Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5688

Search results for: Tomato production

5688 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
5687 The Challenges of Irrigated Tomato Production in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: I. K. Adamu, J. O. Adefila

Abstract:

The paper examines the challenges of irrigated tomato growers in Kano State. Materials used for the study are sourced from newspapers, books, internet and field surveys. Questionnaires were also used to sample the opinion of the tomato farmers in the state. The purposive and snow ball sampling techniques were used to select knowledgeable individual farmers in the study areas. The sample size was based on a five percent (0.05) of the identified members of tomato farmers. Data analysis was achieved using cross-tabulation, percentage, and SWOT analysis. The study reveals that irrigated tomato farmers in Kano State faces a lot of challenges. The study offers some recommendations such as establishment of storage facilities on ground, establishment of processing industries in the state, and introduction of high yield varieties of tomato seeds instead of the outdated UC82B.

Keywords: SWOT, irrigated tomato production, tomato farmers, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
5686 Economic Analysis, Growth and Yield of Grafting Tomato Varieties for Solanum torvum as a Rootstock

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, M. Dawam Maghfoer, Arifin

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is potential vegetables to develop, because it has high economic value and has the potential to be exported. There is a decrease in tomato productivity due to unfavorable growth conditions such as bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt, high humidity, high temperature and inappropriate production technology. Grafting technology is one alternative technology. In addition to being able to control the disease in the soil, grafting is also able to increase the growth and yield of production. Besides, it is also necessary to know the economic benefits if using grafting technology. A promising eggplant rootstock for tomato grafting is Solanum torvum. S. torvum is selected as a rootstock with high compatibility. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of grafting several varieties of tomatoes with Solanum torvum as a rootstock. The experiment was conducted in Agricultural Extension Center Pare. Experimental Garden of Pare Kediri sub-district from July to early December 2016. The materials used were tomato Cervo varieties, Karina, Timoty, and Solanum torvum. Economic analysis, growth, and yield including plant height, number of leaves, percentage of disease and tomato production were used as performance measures. The study showed that grafting tomato Timoty scion with Solanum torvum as rootstock had higher production. Financially, grafting tomato Timoty and Cervo scion had higher profit about. 28,6% and 16,3% compared to Timoty and Cervo variety treatment without grafting.

Keywords: grafting technology, economic analysis, growth, yield of tomato, Solanum torvum

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
5685 Effects of the Tomato Pomace Oil Extract on Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Gelatin Films

Authors: N. Jirukkakul, J. Sodtipinta

Abstract:

Tomatoes are widely consumed as fresh and processed products through the manufacturing industry. Therefore, tomato pomace is generated as a by-product accounting for about 5-13% of the whole tomato. Antioxidants still remain in tomato pomace and extraction of tomato oil may useful in edible film production. The edible film solution was prepared by mixing gelatin (2, 4 and 6%) with the distilled water and heating at 40oC for 30 min. Effect of tomato pomace oil was evaluated at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Film solution was poured in plate and dried overnight at 40oC before determining the physical properties, which are tensile strength, moisture content, color, solubility, and swelling power. The results showed that an increase gelatin concentration caused increasing of tensile strength, moisture content, solubility and swelling power. The edible film with tomato pomace oil extract appeared as the rough film with oil droplet dispersion. The addition of tomato pomace oil extract caused an increase in lightness, redness and yellowness, while tensile strength, moisture content, and solubility were decreased. Film with tomato pomace oil extract at 0.5 and 1% exhibited antioxidant properties but those properties were not significantly different (p<0.05) between film incorporated with tomato pomace oil extract 0.5 and 1%. The suitable condition for film production in this study, 4% of gelatin and 0.5% of tomato pomace oil extract, was selected for protecting oxidation of palm oil. At 15 days of the storage period, the palm oil which covered by gelatin film with tomato pomace oil extract had 22.45 milliequivalents/kg of peroxide value (PV), while, the palm oil which covered by polypropylene film and control had 24.79 and 26.67 milliequivalents/kg, respectively. Therefore, incorporation of tomato pomace oil extract in gelatin film was able to protect the oxidation of food products with high fat content.

Keywords: antioxidant, gelatin films, physical properties, tomato oil extract

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5684 Studying the Impact of Farmers Field School on Vegetable Production in Peshawar District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sumeera Abbasi

Abstract:

The Farmers Field School (FFS) learning approach aims to improve knowledge of the farmers through integrated crop management and provide leadership in their decision making process. The study was conducted to assess the impact of FFS on vegetables production before and after FFS intervention in four villages of district Peshawar in cropping season 2012, by interviewing 80 FFS respondents, twenty from each selected village. It was observed from the study results that all the respondents were satisfied from the impact of FFS and they informed an increased in production in vegetables. It was further observed that after the implementation of FFS the sowing seed rate of tomato and cucumber were decreased from 0.185kg/kanal to 0.100 kg/ kanal and 0.120kg/kanal to 0.010kg/kanal where as the production of tomato and cucumber were increased from 8158.75kgs/kanal to 10302. 5kgs/kanal and 3230kgs/kanal to 5340kgs/kanal, respectively. The cost of agriculture inputs per kanal including seed cost, crop management, Farm Yard Manure, and weedicides in case of tomato were reduced by Rs.28, Rs. 3170, Rs.658and Rs 205 whereas in cucumber reduced by Rs.35, Rs.570, Rs 80 and Rs.430 respectively. Only fertilizers cost was increased by Rs. 2200 in case of tomato and Rs 465 in case of cucumber. Overall the cost was reduced to Rs 545 in tomato and Rs 490 in cucumber production.FFS provided a healthy vegetables and also reduced input cost by adopting integrated crop management. Therefore the promotion of FFS is needed to be planned for farmers to reduce cost of production, so that the more farmers should be benefited.

Keywords: impact, farmer field schools, vegetable production, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
5683 Utilization of Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) as a Food Additive

Authors: C. S. D. S. Maduwage, P. W. Jeewanthi, W. A. J. P. Wijesinghe

Abstract:

This study investigated the use of Jackfruit Seed Flour (JSF) as a thickening agent in tomato sauce production. Lye peeled mature jackfruit seeds were used to obtain JSF. Flour was packed in laminated bags and stored for further studies. Three batches of tomato sauce samples were prepared according to the Sri Lankan Standards for tomato sauce by adding JSF, corn flour and without any thickening agent. Samples were stored at room temperature for 8 weeks in glass bottles. The physicochemical properties such as pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and water activity were measured during the storage period. Microbial analysis and sensory evaluation were done to determine the quality of tomato sauce. JSF showed the role of a thickening agent in tomato sauce with lowest serum separation and highest viscosity during the storage period. This study concludes that JSF can be successfully used as a thickening agent in food industry.

Keywords: Jackfruit seed flour, food additive, thickening agent, tomato sauce

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5682 Effect of Grafting and Rain Shelter Technologies on Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eli Korlina, Hanik Anggraeni, Kuntoro Boga, Joko Mariyono

Abstract:

During the rainy season, the tomato plants are vulnerable to various diseases. A disease that attacks the leaves of tomato plants (foliar diseases) such as late blight (Phytophtora infestans) and spotting bacteria (bacterial spot / Xanthomonas sp.) In addition, there is a disease that attacks the roots such as fusarium and bacterial wilt. If not immediately anticipated, it will decrease the quality and quantity of crop yields. In fact, it can lead to crop failure. The aim of this research is to know the production of tomato grafting by using Timoty and CLN 3024 tomatoes at rain shelter during rainy season in lowland. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and tested further by Least Significant Difference (LSD) level of 5 %. The parameters measured were plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), number of fruit space, canopy extended, number of branches, number of productive branches, and the number of stem segments. The results show at the beginning of growth until the end of the treatment without grafting with relative rain shelter displays the highest plant height. This was followed by extensive crop canopy. For tomato grafting and non-grafting using rain shelter able to produce the number of branches and number of productive branches at most. While at the end of the growth in the number of productive branches generated as much. Highest production of tomatoes produced by tomato dig rafting to use the shelter.

Keywords: field trail, wet and dry season, production, diseases, rain shelter

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
5681 In vitro Assessment of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) Seedlings Growth and Proline Production under Salt Stress

Authors: Amir Wahid, Fazal Hadi, Amin Ullah Jan

Abstract:

Tomato and Cauliflower seedlings were grown in-vitro under salt concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, and 10 dSm-1) with objectives to investigate; (1) The effect of salinity on seedling growth and free proline production, (2) the correlation between seedling growth and proline contents, (3) comparative salt tolerance of both species. Different concentrations of salt showed considerable effect on percent (%) germination of seeds, length and biomass of shoot and root and also showed effect on percent water content of both plants seedlings. Germination rate in cauliflower was two times higher than tomato even at highest salt concentration (10 dSm-1). Seedling growth of both species was less effected at low salt concentrations (2 and 4 dSm-1) but at high concentrations (6 and 8 dSm-1) the seedling growth of both species was significantly decreased. Particularly the tomato root was highly significantly reduced. The proline level linearly increased in both species with increasing salt concentrations up-to 4 dSm-1 and then declined. The cauliflower showed higher free proline level than tomato under all salt treatments. Overall, the cauliflower seedlings showed better growth response along with higher proline contents on comparison with tomato seedlings.

Keywords: NaCl (Sodium Chloride), EC (Electrical Conductivity), MS (Murashig and Skoog), ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), LSD (Least Significant Differences)

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
5680 Effect of Farmers Field School on Vegetables Production in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sumeera Abbasi

Abstract:

The Farmers Field School (FFS) aims at benefiting poor farmers by improving their knowledge of existing agricultural technologies and integrated crop management to become independent and confident in their decision. The study on effect of farmer’s field school on vegetables production before and after FFS implementation in district Peshawar in four selected villages on each crop in 2011 was conducted from 80 farmers. The results were compared by using paired t-test. It was observed that 80% of the respondents were satisfied with FFS approach as there was a significant increase in vegetable production. The seed rate of tomato and cucumber decreased from 0.185kg/kanal to 0.1 kg/ kanal and 0.120kg/kanal to 0.01kg/kanal while production of tomato and cucumber were increased from 8158.75kgs/kanal to 1030.25kgs/kanal and 3230kgs/kanal to 5340kgs/kanal, respectively after the activities of FFS. FFS brought a positive effect on vegetable production and technology adoption improving their income, skills and knowledge ultimately lead farmers towards empowerment. The input cost including seed, crop management, FYM, and weedicides for tomato were reduced by Rs.28, Rs. 3170 and Rs.658 and cucumber reduced by Rs.35, Rs.570 and Rs.430. Only fertilizers cost was increased by Rs. 2200 in case of tomato and 465 in case of cucumber. FFS facilitator and coordinator should be more skilled and practical oriented to facilitate poor farmers. In light of the above study, more FFS should be planned so that the more farmers should be benefited.

Keywords: effect, farmer field school, vegetables production, integrated crop management

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5679 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: A.Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: color, color index, ripening, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
5678 Development of Transgenic Tomato Immunity to Pepino Mosaic Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Gene Silencing Approach

Authors: D. Leibman, D. Wolf, A. Gal-On

Abstract:

Viral diseases of tomato crops result in heavy yield losses and may even jeopardize the production of these crops. Classical tomato breeding for disease resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), leads to partial resistance associated with a number of recessive genes. To author’s best knowledge Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) genetic resistance is not yet available. The generation of viral resistance by means of genetic engineering was reported and implemented for many crops, including tomato. Transgenic resistance against viruses is based, in most cases, on Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), an endogenous mechanism which destroys the virus genome. In this work, we developed immunity against PepMV and TYLCV in a tomato based on a PTGS mechanism. Tomato plants were transformed with a hairpin-construct-expressed transgene-derived double-strand-RNA (tr-dsRNA). In the case of PepMV, the binary construct harbored three consecutive fragments of the replicase gene from three different PepMV strains (Italian, Spanish and American), to provide resistance against a range of virus strains. In the case of TYLCV, the binary vector included three consecutive fragments of the IR, V2 and C2 viral genes constructed in a hairpin configuration. Selected transgenic lines (T0) showed a high accumulation of transgene siRNA of 21-24 bases, and T1 transgenic lines showed complete immunity to PepMV and TYLCV. Graft inoculation displayed immunity of the transgenic scion against PepMV and TYLCV. The study presents the engineering of resistance in tomato against two serious diseases, which will help in the production of high-quality tomato. However, unfortunately, these resistant plants have not been implemented due to public ignorance and opposition against breeding by genetic engineering.

Keywords: PepMV, PTGS, TYLCV, tr-dsRNA

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5677 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

Abstract:

This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: crispy salad, glasshouse, intercropping, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
5676 Integrated Plant Protection Activities against (Tuta absoluta Meyrik) Moth in Tomato Plantings in Azerbaijan

Authors: Nazakat Ismailzada, Carol Jones

Abstract:

Tomato drilling moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato plants in many countries. The larvae of tomato leaves, the stems inside, in the end buds, they opened the gallery in green and ripe fruit. In this way the harmful products can be fed with all parts of the tomato plant can cause damage to 80-100%. Pest harms all above ground parts of the tomato plant. After the seedlings are planted in areas and during blossoming holder traps with tomato moth’s rubber capsule inside should be placed in the area by using five-tomato moth’s feremon per ha. Then there should be carried out observations in the fields in every three days regularly. During the researches, it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms. Therefore it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms with insecticide expenditure norm 320 qr\ha. In farms should be used plant rotation, plant fields should be plowed on the 25-30 sm depth, before sowing seeds should be proceeded by insecticides. As element of integrated plant protection activities, should be used pheromones trap. In tomato plant fields as an insecticide should be used AGROSAN 240 SC and Carogen 20 SP.

Keywords: lepidoptera, Tuta absoluta, chemical control, integrated pest management

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5675 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian

Abstract:

The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

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5674 Study on the Enhancement of Soil Fertility and Tomato Quality by Applying Concentrated Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang Bo Yu, Li Bo Guan

Abstract:

Biogas slurry is a low-cost source of crop nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its application scale. In this report, one growing season field research was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of the microflora in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could cause significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N, and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, β-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It could be concluded as the application is a practicable means in tomato production and might better service the sustainable agriculture in the near future.

Keywords: concentrated slurry, fruit quality, soil fertility, sustainable agriculture

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5673 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

Abstract:

Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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5672 Farmer-Participatory Variety Trials for Tomato and Chili Pepper in East Java

Authors: Hanik Anggraeni, Evy Latifah, Putu Bagus, Joko Mariyono

Abstract:

This study is to test the adaptation capacity of several selected lines and varieties of chili and tomato in farmers’ lands. Five improved lines and varieties of tomato and chili were selected based on the best performance in previous trials. Two participating farmers managed the trials. Agronomic aspects were used as performance indicators. The results show that several improved lines of tomato and chili performed better than others. However, the performance was dependent on the altitude and season. Lines performed better and high altitude could not do the same in low altitude, and vice versa. This is the same case as different season. Farmers were expected to select the best lines according to the locations.

Keywords: variety trials, tomato and chili, participatory farmers, East Java

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
5671 A Neural Network Classifier for Estimation of the Degree of Infestation by Late Blight on Tomato Leaves

Authors: Gizelle K. Vianna, Gabriel V. Cunha, Gustavo S. Oliveira

Abstract:

Foliage diseases in plants can cause a reduction in both quality and quantity of agricultural production. Intelligent detection of plant diseases is an essential research topic as it may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of tomato digital images, collected directly from the field. A pair of multilayer perceptron neural network analyzes the digital images, using data from both RGB and HSL color models, and classifies each image pixel. One neural network is responsible for the identification of healthy regions of the tomato leaf, while the other identifies the injured regions. The outputs of both networks are combined to generate the final classification of each pixel from the image and the pixel classes are used to repaint the original tomato images by using a color representation that highlights the injuries on the plant. The new images will have only green, red or black pixels, if they came from healthy or injured portions of the leaf, or from the background of the image, respectively. The system presented an accuracy of 97% in detection and estimation of the level of damage on the tomato leaves caused by late blight.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, digital image processing, pattern recognition, phytosanitary

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5670 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Tomato Fruits: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mallikarjunachari G., Venkata Ravi M.

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and critical rupture load of tomato fruits. Determination of mechanical properties of tomato fruits is essential in various material handling applications, especially as related to robot harvesting, packaging, and transportation. However, extracting meaningful mechanical properties of tomato fruits are extremely challenging due to its layered structure, i.e., the combination of exocarp, mesocarp, and locular gel tissues. Apart from this layered structure, other physical parameters such as diameter, sphericity, locule number, and, the surface to volume ratio also influence the mechanical properties. In this research work, tomato fruits are cultivated in two different ways, namely organic and inorganic farming. Static compression tests are performed to extract the mechanical properties of tomato fruits. Finite element simulations are done to complement the experimental results. It is observed that the effective modulus decreases as the compression depth increase from 0.5 mm to 10 mm and also a critical load of fracture decreases as the locule number increases from 3 to 5. Significant differences in mechanical properties are observed between organically and inorganically cultivated tomato fruits. The current study significantly helps in the design of material handling systems to avoid damage of tomato fruits.

Keywords: elastic modulus, critical load of fracture, locule number, finite element analysis

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5669 Foliar Feeding of Methyl Jasmonate Induces Resistance in Normal and Salinity Stressed Tomato Plants, at Different Stages

Authors: Abdul Manan, Choudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Rashid Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari

Abstract:

A project was designed to investigate the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on physiological, biochemical and ionic attributes of salinity stressed and normal tomato plants at different stages. Salinity stress at every stage markedly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water relations parameters, protein contents, total free aminoacids and potassium (K+) contents. While, antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT)), sodium (Na+) contents and proline contents were increased substantially. Foliar application of MeJA ameliorated the drastic effects of salinity regime by recovery of physiological and biochemical attributes by enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectants. The efficacy of MeJA at very initial stage (15 days after sowing (15 DAS)).proved effective for attenuating the deleterious effects of salinity stress than other stages (15 days after transplanting (15 DAT) and 30 days after transplanting (30 DAT)). To the best of our knowledge, different times of foliar feeding of MeJA was observed first time for amelioration of salinity stress in tomato plants that would be of pivotal significance for scientist to better understand the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in tomato.

Keywords: methyl jasmonate, osmoregulation, salinity stress, stress tolerance, tomato

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5668 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini

Abstract:

Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5667 Study of the Effect of Voltage and PH on the Inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in Tomato Juice by Ohmic Process

Authors: Arash Dara, Mahsa Mokhtari, Nafiseh Zamindar

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal resistance, temperature, voltage, and pH changes in an ohmic heating system on reducing the logarithmic number of Byssochlamys fulva species (PTCC 5062) in tomato juice water and to investigate the quantitative properties of tomato juice in the ohmic heating pasteurization system. The percentage of thermal degradation by ohmic heating was determined in tomato juice for the kinetics of Byssochlamys fulva in ohmic chamber at the temperatures of 88, 93, and 98°C, with two voltages of 30 and 40 volts and two pH levels of 3.5 and 4.5; this was done using Weibull frequency distribution model. Three different parameters (pH = 3.5, two voltages of 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) and (pH = 4.5, two voltages 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) in three replications were considered in the ohmic system. Heating time for the temperature of 88°C was 20 minutes once every 2 minutes, while for the temperature of 93°C, it was 10 minutes once every 1 minute. At the temperature of 98°C, the first time was 0.5 minutes, and for other times, sampling was done every 1 minute. In each condition, the qualitative characteristics, including acidity, Brix, and pH, were measured before and after the ohmic process in the tomato juice. This study demonstrates that the differences in pH and voltage due to different temperatures in the ohmic process can greatly affect the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva fungus and the qualitative characteristics of the tomato juice. This is the first study using the Weibull frequency method to model the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in tomato juice. Variation in parameters such as temperature, voltage, and pH can prevent the presence of Byssochlamys fulva in the pasteurized juices.

Keywords: pasteurization, ohmic heating process, Byssochlamys fulva, tomato juice, heat resistance, voltage, pH

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5666 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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5665 Cold Tomato Paste as an Alternative Therapy for Elderly Clients with Exacerbation of Arthritis

Authors: Mary Therese G. Caluna, Mark Justin B. Campanero, Erlin Maris T. Cantiller, Claudine Mae A. Cantillo, Nerissa L. Caño

Abstract:

Objective: The study determined the effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain caused by exacerbation of arthritis in the elderly, specifically on clients 60 years old and above. The study focused on alternative, cost-effective and non-pharmacological techniques in relieving pain experienced by the older people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Using purposive non-probability sampling, the researchers gathered a total number of 40 subjects that passed the inclusion criteria provided by the researchers. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental group (20 subjects) and control groups (20 subjects). The Numeric Rating 11-point Scale (NRS-11) was utilized to assess the pain level of the subject prior the application of the treatment and after the application of the treatment. Key findings: There is a significant difference in the pain levels of the experimental group before and after the application of cold tomato paste. This indicates that that the application of cold tomato paste alleviates the pain experienced by elderly clients with exacerbation of arthritis. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain experienced by elderly clients who are in exacerbation of arthritis was proven to be evidence-based. The cold tomato paste application has significant impact in the field of nursing and therefore, can be used in both clinical trials and practices. The effectiveness of cold tomato application promotes innovation in the field of nursing, thus encouraging further researches regarding other uses of tomato and other herbal interventions to relieve the pain caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: alternative therapy, arthritis, cold tomato paste, elderly clients, exacerbation

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5664 Preservative Potentials of Piper Guineense on Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit

Authors: Grace O. Babarinde, Adegoke O.Gabriel, Rahman Akinoso, Adekanye Bosede R.

Abstract:

Health risks associated with the use of synthetic chemicals to control post-harvest losses in fruit calls for use of natural biodegradable compounds. The potential of Piper guineense as postharvest preservative for Roma tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was investigated. Freshly harvested red tomato (200 g) was dipped into five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of P. guineense aqueous extract, while untreated fruits served as control. The samples were stored under refrigeration and analysed at 5-day interval for physico-chemical properties. P. guineense essential oil (EO) was characterised using GC-MS and its tomato preservative potential was evaluated. Percentage weight loss (PWL) in extract-treated tomato ranged from 0.0-0.68% compared to control (0.3-19.97%) during storage. Values obtained for firmness ranged from 8.23-16.88 N and 8.4 N in extract-treated and control. pH reduced from 5.4 to 4.5 and 3.7 in extract-treated and untreated samples, respectively. Highest value of Total Soluble Solid (1.8 °Brix) and maximum retention of Ascorbic acid (13.0 mg/100 g) were observed in 4% P. guineense-treated samples. Predominant P. guineense EO components were zingiberene (9.9%), linalool (10.7%), β-caryophyllene (12.6%), 1, 5-Heptadiene, 6-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-yl) (16.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (23.7%). Tomatoes treated with EO had lower PWL (5.2%) and higher firmness (14.2 N) than controls (15.3% and 11.9 N) respectively. The result indicates that P. guineense can be incorporated in to post harvest technology of Roma tomato fruit.

Keywords: aqueous extract, essential oil, piper guineense, Roma tomato, storage condition

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5663 Inventory Larval Ectoparasites of Tomato Leafminer in National High School of Agriculture, Algeria

Authors: Khadidja Mahdi, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Among the natural enemies that reduce populations of the tomato leaf miner studied in experimental plots of National High school of agriculture (ENSA, Algeria, 36° 40’ à 36° 43’ N.; 3° 08’ à 3° 12’ E.), larval ectoparasites. Three larval ectoparasites are reported in this study namely Necrinmus Sp. and two species of indeterminate Chalcidae (Chalcidae Sp. 1 and 2). These species have significantly reduced the effectives of Tuta absoluta. The results for the parasitism of eggs, larval instars and pupae of Tuta absoluta on the open field tomato in the experimental plots of ENSA show high levels of parasite eggs with 25%. With 94.7%, the first larval instar (L1) is the most parasites. The second instar (L2) undergoes the action of parasitoids least 60%. Instars L3 and L4 and pupae remain unharmed.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, larval ectoparasites, tomato, ensa, Algeria

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5662 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Akın Kuyulu, Hanife Genç

Abstract:

In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta

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5661 Study on Preparation and Storage of Composite Vegetable Squash of Tomato, Pumpkin and Ginger

Authors: K. Premakumar, R. G. Lakmali, S. M. A. C. U. Senarathna

Abstract:

In the present world, production and consumption of fruit and vegetable beverages have increased owing to the healthy life style of the people. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop composite vegetable squash by incorporating nutritional, medicinal and organoleptic properties of tomato, pumpkin and ginger. Considering the finding of several preliminary studies, five formulations in different combinations tomato pumpkin were taken and their physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content and total sugar and organoleptic parameters such as colour, aroma, taste, nature, overall acceptability were analyzed. Then the best sample was improved by using 1 % ginger (50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+ 1% ginger). Best three formulations were selected for storage studied. The formulations were stored at 30 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters , organoleptic and microbial activity (total plate count, yeast and mold, E-coil) were analyzed during storage periods and protein content, fat content, ash were also analysed%.The study on the comparison of physico-chemical and sensory qualities of stored Squashes was done up to 12 weeks storage periods. The nutritional analysis of freshly prepared tomato pumpkin vegetable squash formulations showed increasing trend in titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, non -reducing sugar, total soluble solids and decreasing trend in ascorbic acid and reducing sugar with storage periods. The results of chemical analysis showed that, there were the significant different difference (p < 0.05) between tested formulations. Also, sensory analysis also showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) for organoleptic character characters between squash formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+1% ginger and all the all the formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the result of physico-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes and microbial test, the Composite Vegetable squash with 50% tomato+50% pumpkin+1% ginger was selected as best formulation and could be stored for 12 weeks without any significant changes in quality characteristics.

Keywords: nutritional analysis, formulations, sensory attributes, squash

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
5660 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide, ethylene, fungi, sodium hypochlorite

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5659 Effects of Macro and Micro Nutrients on Growth and Yield Performances of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Authors: K. M. S. Weerasinghe, A. H. K. Balasooriya, S. L. Ransingha, G. D. Krishantha, R. S. Brhakamanagae, L. C. Wijethilke

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 120 million metric tons and ranks first as a processing crop. The average tomato productivity in Sri Lanka (11 metric tons/ha) is much lower than the world average (24 metric tons/ha).To meet the tomato demand for the increasing population the productivity has to be intensified through the agronomic-techniques. Nutrition is one of the main factors which govern the growth and yield of tomato and the main nutrient source soil affect the plant growth and quality of the produce. Continuous cropping, improper fertilizer usage etc., cause widespread nutrient deficiencies. Therefore synthetic fertilizers and organic manures were introduced to enhance plant growth and maximize the crop yields. In this study, effects of macro and micronutrient supplementations on improvement of growth and yield of tomato were investigated. Selected tomato variety is Maheshi and plants were grown in Regional Agricultural and Research Centre Makadura under the Department of Agriculture recommended (DOA) macro nutrients and various combination of Ontario recommended dosages of secondary and micro fertilizer supplementations. There were six treatments in this experiment and each treatment was replicated in three times and each replicate consisted of six plants. Other than the DOA recommendation, five combinations of Ontario recommended dosage of secondary and micronutrients for tomato were also used as treatments. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All cultural practices were carried out according to the DOA recommendations. The mean data was subjected to the statistical analysis using SAS package and mean separation (Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level) procedures. Secondary and micronutrients containing treatments significantly increased most of the growth parameters. Plant height, plant girth, number of leaves, leaf area index etc. Fruits harvested from pots amended with macro, secondary and micronutrients performed best in terms of total yield; yield quality; to pots amended with DOA recommended dosage of fertilizer for tomato. It could be due to the application of all essential macro and micro nutrients that rise in photosynthetic activity, efficient translocation and utilization of photosynthates causing rapid cell elongation and cell division in actively growing region of the plant leading to stimulation of growth and yield were caused. The experiment revealed and highlighted the requirements of essential macro, secondary and micro nutrient fertilizer supplementations for tomato farming. The study indicated that, macro and micro nutrient supplementation practices can influence growth and yield performances of tomato fruits and it is a promising approach to get potential tomato yields.

Keywords: macro and micronutrients, tomato, SAS package, photosynthates

Procedia PDF Downloads 283