommendations for the development of local businesses with higher technical capacity development.

Keywords: tourism, communities, business development, South Africa, Sabi Sand Game Reserve, market study, supply study

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13868 The Role of the Federal Supreme Court in Preventing the Exercise of the Right to Self-Determination

Authors: Shaho Ghafur Ahmed

Abstract:

The right to self-determination of peoples is a fundamental human right recognized by the principles of international law. It could be embodied in the internal level in the form of federalism. Most federal constitutions prevented the secession of constituent entities, while some remained silent, as the case of Iraq, and rare instances of them recognize it. But, after the failure of federalism, these entities seek to separate whenever the opportunity arises. In several cases, they have resort to peaceful methods in some others they resort to force. The constitutional Supreme Court, which guaranty the unity and integrity of the State, often prevent these attempts. After not a commitment of federalism in Iraq, which has been founded since 2004, the Kurdistan region, as the only federated entity, has conducted a unilateral referendum on 25 September 2017 for its independence. The Iraqi government refused it. The Iraqi Federal Supreme Court, through interpreting the constitutional provisions, decided that this referendum and it’s purposes, which was the independence of the region, was unconstitutional. Subsequently, the Iraqi government used forces and blockaded the region so as to force it to turn off this process. So, in this paper, the right to self-determination of the peoples in federated entities and its obstacles will be discussed through the comparative legal basis and analyzing the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Courts. We will compare the role that the Supreme Court of Canada played regarding the referendum that operated in Quebec in 1995, in which it refused only the unilaterally attempts for the independence of this province. While, in the case of the Kurdistan region, the Iraqi Federal Supreme Court has definitively refused this right. No measures were taken by this Court to protect the region from the Iraqi government reactions. This decision led to the questioning of the neutrality of this Court. So, from the point of view of the Kurdistan region, this Court became a political instrument to prevent it to be independent in the international community, in the absence of a clear constitutional provision, through an abstract and an incomplete interpretation of federal constitutional provisions.

Keywords: right of self-determination, federal supreme court, supremacy of federal constitution

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13867 Tax Evasion in Brazil: The Case of Specialists

Authors: Felippe Clemente, Viviani S. Lírio

Abstract:

Brazilian tax evasion is very high. It causes many problems for economics as budget realization, income distribution and no allocation of productive resources. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to use the instrumental game theory to understand tax evasion agents and tax authority in Brazil (Federal Revenue and Federal Police). By means of Game Theory approaches, the main results from considering cases both with and without specialists show that, in a high dropout situation, penalizing taxpayers with either high fines or deprivations of liberty may not be very effective. The analysis also shows that audit and inspection costs play an important role in driving the equilibrium system. This would suggest that a policy of investing in tax inspectors would be a more effective tool in combating non-compliance with tax obligations than penalties or fines.

Keywords: tax evasion, Brazil, game theory, specialists

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13866 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan

Abstract:

A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: biosphere reserve, CO2 emission, deforestation, forest fire

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13865 Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preference of Red Panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi

Abstract:

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is distributed throughout the Himalayas and is found in both protected and unprotected areas of Nepal. Loss and fragmentation of habitat threaten red panda population throughout its range, and as a consequence, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Despite this pressing situation, data on the ecology of the red panda in western Nepal are lacking. Our aim in the current study was to determine the distribution, associated habitats, and summer diet of the red panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR), Nepal. Evidence of red pandas was found in all 7 blocks of the reserve, spanning an area of 345.8 km2, between elevations of 2800 m and 4000 m and predominantly (> 75%) in forests comprising plant communities dominated by Abies spectabilis, Acer caesium, Tsuga domusa, and Betula utilis, with ground cover of Arundinaria spp. The dominant plant found in scat of the red panda was Arundinaria spp. (81.7%), with Acer spp., B. utilis, and lichen also frequently present. Livestock grazing and human activities were significantly higher in habitats where signs of pandas were recorded than in areas where they were absent. This habitat overlap between the red panda and livestock potentially poses a major threat to the panda’s survival in the DHR, a fact that should be taken into account in devising management strategies for this threatened species.

Keywords: red panda, Dhorpatan hunting reserve, diet, habitat preference

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13864 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon

Abstract:

This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: federalism, foreign policy, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy, Mexico

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13863 Guidance and Counseling Programmes among Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Olubusayo Asikhia

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of indiscipline and guidance and counseling programmes among federal and state-owned tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Southwest, Nigeria. This study was borne out of persistent students’ revolt and unrest in Nigerian tertiary institutions with its concomitant breakdown of law and order, disruption of academic activities, closure of institutions and the disruption of lives and property among others. A sample of 300 students, 270 staff (including academic and non-academic, heads of disciplinary committees, deans of student affairs and counselors) from 6 federal and state-owned tertiary institutions were selected through stratified random sampling. Three structured questionnaires with reliability coefficients that range from 0.78 to 0.91 were used to collect data for the study. The data were tested at 0.05 level of significance and analyzed using descriptive, paired samples statistics and regression analysis. Findings from the four hypotheses generated for the study revealed that student indiscipline occurs more in state colleges of education and polytechnics than in their federal counterparts. It was also higher in federal universities than the state. The study also revealed a significant difference in the causes of indiscipline and assessment of guidance and counseling programmes in state and federal universities and no significant difference in state and federal colleges and polytechnics. It was recommended that the guidance and counseling department in tertiary institutions should create a well-structured program that will enable it to address issues of indiscipline among students and that counselors should use small-group counseling approach and student-focused interventions.

Keywords: colleges of education, guidance and counseling, indiscipline, polytechnics, students and universities

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