Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1763

Search results for: iron oxide

1763 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Application

Authors: Shalini Rajput, Dinesh Mohan

Abstract:

Water is the most important and essential resources for existing of life on the earth. Water quality is gradually decreasing due to increasing urbanization and industrialization and various other developmental activities. It can pose a threat to the environment and public health therefore it is necessary to remove hazardous contaminants from wastewater prior to its discharge to the environment. Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been arise as significant materials due to its distinct properties. This article focuses on the synthesis method with a possible mechanism, structure and application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer are useful to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles. Nanosized iron oxide particles utilized for remediation of contaminants from aqueous medium through adsorption process. Due to magnetic properties, nanoparticles can be easily separate from aqueous media. Considering the importance and emerging trend of nanotechnology, iron oxide nanoparticles as nano-adsorbent can be of great importance in the field of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: nanoparticles, adsorption, iron oxide, nanotechnology

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1762 An Efficient Green Catalyst for Chemo-Selectiveoxidative Coupling of Thiols

Authors: E. Kolvari, N. Koukabi, A. Sabet, A. Fakhraee, M. Ramezanpour

Abstract:

A green and efficient method for oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides is reported using free nano-iron oxide in the H2O2 and methanol as solvent at room tempereture. H2O2 is anoxidant for S-S coupling variety aromatic of thiols to corresponding disulfide in the presence of supported iron oxide as recoverable catalyst. This reaction is clean, fast, mild and easy work-up with no side reaction.

Keywords: thiol, disulfide, free nano-iron oxide, H2O2, oxidation, coupling

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1761 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant

Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.

Keywords: catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidase

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1760 Microbial Effects of Iron Elution from Hematite into Seawater Mediated via Dissolved Organic Matter

Authors: Apichaya Aneksampant, Xuefei Tu, Masami Fukushima, Mitsuo Yamamoto

Abstract:

The restoration of seaweed beds recovery has been developed using a fertilization technique for supplying dissolved iron to barren coastal areas. The fertilizer is composed of iron oxides as a source of iron and compost as humic substance (HS) source, which can serve as chelator of iron to stabilize the dissolved species under oxic seawater condition. However, elution mechanisms of iron from iron oxide surfaces have not sufficiently elucidated. In particular, roles of microbial activities in the elution of iron from the fertilizer are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, a fertilizer (iron oxide/compost = 1/1, v/v) was incubated in a water tank at Mashike coast, Hokkaido Japan. Microorganisms in the 6-month fertilizer were isolated and identified as Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans sp. (T-2-2). The identified bacteria were inoculated to perform iron elution test in a postgate B medium, prepared in artificial seawater. Hematite was used as a model iron oxide and anthraquinone-2,7-disolfonate (AQDS) as a model for HSs. The elution test performed in presence and absence of bacteria inoculation. ICP-AES was used to analyze total iron and a colorimetric technique using ferrozine employed for the determination of ferrous ion. During the incubation period, sample contained hematite and T-2-2 in both presence and absence of AQDS continuously showed the iron elution and reached at the highest concentration after 9 days of incubation and then slightly decrease to stabilize within 20 days. Comparison to the sample without T-2-2, trace amount of iron was observed, suggesting that iron elution to seawater can be attributed to bacterial activities. The levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in the culture solution with hematite decreased. This may be to the adsorption of organic compound, AQDS, to hematite surfaces. The decrease in UV-vis absorption of AQDS in the culture solution also support the results of TOC that AQDS was adsorbed to hematite surfaces. AQDS can enhance the iron elution, while the adsorption of organic matter suppresses the iron elution from hematite.

Keywords: anthraquinone-2, 7-disolfonate, barren ground, E.oxidotolerans sp., hematite, humic substances, iron elution

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1759 Phase Transition in Iron Storage Protein Ferritin

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferritin is a protein which present in the blood of mammals. It maintains the need of iron inside the body. It has an antiferromagnetic iron core, 7-8 nm in size, which is encapsulated inside a protein cage. The thickness of this protein shell is about 2-3 nm. This protein shell reduces the interaction among particles and make ferritin a model superparamagnet. The major composition of ferritin core is mineral ferrihydrite. The molecular formula of ferritin core is (FeOOH)8[FeOOPO3H2]. In this study, we discuss the phase transition of ferritin. We characterized ferritin using x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron micrograph, thermogravimetric analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that ferritin core is amorphous in nature with average particle size of 8 nm. The thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis curves shows mass loss at different temperatures. We heated ferritin at these temperatures. It is found that ferritin core starts decomposing after 390^o C. At 1020^o C, the ferritin core is finally converted to alpha phase of iron oxide. Magnetization behavior of final sample clearly shows the iron oxyhydroxide core is completely converted to alpha iron oxide.

Keywords: Antiferromagnetic, Ferritin, Phase, Superparamagnetic

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1758 Theoretical and Experimental Study of Iron Oxide Thin Film

Authors: Fahima Djefaflia, M. Loutfi Benkhedir

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to development and characterisation of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. Influences of deposition parameters pile temperature on structural and optical properties have been studied Thin films are analysed by various techniques of materials. The structural characterization of films by analysis of spectra of X-ray diffraction showed that the films prepared at T=350,400,450 are crystalline and amorphous at T=300C. For particular condition, two phases hematiteFe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have been observed.The UV-Visible spectrophotometer of this films confirms that it is possible to obtain films with a transmittance of about 15-30% in the visible range. In addition, this analysis allowed us to determine the optical gap and disorder of films. We conclude that the increase in temperature is accompanied by a reduction in the optical gap with increasing in disorder. An ab initio calculation for this phase shows that the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: spray pyrolysis technique, iron oxide, ab initio calculation, optical properties

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1757 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar

Abstract:

Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: cancer drug, hydrodynamic size, magnetic nanoparticles, MRI

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1756 Development of Enzymatic Amperometric Biosensors with Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Uc-Cayetano E. G., Ake-Uh O. E., Villanueva-Mena I. E., Ordonez L. C.

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other graphitic nanostructures are materials with extraordinary physical, physicochemical and electrochemical properties which are being aggressively investigated for a variety of sensing applications. Thus, sensing of biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, glucose and other enzymes using either single wall or multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been widely reported. Despite the current progress in this area, the electrochemical response of CNTs used in a variety of sensing arrangements still needs to be improved. An alternative towards the enhancement of this CNTs' electrochemical response is to chemically (or physically) modify its surface. The influence of the decoration with iron oxide nanoparticles in different types of MWCNTs on the amperometric sensing of glucose, urea, and cholesterol in solution is investigated. Commercial MWCNTs were oxidized in acid media and subsequently decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles; finally, the enzymes glucose oxidase, urease, and cholesterol oxidase are chemically immobilized to oxidized and decorated MWCNTs for glucose, urease, and cholesterol electrochemical sensing. The results of the electrochemical characterizations consistently show that the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles decorating the surface of MWCNTs enhance the amperometric response and the sensitivity to increments in glucose, urease, and cholesterol concentration when compared to non-decorated MWCNTs.

Keywords: WCNTs, enzymes, oxidation, decoration

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1755 Speciation of Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles and other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

Authors: M. Paul Herring, Lavrent Khachatryan, Barry Dellinger

Abstract:

Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1-MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by g-factors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe(IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe(IV)---O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.

Keywords: cryogenic trapping, EPFRs, dendrimer, Fe2O3 doped silica, soot

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1754 Use of Waste Active Sludge for Reducing Fe₂O₃

Authors: A. Parra Parra, M. Vlasova, P. A. Marquez, M. Kakazey, M. C. Resendiz Gonzalez

Abstract:

The work of water treatment plants from various sources of pollution includes a biological treatment stage using activated sludge. Due to the large volume of toxic activated sludge waste (WAS) generated and soil contamination during its storage, WAS disposal technologies are being continuously developed. The most common is the carbonization of WAS. The carbonization products are various forms of ordered and disordered carbon material having different reactivity. The aim of this work was to study the reduction process of Fe₂O₃ mixed with activated sludge waste (WAS). It could be assumed that the simultaneous action of the WAS thermal decomposition process, accompanied by the formation of reactive nano-carbon, with carbothermal reduction of the Fe₂O₃, will permit intensify reduction of metal oxide up to stage of metal and iron carbide formation. The studies showed that the temperature treatment in the region of (800-1000) °C for 1 hour under conditions of oxygen deficiency is accompanied by the occurrence of reactions: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe, which are typical for the metallurgical process of iron smelting, but less energy-intensive. Depending on the ratio of the WAS - Fe₂O₃ components and the temperature-time regime of reduction of iron oxide, it is possible to distinguish the stages of the predominant formation of ferromagnetic compounds, cast iron, and iron carbide. The results indicated the promise of using WAS as a metals oxide reducing agent and obtaining of ceramic-based on metal carbides.

Keywords: carbothermal reduction, Fe₂O₃, FeₓOᵧ-C, waste activated sludge

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1753 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes

Abstract:

The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

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1752 Embryotoxicity of Nano-Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) to Bio-Indicator of Pollution of Land Helix Aspersa

Authors: S. Besnaci, S. Bensoltane, H. Locif, S. Saadi

Abstract:

To validate an ecotoxicological approach to assessing toxicological effects caused by the oxide powder of nano-iron Fe2O3, we searched in the ecotoxicology laboratory cell bodies bio accumulators and bio-indicators of soil pollution the snail Helix aspersa. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of nano Fe2O3 during a very sensitive phase of development H.aspersa (embryonic stage). During embryonic development, we observed in treated with various concentrations of nano Fe2O3 (1.25 g/l, 1.5 g/l, and 2 g/l) compared to control, the deformation of the membrane of the egg and accumulation of this molecule at the rear of the egg proven by the photographs, as with the influence on the hatching percentage.

Keywords: eggs, embryotoxicity, Fe2O3, Helix aspersa, nanoparticles

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1751 Magnetorheological Elastomer Composites Obtained by Extrusion

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized magnetite, gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy). The use of extrusion method instead of traditional preparation processes (two-roll mill, mixer) of composites is presented. Micro and nan-sized magnetites as well as gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder were found to be an active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Application of extrusion process also influenced the mechanical properties of composites and the dispersion of magnetic fillers. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM) show that the dispersion improvement had significant effect on the composites properties. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: extrusion, magnetic fillers, magnetorheological elastomers, mechanical properties

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1750 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

Abstract:

Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

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1749 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, alumina protective layer, sintered-metal-fibers

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1748 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, magnetic properties, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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1747 Effect of Changing Iron Content and Excitation Frequency on Magnetic Particle Imaging Signal: A Comparative Study of Synomag® Nanoparticles

Authors: Kalthoum Riahi, Max T. Rietberg, Javier Perez y Perez, Corné Dijkstra, Bennie ten Haken, Lejla Alic

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used to facilitate magnetic particle imaging (MPI) which has the potential to become the leading diagnostic instrument for biomedical imaging. This comparative study assesses the effects of changing iron content and excitation frequency on point-spread function (PSF) representing the effect of magnetization reversal. PSF is quantified by features of interest for MPI: i.e., drive field amplitude and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A superparamagnetic quantifier (SPaQ) is used to assess differential magnetic susceptibility of two commercially available MNPs: Synomag®-D50 and Synomag®-D70. For both MNPs, the signal output depends on increase in drive field frequency and amount of iron-oxide, which might be hampering the sensitivity of MPI systems that perform on higher frequencies. Nevertheless, there is a clear potential of Synomag®-D for a stable MPI resolution, especially in case of 70 nm version, that is independent of either drive field frequency or amount of iron-oxide.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, differential magnetic susceptibility, DMS, magnetic particle imaging, MPI, magnetic relaxation, Synomag®-D

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1746 Synthesis of Size-Tunable and Stable Iron Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Ambika Selvaraj

Abstract:

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO) of < 20nm (superparamagnetic) become promising tool in cancer therapy, and integrated nanodevices for cancer detection and screening. The obstacles include particle heterogeneity and cost. It can be overcome by developing monodispersed nanoparticles in economical approach. We have successfully synthesized < 7 nm IO by low temperature controlled technique, in which Fe0 is sandwiched between stabilizer and Fe2+. Size analysis showed the excellent size control from 31 nm at 33°C to 6.8 nm at 10°C. Resultant monodispersed IO were found to be stable for > 50 reuses, proved its applicability in biomedical applications.

Keywords: low temperature synthesis, hybrid iron nanoparticles, cancer therapy, biomedical applications

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1745 Highly Efficient Iron Oxide-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Catalyst for Esterification and Trans-Esterification Reactions

Authors: Reena D. Souza, Tripti Vats, Prem F. Siril

Abstract:

Esterification of free fatty acid (oleic acid) and transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with ethanol over graphene oxide (GO), GO-Fe2O3, sulfonated GO (GO-SO3H), and Fe2O3/GO-SO3H catalysts were examined in the present study. Iron oxide supported graphene-based acid catalyst (Fe2O3/GO-SO3H) exhibited highest catalytic activity. GO was prepared by modified Hummer’s process. The GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of NaOH to a solution containing GO and FeCl3. Sulfonation was done using concentrated sulfuric acid. Transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging revealed the presence of Fe2O3 particles having size in the range of 50-200 nm. Crystal structure was analyzed by XRD and defect states of graphene were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The effects of the reaction variables such as catalyst loading, ethanol to acid ratio, reaction time and temperature on the conversion of fatty acids were studied. The optimum conditions for the esterification process were molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid at 12:1 with 5 wt% of Fe2O3/GO-SO3H at 1000C with a reaction time of 4h yielding 99% of ethyl oleate. This is because metal oxide supported solid acid catalysts have advantages of having both strong Brønsted as well as Lewis acid properties. The biodiesel obtained by transesterification of WCO was characterized by 1H NMR and Gas Chromatography techniques. XRD patterns of the recycled catalyst evidenced that the catalyst structure was unchanged up to the 5th cycle, which indicated the long life of the catalyst.

Keywords: Fe₂O₃/GO-SO₃H, Graphene Oxide, GO-Fe₂O₃, GO-SO₃H, WCO

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1744 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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1743 First Experimental Evidence on Feasibility of Molecular Magnetic Particle Imaging of Tumor Marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein Using Antibody Conjugated Nanoparticles

Authors: Kolja Them, Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine possibilities for noninvasive imaging and identification of tumor markers for cancer diagnosis. The proposed method uses antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and multicolor Magnetic Particle Imaging (mMPI). The method has the potential for radiation exposure free real-time estimation of local tumor marker concentrations in vivo. In this study, the method is applied to human Alpha-1-Fetoprotein. Materials and Methods: As tracer material AFP antibody-conjugated Dendrimer-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used. The nanoparticle bioconjugates were then incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to block any possible nonspecific binding sites. Parts of the resulting solution were then incubated with AFP antigen. MPI measurements were done using the preclinical MPI scanner (Bruker Biospin MRI GmbH) and the multicolor method was used for image reconstruction. Results: In multicolor MPI images the nanoparticles incubated only with BSA were clearly distinguished from nanoparticles incubated with BSA and AFP antigens. Conclusion: Tomographic imaging of human tumor marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein is possible using AFP antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles in presence of BSA. This opens interesting perspectives for cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: noninvasive imaging, tumor antigens, antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles, multicolor magnetic particle imaging, cancer diagnosis

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1742 Composite Electrodes Containing Ni-Fe-Cr as an Activatable Oxygen Evolution Catalyst

Authors: Olga A. Krysiak, Grzegorz Cichowicz, Wojciech Hyk, Michal Cyranski, Jan Augustynski

Abstract:

Metal oxides are known electrocatalyst in water oxidation reaction. Due to the fact that it is desirable for efficient oxygen evolution catalyst to contain numerous redox-active metal ions to guard four electron water oxidation reaction, mixed metal oxides exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction compared to single metal oxide systems. On the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass slide (FTO) deposited (doctor blade technique) mixed metal oxide layer composed of nickel, iron, and chromium. Oxide coating was acquired by heat treatment of the aqueous precursors' solutions of the corresponding salts. As-prepared electrodes were photosensitive and acted as an efficient oxygen evolution catalyst. Our results showed that obtained by this method electrodes can be activated which leads to achieving of higher current densities. The recorded current and photocurrent associated with oxygen evolution process were at least two orders of magnitude higher in the presence of oxide layer compared to bare FTO electrode. The overpotential of the process is low (ca. 0,2 V). We have also checked the activity of the catalyst at different known photoanodes used in sun-driven water splitting. Herein, we demonstrate that we were able to achieve efficient oxygen evolution catalysts using relatively cheap precursor consisting of earth abundant metals and simple method of preparation.

Keywords: chromium, electrocatalysis, iron, metal oxides, nickel, oxygen evolution

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1741 Study of Divalent Phosphate Iron-Oxide Precursor Recycling Technology

Authors: Shinn-Dar Wu

Abstract:

This study aims to synthesize lithium iron phosphate cathode material using a recycling technology involving non-protective gas calcination. The advantages include lower cost and easier production than traditional methods that require a large amount of protective gas. The novel technology may have extensive industrial applications. Given that the traditional gas calcination has a large number of protection free Fe3+ production, this study developed a precursor iron phosphate (Fe2+) material recycling technology and conducted related tests and analyses. It focused on flow field design of calcination and new technology as well as analyzed the best conditions for powder calcination combination. The electrical properties were determined by button batteries and exhibited a capacity of 118 mAh/g (The use of new materials synthesis, capacitance is about 122 mAh/g). The cost reduced to 50% of the original.

Keywords: lithium battery, lithium iron phosphate, calcined technology, recycling technology

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1740 Removal of Tartrazine Dye Form Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on the Surface of Polyaniline/Iron Oxide Composite

Authors: Salem Ali Jebreil

Abstract:

In this work, a polyaniline/Iron oxide (PANI/Fe2O3) composite was chemically prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline in acid medium, in presence of ammonium persulphate as an oxidant and amount of Fe2O3. The composite was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composite has been used as adsorbent to remove Tartrazine dye form aqueous solutions. The effects of initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity of PANI/Fe2O3 for Tartrazine dye have been studied in this paper. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models have been used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium data. The best fit is obtained using the Freundlich isotherm with an R2 value of 0.998. The change of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption has been also evaluated for the adsorption of Tartrazine onto PANI/ Fe2O3. It has been proved according the results that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature.

Keywords: adsorption, composite, dye, polyaniline, tartrazine

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1739 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

Abstract:

The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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1738 Heterophase Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thienyl End Capped Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol by Iron (III) Chloride

Authors: Görkem Ülkü, Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Ethoxylated nonyl phenols (ENP) and ceric ammonium nitrate redox systems have been used for the polymerization of vinyl and acrylic monomers. In that case, ENP acted as an organic reducing agent in the presence of Ce (IV) salt and a radical was formed. The polymers obtained with that redox system contained ENP chain ends because the radicals are formed on the reducing molecules. Similar copolymer synthesis has been reported using poly(ethylene oxide) instead of its nonyl phenol terminated derivative, ENP. However, copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and conducting polymers synthesized by ferric ions were produced in two steps. Firstly, heteroatoms (pyrrole, thiophene etc.) were attached to the poly(ethylene oxide) chains then copolymerization with heterocyclic monomers was carried out. In this work, ethoxylated nonylphenol (ENP) was reacted with 2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride in order to synthesize a macromonomer containing thienyl end-group (ENP-ThC). Then, copolymers of ENP-ThC and pyrrole were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using iron (III) chloride as an oxidant.

Keywords: end capped polymer, ethoxylated nonylphenol, heterophase polymerization, polypyrrole

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1737 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir

Abstract:

Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

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1736 Effect of Iron Oxide Addition on the Solid-State Synthesis of Ye’Elimite

Authors: F. Z. Abir, M. Mesnaoui, Y. Abouliatim, L. Nibou, Y. El Hafiane, A. Smith

Abstract:

The cement industry has been taking significant steps for years to reduce its carbon footprint by opting for an eco-friendly alternative such as Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements (CSA). These binders, compared to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC), have two advantages: reduction of the CO2 emissions and energy-saving because the sintering temperature of CSA cements is between 1250 and 1350 °C, which means 100 to 200 °C less than OPC. The aim of this work is to study the impurities effect, such as iron oxide, on the formation of the ye'elimite phase, which represents the main phase of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements and the consequence on its hydration. Several elaborations and characterization techniques were used to study the structure and microstructure of ye'elimite, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis, specific surface area measurement, and electrical conductivity of diluted solutions. This study details the protocol for the solid-state synthesis of ye'elimite containing increasing amounts of iron (general formula: Ca4Al(6-2x)Fe2xSO16 with x = 0.00 to 1.13). Ye'elimite is formed by solid-state reactions between Al2O3, CaO and CaSO4 and the maximum ye'elimite content is reached at a sintering temperature of 1300 °C. The presence of iron promotes the formation of cubic ye'elimite at the expense of the orthorhombic phase. The total incorporation of iron in ye'elimite structure is possible when x < 0.12. Beyond this content, the ferritic phase (CaO)2(Al2O3,Fe2O3) appears as a minor phase and develops two different morphologies during cooling: dendritic crystals and melt morphology. The formation of the ferrous liquid phase affects the evolution of grain size of the ye’elimite and calcium aluminates.

Keywords: calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ferritic phase, sintering, solid-state synthesis, ye’elimite

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1735 Recycling of Sintered Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB) Magnet Waste via Oxidative Roasting and Selective Leaching

Authors: Woranittha Kritsarikan

Abstract:

Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets classified as high-power magnets are widely used in various applications such as electrical and medical devices and account for 13.5 % of the permanent magnet’s market. Since its typical composition of 29 - 32 % Nd, 64.2 – 68.5 % Fe and 1 – 1.2 % B contains a significant amount of rare earth metals and will be subjected to shortages in the future. Domestic NdFeB magnet waste recycling should therefore be developed in order to reduce social, environmental impacts toward the circular economy. Most research works focus on recycling the magnet wastes, both from the manufacturing process and end of life. Each type of wastes has different characteristics and compositions. As a result, these directly affect recycling efficiency as well as the types and purity of the recyclable products. This research, therefore, focused on the recycling of manufacturing NdFeB magnet waste obtained from the sintering stage of magnet production and the waste contained 23.6% Nd, 60.3% Fe and 0.261% B in order to recover high purity neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) using hybrid metallurgical process via oxidative roasting and selective leaching techniques. The sintered NdFeB waste was first ground to under 70 mesh prior to oxidative roasting at 550 - 800 ᵒC to enable selective leaching of neodymium in the subsequent leaching step using H₂SO₄ at 2.5 M over 24 hours. The leachate was then subjected to drying and roasting at 700 – 800 ᵒC prior to precipitation by oxalic acid and calcination to obtain neodymium oxide as the recycling product. According to XRD analyses, it was found that increasing oxidative roasting temperature led to the increasing amount of hematite (Fe₂O₃) as the main composition with a smaller amount of magnetite (Fe3O4) found. Peaks of neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) were also observed in a lesser amount. Furthermore, neodymium iron oxide (NdFeO₃) was present and its XRD peaks were pronounced at higher oxidative roasting temperature. When proceeded to acid leaching and drying, iron sulfate and neodymium sulfate were mainly obtained. After the roasting step prior to water leaching, iron sulfate was converted to form hematite as the main compound, while neodymium sulfate remained in the ingredient. However, a small amount of magnetite was still detected by XRD. The higher roasting temperature at 800 ᵒC resulted in a greater Fe2O3 to Nd2(SO4)3 ratio, indicating a more effective roasting temperature. Iron oxides were subsequently water leached and filtered out while the solution contained mainly neodymium sulfate. Therefore, low oxidative roasting temperature not exceeding 600 ᵒC followed by acid leaching and roasting at 800 ᵒC gave the optimum condition for further steps of precipitation and calcination to finally achieve neodymium oxide.

Keywords: NdFeB magnet waste, oxidative roasting, recycling, selective leaching

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1734 Biomimetic Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes: A Synthetic, Structural, and Spectroscopic Study

Authors: Lijuan Li

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) has become a fascinating entity in biological chemistry over the past few years. It is a gaseous lipophilic radical molecule that plays important roles in several physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals, including activating the immune response, serving as a neurotransmitter, regulating the cardiovascular system, and acting as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. NO functions in eukaryotes both as a signal molecule at nanomolar concentrations and as a cytotoxic agent at micromolar concentrations. The latter arises from the ability of NO to react readily with a variety of cellular targets leading to thiol S-nitrosation, amino acid N-nitrosation, and nitrosative DNA damage. Nitric oxide can readily bind to metals to give metal-nitrosyl (M-NO) complexes. Some of these species are known to play roles in biological NO storage and transport. These complexes have different biological, photochemical, or spectroscopic properties due to distinctive structural features. These recent discoveries have spawned a great interest in the development of transition metal complexes containing NO, particularly its iron complexes that are central to the role of nitric oxide in the body. Spectroscopic evidence would appear to implicate species of “Fe(NO)2+” type in a variety of processes ranging from polymerization, carcinogenesis, to nitric oxide stores. Our research focuses on isolation and structural studies of non-heme iron nitrosyls that mimic biologically active compounds and can potentially be used for anticancer drug therapy. We have shown that reactions between Fe(NO)2(CO)2 and a series of imidazoles generated new non-heme iron nitrosyls of the form Fe(NO)2(L)2 [L = imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole, benzimidazole, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, and L-histidine] and a tetrameric cluster of [Fe(NO)2(L)]4 (L=Im, 4-MeIm, BzIm, and Me2BzIm), resulted from the interactions of Fe(NO)2 with a series of substituted imidazoles was prepared. Recently, a series of sulfur bridged iron di nitrosyl complexes with the general formula of [Fe(µ-RS)(NO)2]2 (R = n-Pr, t-Bu, 6-methyl-2-pyridyl, and 4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidyl), were synthesized by the reaction of Fe(NO)2(CO)2 with thiols or thiolates. Their structures and properties were studied by IR, UV-vis, 1H-NMR, EPR, electrochemistry, X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations. IR spectra of these complexes display one weak and two strong NO stretching frequencies (νNO) in solution, but only two strong νNO in solid. DFT calculations suggest that two spatial isomers of these complexes bear 3 Kcal energy difference in solution. The paramagnetic complexes [Fe2(µ-RS)2(NO)4]-, have also been investigated by EPR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the EPR spectra of complexes exhibit an isotropic signal of g = 1.998 - 2.004 without hyperfine splitting. The observations are consistent with the results of calculations, which reveal that the unpaired electron dominantly delocalize over the two sulfur and two iron atoms. The difference of the g values between the reduced form of iron-sulfur clusters and the typical monomeric di nitrosyl iron complexes is explained, for the first time, by of the difference in unpaired electron distributions between the two types of complexes, which provides the theoretical basis for the use of g value as a spectroscopic tool to differentiate these biologically active complexes.

Keywords: di nitrosyl iron complex, metal nitrosyl, non-heme iron, nitric oxide

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